Codebook for Murdock-White Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Murdock, G. P, and D. R White. 1969. Standard Cross-cultural Sample. Ethnology 8 (4): 329-369.
 
ord. SCCS number
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  93.5
min   1
max   186
sd    53.838
 
socname. SCCS society name
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186
First six non-missing records:
society     socname
Nama  Nama Hottentot
Kung  Kung Bushmen
Thonga      Thonga
Lozi  Lozi
Mbundu      Mbundu
Suku  Suku
 
focus. specific ethnographic focus for each society
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=166
First six non-missing records:
society     focus
Nama  GeiKhauan tribe
Kung  Nyai Nyae region
Thonga      Ronga subtribe
Lozi  Ruling Luyana
Mbundu      Bailundo subtribe
Suku  Feshi territory lineage center
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: White, Douglas R. 2013. List of SCCS societies and eHraf/Hraf Files. (Summaries and Codes) http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/Sccs34b.htm
 
hraf. HRAF code
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=136; Number of unique values=136
First six non-missing records:
society     hraf
Nama  FX13
Kung  FX10
Thonga      FT06
Lozi  FQ09
Mbundu      FP13
Bemba FQ05
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: G. P. Murdock and Diana O. Morrow. 1970. Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices: Cross-Cultural Codes 1. Ethnology 9:302-330.
 
v1. Intercommunity Trade as Food Source
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
7     1     No Trade
51    2     Food Imports absent although trade present
4     3     Salt or Minerals only
81    4     < 10 pct of food (90 pct form local extractive sources)
38    5     < 50 pct of food, and less than any single local source
2     7     > 50 pct of food
3     NA    NA
 
v2. Food Import Acquisition
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
49    1     Direct individual exchanges
10    2     Indirect individual exchanges
28    3     Local markets
34    4     Middlemen
3     5     Three or four of above
62    NA    NA
 
v3. Agriculture- Contribution to Local Food Supply
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
35    1     None
3     2     Non-food Crops
17    3     < 10 pct
12    4     < 50 pct , and less than any other single source, incl. trade
42    5     < 50 pct , and more than any other single source, incl. trade
77    6     Primarily agricultural
 
v4. Crops- Principal
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Non-food
14    3     Tree or Vine
38    4     Roots
96    5     Cereals
36    NA    NA
 
v5. Animal Husbandry- Contribution to Food Supply
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
8     1     None
41    2     Present, not food source
67    3     < 10 pct food supply
33    4     < 50 pct - chiefly meat
21    5     < 50 pct - chiefly dairy
16    7     > 50 pct
 
v6. Animals- Domesticated
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Small Species, e.g. Bees, Cats, Dogs, Fowl
34    2     Pigs
23    3     Ovides
14    4     Equines
3     5     Reindeer
4     6     Camels
46    7     Bovines
8     NA    NA
 
v7. Fishing- Contribution to Food Supply
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
27    1     None
79    2     < 10 pct food supply
55    3     < 50 pct , and less than any other single source, incl. trade
10    4     < 50 pct , and more than any other single source, incl. trade
13    5     > 50 pct
2     NA    NA
 
v8. Fish
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=157; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Shellfish
122   2     True fish
1     3     Large aquatic animals
28    4     Two or more of above
29    NA    NA
 
v9. Hunting- Contribution to Food Supply
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
18    1     None
2     2     Not food source
86    3     < 10 pct food supply
61    4     < 50 pct , and less than any other single source, incl. trade
8     5     < 50 pct , and more than any other single source, incl. trade
7     6     > 50 pct
4     NA    NA
 
v10. Animals Hunted
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Birds or Waterfowl
35    2     Small Mammals
65    3     Large Game
45    4     Two or more of above
23    NA    NA
 
v11. Gathering- Contribution to Food Supply
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
15    1     None
117   2     < 10 pct food supply
40    3     < 50 pct , and less than any other single source, incl. trade
7     4     < 50 pct , and more than any other single source, incl. trade
3     5     > 50 pct
4     NA    NA
 
v12. Gathered Foods
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=165; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Wild Animal products
15    2     Wild Herbs, Leaves, Blossoms
7     3     Tree Pith, e.g., Sago
11    4     Wild Roots or Tubers
54    5     Wild Fruit, seeds, nuts, berries
60    6     Two or more of the above
21    NA    NA
 
v13. Land Transport (Especially regarding Food Transport)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
108   1     Human Carriers, incl. tumpline
41    2     Pack Animals
13    3     Draft Animals (sleds, travois)
12    4     Animal Drawn Wheeled vehicles
11    5     Motorized vehicles
1     NA    NA
 
v14. Routes of Land Transport
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
124   1     Unimproved Trails
26    2     Improved Trails, for porters or animal carriers
22    3     Unpaved Roads, for wheeled vehicles
9     4     Paved Roads
5     NA    NA
 
v15. Water Transport
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
20    1     None, but feasible
56    2     Not feasible
10    3     Floats or rafts
73    4     Human powered craft
20    5     Sail powered craft
2     6     Motorized craft
5     NA    NA
 
v16. Water Craft
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
76    0     None
50    1     Small, for <10 people or load equivalent
31    2     Medium, for >10 people or load equivalent
14    3     Large, for >40 people or load equivalent
15    NA    NA
 
v17. Money (Media of Exchange) and Credit
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
77    1     No media of exchange or money
12    2     Domestically usable articles as media of exchange
26    3     Tokens of conventional value as media of exchange
42    4     Foreign coinage or paper currency
26    5     Indigenous coinage or paper currency
3     NA    NA
 
v18. Credit Source
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=169; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
113   1     Personal loans between friends or relatives
26    2     Internal money lending specialists
23    3     External money lending specialists
7     4     Banks or comparable institutions
17    NA    NA
 
v19. Preservation and Storage of Food
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=12
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Year-round food supply, none
29    2     Year-round food supply, simple
14    3     Year-round food supply, complex
8     4     Daily variation, none
2     5     Daily variation, simple
24    7     Seasonal variation, barely adequate
46    8     Seasonal variation, adequate (8)
16    9     Seasonal variation, adequate (9)
6     10    Annual variation, barely adequate
5     11    Annual variation, adequate (11)
3     12    Annual variation, adequate (12)
2     13    Imported food, barely adequate
 
v20. Food Storage
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
36    1     None
129   2     Individual households
7     3     Communal facilities
3     4     Political agent controlled repositories
7     5     Economic agent controlled repositories
4     NA    NA
 
v21. Food Surplus via Storage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
69    1     None or barely adequate
84    2     Simple or adequate
33    3     Complex or More than adequate
 
v22. Food Supply (Ecological or Distribution Network)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
74    1     Year-round food supply locally
10    2     Daily variation in food supply
86    3     Seasonal variation
14    4     Annual variation
2     5     Imported food supply
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Herbert Barry III and Leonora M. Paxson. 1971. Infancy and Early Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 2. Ethnology 10:466-508.
 
Vars. 23- 60 infancy & early childhood Variables 23-32 deal with infancy only, from the first year until the transition to early childhood (see 38-39, 42, 44), usually at 12-18 months.The early and late infancy periods of variables 24-27 refer to the first few months after birth versus the period after crawling begins,usually around 9 months. Variables 33-38 include both infancy and early childhood, the latter usually to the age of 4-5 years. Variables 39-50 deal with the transition to childhood, around 12-18 months.Variables 51-60 provide a comparison of infancy and childhood.
 
v23. Sleeping Proximity of Parents to Infant
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
12    2     Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different room
30    4     Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different bed
55    5     Mo, Fa same room as infant, beds not specified
24    6     Mo same bed as infant, Fa different room
5     7     Mo same bed as infant, Fa not specified
24    8     Mo same bed as infant, Fa same room
23    9     Mo and Fa in same bed as infant
13    NA    NA
 
v24. Bodily Restrictiveness - Early Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
42    1     None except in emergency
1     2     Loose confinement - Tether or playpen
21    3     Limited space - Bed or hammock
41    4     Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets
26    5     Often Bound - Cradle Board
55    NA    NA
 
v25. Bodily Restrictiveness - Later Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=123; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
61    1     None except in emergency
8     2     Loose confinement - Tether or playpen
14    3     Limited space - Bed or hammock
23    4     Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets
17    5     Often Bound - Cradle Board
63    NA    NA
 
v26. Bodily Contact - Early Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=121; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Limited to routine and precautionary care
16    2     Occasionally
33    3     Up to 1/2 time
49    4     > 1/2 time
20    5     Almost Constantly
65    NA    NA
 
v27. Bodily Contact - Late Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=117; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Limited to routine and precautionary care
15    2     Occasionally
41    3     Up to 1/2 time
43    4     > 1/2 time
15    5     Almost Constantly
69    NA    NA
 
v28. Infant Carrying Devices
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
22    1     None, skin contact
22    2     None, clothing or blanket
75    3     Sling or Pouch
9     4     Basket
28    5     Rigid Cradleboard
30    NA    NA
 
v29. Infant Carrying Position
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
91    1     Back
54    2     Side
10    3     Front
1     4     Other
30    NA    NA
 
v30. Infant Eye Contact with Carrier
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Away from carrier
116   2     Toward carrier
44    NA    NA
 
v31. Infant Crying- Response
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=103; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Indifferent or punitive
3     2     Slow or perfunctory, nurturant
19    3     Speedy but inconsistently nurturant
67    4     Generally speedy, nurturant
11    5     Always speedy, nurturant
83    NA    NA
 
v32. Infant Crying- Amount
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Very Infrequent and brief
10    2     Infrequent and short
9     3     Infrequent and prolonged
11    4     Frequent and short
1     5     Frequent and prolonged
139   NA    NA
 
v33. Childhood Pain Infliction
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Absent
37    2     Only neonatally or very mild pain
63    3     Occasional mild pain
25    4     Frequent mild pain or infrequent severe pain
6     5     Frequent pain
38    NA    NA
 
v34. Post - Partum Sex Taboo
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=134; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Intercourse expected soon after birth
7     2     None
29    3     1 month or less
42    4     6 months or less
12    5     1 year or less
20    6     2 years or less
22    7     > 2 years
52    NA    NA
 
v35. Ceremonialism Surrounding Child, beyond Nuclear Family
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
20    1     None
73    2     Only within first 2 months
56    3     One occasion at later age
20    4     Two or more ceremonies
10    5     Prominent
7     NA    NA
 
v36. Magical Protectiveness Applied to Parents and Child
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
8     1     None
22    2     Only neonatal period, e.g., couvade
76    3     Slight, neonatally and later
66    4     Moderate, neonatally and later
6     5     Exaggerated, neonatally and later
8     NA    NA
 
v37. Physical Protectiveness against Childhood Illness
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=166; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     No special effort
43    2     Slight
79    3     Moderate, e.g., regular baths
39    4     Some exceptional techniques, e.g., medicines, ointments, diapers
4     5     Variety of exceptional techniques
20    NA    NA
 
v38. Introduction of New Foods (Other than Milk) in Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
33    1     Before 1 month
27    2     1-6 months
11    3     7-12 months, including solids
6     4     7-12 months, only liquids or premasticated
14    5     After 12 months
95    NA    NA
 
v39. Weaning- Age and Severity
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=157; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
103   1     > 2 years and gentle
27    2     > 2 years and severe
17    3     > 1 year and gentle
5     4     > 1 year and severe
3     5     > 6 months and gentle
1     6     > 6 months and severe
1     7     < 6 months and gentle
29    NA    NA
 
v40. Motor Skills- Encouragement in Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Discourage or punish early development
2     2     Ignore development
22    3     No active assistance, but attention given
42    4     Definite but inconsistent rewards
9     5     Strong Encouragement and assistance
109   NA    NA
 
v41. Autonomy- Encouragement in Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=105; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
25    1     > 4 years and gradual
3     2     > 4 years and abrupt
54    3     2-4 years and gradual
23    4     2-4 years and abrupt, or < 2 years and gradual
81    NA    NA
 
v42. Elimination- Encouragement of Control in Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=65; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     0     None
7     1     3-5 years
27    2     > 18 months
9     3     > 1 year
7     4     > 6 months
13    5     < 6 month
121   NA    NA
 
v43. Covering Genitals- Age
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
11    0     Even adults uncovered
85    1     Very late
14    2     Late
2     3     > 1 year
1     4     < 6 months
34    5     After birth
39    NA    NA
 
v44. Weaning- Age of Onset
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
19    1     up to 12 months
12    2     13 - 20 months
67    3     21 - 24
6     4     25 - 30
36    5     31 - 36
9     6     37 - 42
7     7     43 - 48
30    NA    NA
 
v45. Weaning- Age of Termination
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
7     1     up to 12 months
5     2     13 - 20
38    3     21 - 24
8     4     25 - 30
64    5     31 - 36
16    6     37 - 42
14    7     43 - 48
4     8     49 - 60
30    NA    NA
 
v46. Weaning- Childhood Developmental Order of Onset
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=159; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
7     1     1st in onset (among variables 46-50)
80    2     2nd
57    3     3rd
15    4     4th
27    NA    NA
 
v47. Motor Skills- Childhood Developmental Order
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
121   1     1st
46    2     2nd
7     3     3rd
2     4     4th
10    NA    NA
 
v48. Autonomy- Childhood Developmental Order
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=106; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
18    2     2nd
46    3     3rd
33    4     4th
9     5     5th
80    NA    NA
 
v49. Elimination Control- Childhood Developmental Order
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=64; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
17    1     1st
31    2     2nd
10    3     3rd
5     4     4th
1     5     5th
122   NA    NA
 
v50. Covering Genitals- Childhood Developmental Order
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
32    1     1st
9     2     2nd
34    3     3rd
45    4     4th
30    5     5th
36    NA    NA
 
v51. Non-maternal Relationships, Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Almost Exclusively Mother
81    2     Principally Mother, others minor roles
63    3     Principally Mother, others important roles
10    4     Mother < 1/2 care
2     5     Mother minor but significant
1     6     Mother minimal except for nursing
24    NA    NA
 
v52. Non-maternal Relationships, Early Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=136; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
36    2     Principally Mother, others important roles
60    3     Mother < 1/2 care
38    4     Primarily others
2     5     Exclusively others
50    NA    NA
 
v53. Role of Father, Infancy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Distant
27    2     Rarely close
72    3     Occasionally close
44    4     Frequently close
3     5     Regularly close
32    NA    NA
 
v54. Role of Father, Early Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Distant
18    2     Rarely Close
46    3     Occasionally Close
73    4     Frequently Close
9     5     Regularly Close
36    NA    NA
 
v55. Principal Relationships, Infancy Caretakers and Companions
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=138; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Children, Females
4     2     Children, unspecified
11    3     Children, both sexes
60    4     Adult Family, Females
14    6     Adult Family, both sexe
17    7     Others, Female
1     9     Others, both sexes
48    NA    NA
 
v56. Principal Relationships, Early Childhood Caretakers and Companions
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=141; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Peer Group, single sex
1     2     Peer Group, unspecified
43    3     Peer Group, both sexes
22    4     Older Children, single sex
8     5     Older Children, unspecified
22    6     Older Children, both sexes
14    7     Adults, single sex
21    9     Adults, both sexes
45    NA    NA
 
v57. General Indulgence, Infancy (Taking 51 and 52 into Account)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=119; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Severe or neglectful
8     2     Lesser severity
19    3     Occasional indulgence
80    4     Greater
11    5     Highly affectionate
67    NA    NA
 
v58. General Indulgence, Infancy- Modifiers of General Scale Types
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=119; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
36    1     Low in category
34    2     Medium in category
49    3     High in category
67    NA    NA
 
v59. General Indulgence, Early Childhood (Taking 51 and 52 into Account)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=132; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Severe
24    2     Less Severity
32    3     Occasional Severity
64    4     Greater Leniency
10    5     Consistently Lenient
54    NA    NA
 
v60. General Indulgence, Early Childhood- Modifiers of General Scale Types
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=132; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Low in Category
44    2     Medium in Category
45    3     High in Category
54    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: George P. Murdock and Suzanne F. Wilson. 1972. Settlement Patterns and Community Organization: Cross Cultural Codes 3. Ethnology 11:254-295.
 
v61. Fixity of Settlement
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Migratory
21    2     Seminomadic- fixed then migratory
6     3     Rotating among 2+ fixed
14    4     Semisedentary- fixed core, some migratory
15    5     Impermanent- periodically moved
102   6     Permanent
 
v62. Compactness of Settlement
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Compact
20    2     Dispersed
18    3     Spatially separated subsettlements
104   4     Partially dispersed with central core
 
v63. Community Size
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
28    1     < 50
28    2     50-99
45    3     100-199
32    4     200-399
29    5     400-999
15    6     1,000-4,999
5     7     5,000-49,999
3     8     > 50,000
1     NA    NA
 
v64. Population Density (from Murdock and Wilson Data)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
36    1     < 1 person per 5 sq. mile
22    2     1 person per 1-5 sq. mile
25    3     1-5 persons per sq. mile
27    4     1-25 persons per sq. mile
34    5     26-100 persons per sq. mile
21    6     101-500 persons per sq. mile
19    7     over 500 persons per sq. mile
2     NA    NA
 
v65. Types of Dwelling
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=14
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Conical
2     2     Beehive
11    3     Dome or hemispherical
5     4     Wedge-shape roof
6     5     Semicylindrical
24    6     Cone-cylinder
49    7     Rectangular on ground, vegetal material walls
18    8     Rectangular on piles
17    9     Rectangular on ground, mineral material walls
12    10    Flat roofs
9     11    Caves or rock shelters
9     12    Tents
8     13    Semisubterranean
3     14    Miscellaneous
 
v66. Large or Impressive Structures
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
96    1     None
24    2     Residences of influential individuals
31    3     Secular or public building(s)
27    4     Religious or ceremonial building(s)
4     5     Military structure(s)
4     6     Economic or industrial building(s)
 
v67. Household Form
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Large communal structures
4     2     Multi-family dwellings
87    3     Single family dwellings
37    4     Family homestead
24    5     Multi-dwelling households, each with married pair
9     6     Multi-dwelling households, husband rotates among wives
3     7     Mother-child households, husbands separate
16    8     Multi-dwelling households, each dwelling occupied by individual married man or woman
 
v68. Form of Family (See 79, 80)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=12
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Monogamous, no polygyny
42    2     Monogamous, < 20 pct polygyny
26    3     Polygynous, > 20 pct
2     4     Polyandrous
9     5     Stem family, monogamy
7     6     Stem family, < 20 pct polygyny
10    7     Small extended, monogamy
30    8     Small extended, < 20 pct polygyny
19    9     Small extended, > 20 pct polygyny
5     10    Large extended, monogamy
17    11    Large extended, < 20 pct polygyny
12    12    Large extended, > 20 pct polygyny
 
v69. Marital Residence
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
38    1     Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wifes kin
8     2     Avunculocal - with husbands mothers brothers kin
118   3     Patrilocal or virilocal - with husbands kin
12    4     Ambilocal - with either wifes or husbands kin
9     5     Neolocal - separate from kin
1     NA    NA
 
v70. Descent - Membership in Corporate Kinship Groups
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Matrilineal - through female line
10    2     Double descent - separate groups through male and female lines
75    3     Patrilineal - through male line
6     4     Ambilineal - through one parent in each generation
69    5     Bilateral - not a corporate kin group
 
v71. Descent Groups, Location of Core Gender Group
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
69    0     None - Bilateral
22    1     Localized lineages - in community, more than one per community
6     2     Clan communities - core group and spouses constitute community
89    3     Dispersed sibs - core group dispersed in different communities
 
v72. Intercommunity Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Local endogamy 90-100 pct
50    2     Local endogamy 61-89 pct (agamous)
51    3     Local endogamy 40-60 pct (agamous)
38    4     Local endogamy 11-39 pct (agamous)
35    5     Local endogamy 0-10 pct (exogamy)
1     NA    NA
 
v73. Community Integration
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Lacking or low compared to community segments or larger polity
26    2     By common residence only
16    3     Common Identity, dialect, subculture
78    4     Overlapping Kin ties
8     5     Common social or economic status
20    6     Common political ties
32    7     Common religious ties
 
v74. Prominent Community Ceremonials
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
67    1     Rites of passage
69    2     Calendrical
36    3     Magical or religious
14    4     Individual sponsored and communally attended (e.g., potlatch)
 
v75. Ceremonial Elements
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Feasting and/or drinking
10    2     Exchanges other than food
51    3     Entertainment
57    4     Sacrifice other than human
13    5     Human sacrifice
1     6     Masochistic behavior
 
v76. Community Leadership
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
13    1     No centralized local leadership
4     2     Higher level only
53    3     Single local leader
8     4     Dual/plural headmen
72    5     Single local leader and council
15    6     Local councils
11    7     Single local leader and subordinates
10    8     Too complex to be coded
 
v77. Local Political Succession, Primary
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
17    1     No headman or council
11    2     By appointment
10    3     Seniority
2     4     Divination
37    5     Informal consensus
22    6     Electoral process
60    7     Patrilineal
14    8     Matrilineal
10    9     Hereditary with personal qualifications
3     NA    NA
 
v78. Local Political Succession, Secondary
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
123   0     No auxiliary qualification
33    3     Seniority
22    5     Informal consensus
3     6     Electoral process
2     7     Patrilineal
3     NA    NA
 
v79. Polygamy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Polyandry - primarily monogamous with some plural husbands
31    2     Monogamy
96    3     Polygyny < 20 pct plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)
57    4     Polygyny > 20 pct plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)
 
v80. Family Size
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Nuclear Monogamous
70    2     Nuclear Polygynous
16    3     Stem Family
59    4     Small extended
34    5     Large extended
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Arthur Tuden and Catherine Marshall.  1972.  Political Organization:  Cross-Cultural Codes 4.  Ethnology 11:436-464.
 
v81. Political Autonomy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Dependent totally
41    2     Semi-autonomous
4     3     Tribute paid
78    4     De facto autonomy
16    5     Equal status in pluralistic society
29    6     Fully autonomous
2     NA    NA
 
v82. Trend in Autonomy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Declining autonomy
43    2     Declining territory or population control
49    3     State of equilibrium
22    4     State of equilibrium, expanding territory
16    5     Increasing autonomy
2     NA    NA
 
v83. Levels of Sovereignty
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Stateless society
31    2     Sovereignty 1st hierarchical level up
14    3     Sovereignty 2nd hierarchical level up
41    4     Sovereignty 3rd or higher hierarchical level
2     NA    NA
 
v84. Higher Political Organization
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
85    1     Absent
28    2     Peace group
46    3     Alliances
7     4     Confederation
17    5     International organization
3     NA    NA
 
v85. Executive
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Absent
7     2     Council
22    3     Executive and Council
2     4     Plural executive
54    5     Single leader
3     NA    NA
 
v86. Selection of Executive
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=12
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Absent
21    2     Patrilineal, Fa to So
3     3     Patrilineal, Fa to FaBr, then to So
5     4     Matrilineal, MoBr to SiSo
1     5     Matrilineal, MoBr to MoBr
24    6     Ruling family
1     7     Decision by limited power group
12    8     Elected by council
2     9     Informal recognition
6     10    Formal elections
5     11    Appointee of alien society
1     12    Divination
7     NA    NA
 
v87. Deliberative and Consultative Bodies
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
154   1     Absent
5     2     Aristocrats
5     3     Appointed
9     4     By ethnic components
8     5     Elective
5     NA    NA
 
v88. Advisory Bodies
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Absence of sovereignty
28    2     Absent
13    3     Relatives of executive
2     4     Favorites of executive
14    6     Subordinate groups
3     7     Hereditary
23    8     Subordinate functionaries
5     NA    NA
 
v89. Judiciary
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
103   1     Absent
6     2     Not local
49    3     Executive
23    4     Appointed by executive
1     5     Priesthood
1     6     Hereditary
3     NA    NA
 
v90. Police
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
124   1     Not specialized
4     2     Incipient specialization
4     3     Retainers of chiefs
6     4     Military
42    5     Specialized
6     NA    NA
 
v91. Administrative Hierarchy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Absent
7     2     Popular Assemblies
8     3     Heads of kin groups
38    4     Heads of decentralized territorial divisions
31    5     Heads of centralized territorial divisions
1     6     Part of centralized system
3     NA    NA
 
v92. Selection of Subordinate Officials
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
98    1     Absent
16    2     Patrilineal succession
2     3     Matrilineal succession
12    4     Ruling lineage
2     5     Seniority of age
4     6     Personal qualities
10    7     Formal election
33    8     Appointment by executive
9     NA    NA
 
v93. Political Power- Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
90    1     Direct subsistence production
11    2     Warfare wealth
3     3     Tribute or taxes
13    4     Slaves
20    5     Contributions of free citizens
12    6     Large land-holdings
14    7     Political office
6     8     Foreign Commerce
11    9     Capitalistic enterprises
3     10    Priestly services
3     NA    NA
 
v94. Political Power- Second Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
111   0     No other source
5     2     Warfare wealth
4     3     Tribute or taxes
12    4     Slaves
7     5     Contributions of free citizens
5     6     Large land-holdings
8     7     Political office
19    8     Foreign Commerce
6     9     Capitalistic enterprises
6     10    Priestly services
3     NA    NA
 
v95. Political Power- Third Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
142   0     No other source
6     2     Warfare wealth
1     3     Tribute or taxes
4     4     Slaves
1     6     Large land-holdings
14    7     Political office
9     8     Foreign Commerce
4     9     Capitalistic enterprises
2     10    Priestly services
3     NA    NA
 
v96. Political Power- Fourth Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
167   0     No other source
3     2     Warfare wealth
1     3     Tribute or taxes
1     4     Slaves
2     5     Contributions of free citizens
6     7     Political office
2     8     Foreign Commerce
1     9     Capitalistic enterprises
3     NA    NA
 
v97. Political Power- Fifth Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
178   0     No other source
2     4     Slaves
1     7     Political office
1     8     Foreign Commerce
1     10    Priestly services
3     NA    NA
 
v98. Political Power- Sixth Most Important Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
181   0     No other source
1     3     Tribute or taxes
1     8     Foreign Commerce
3     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: George P. Murdock and Caterina Provost. 1973. Factors in the Division of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Ethnology 12: 203-225.
 
v99. Food Collection: Vegetal (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
34    -1    Task Present, sex ?
10    0     Task absent
6     1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
18    3     Equally
42    4     Females predominant
65    5     Females exclusively
7     NA    NA
 
v100. Food Collection: Insects, and/or Small Land Fauna (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
48    -1    Task Present, sex ?
18    0     Task absent
27    1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
9     3     Equally
13    4     Females predominant
15    5     Females exclusively
53    NA    NA
 
v101. Food Collection: Shellfish/Small Aquatic Fauna (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
22    -1    Task Present, sex ?
85    0     Task absent
11    1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
1     3     Equally
12    4     Females predominant
27    5     Females exclusively
24    NA    NA
 
v102. Food Collection: Honey (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=106; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
20    -1    Task Present, sex ?
38    0     Task absent
39    1     Males exclusively
5     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
2     5     Females exclusively
80    NA    NA
 
v103. Food Collection: Fowling (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=157; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     -1    Task Present, sex ?
16    0     Task absent
131   1     Males exclusively
5     2     Males predominant
3     3     Equally
29    NA    NA
 
v104. Food Collection: Fishing (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
10    -1    Task Present, sex ?
29    0     Task absent
83    1     Males exclusively
45    2     Males predominant
8     3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
2     5     Females exclusively
4     NA    NA
 
v105. Food Collection: Trapping (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     -1    Task Present, sex ?
20    0     Task absent
136   1     Males exclusively
12    2     Males predominant
1     3     Equally
1     4     Females predominant
15    NA    NA
 
v106. Food Collection: Large Land Fauna (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
36    0     Task absent
139   1     Males exclusively
5     2     Males predominant
6     NA    NA
 
v107. Food Collection: Large Aquatic Fauna (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     -1    Task Present, sex ?
127   0     Task absent
48    1     Males exclusively
9     NA    NA
 
v108. Food Production: Land Clearance (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     -1    Task Present, sex ?
44    0     Task absent
95    1     Males exclusively
34    2     Males predominant
6     3     Equally
3     4     Females predominant
1     5     Females exclusively
2     NA    NA
 
v109. Food Production: Soil Preparation (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     -1    Task Present, sex ?
49    0     Task absent
66    1     Males exclusively
27    2     Males predominant
14    3     Equally
17    4     Females predominant
10    5     Females exclusively
2     NA    NA
 
v110. Food Production: Planting (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
44    0     Task absent
27    1     Males exclusively
35    2     Males predominant
33    3     Equally
26    4     Females predominant
20    5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v111. Food Production: Crop Tending (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
3     -1    Task Present, sex ?
48    0     Task absent
22    1     Males exclusively
23    2     Males predominant
24    3     Equally
30    4     Females predominant
32    5     Females exclusively
4     NA    NA
 
v112. Food Production: Harvesting (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
44    0     Task absent
10    1     Males exclusively
37    2     Males predominant
34    3     Equally
34    4     Females predominant
26    5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v113. Food Production: Small Domestic Animals (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
70    -1    Task Present, sex ?
13    0     Task absent
19    1     Males exclusively
8     2     Males predominant
14    3     Equally
12    4     Females predominant
44    5     Females exclusively
6     NA    NA
 
v114. Food Production: Large Domestic Animals (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
10    -1    Task Present, sex ?
76    0     Task absent
54    1     Males exclusively
24    2     Males predominant
14    3     Equally
3     4     Females predominant
3     5     Females exclusively
2     NA    NA
 
v115. Food Production: Milking (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
10    -1    Task Present, sex ?
127   0     Task absent
15    1     Males exclusively
2     2     Males predominant
8     3     Equally
2     4     Females predominant
21    5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v116. Food Preparation: Vegetal: Food Preparation (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
2     -1    Task Present, sex ?
2     0     Task absent
3     1     Males exclusively
1     2     Males predominant
4     3     Equally
21    4     Females predominant
145   5     Females exclusively
8     NA    NA
 
v117. Food Preparation: Butchering (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=167; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
16    -1    Task Present, sex ?
8     0     Task absent
122   1     Males exclusively
9     2     Males predominant
4     3     Equally
4     4     Females predominant
4     5     Females exclusively
19    NA    NA
 
v118. Food Preparation: Preservation (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=161; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
64    -1    Task Present, sex ?
31    0     Task absent
18    1     Males exclusively
2     2     Males predominant
3     3     Equally
3     4     Females predominant
40    5     Females exclusively
25    NA    NA
 
v119. Food Preparation: Drinks (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
42    -1    Task Present, sex ?
37    0     Task absent
15    1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
4     3     Equally
4     4     Females predominant
65    5     Females exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v120. Food Preparation: Dairy (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
20    -1    Task Present, sex ?
130   0     Task absent
4     1     Males exclusively
24    5     Females exclusively
8     NA    NA
 
v121. Food Preparation: Cooking (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     -1    Task Present, sex ?
2     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
63    4     Females predominant
117   5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v122. Extractive Industries: Mining/Quarrying (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     -1    Task Present, sex ?
106   0     Task absent
31    1     Males exclusively
1     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
1     5     Females exclusively
39    NA    NA
 
v123. Extractive Industries: Fuel Gathering (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
11    -1    Task Present, sex ?
1     0     Task absent
25    1     Males exclusively
12    2     Males predominant
12    3     Equally
24    4     Females predominant
94    5     Females exclusively
7     NA    NA
 
v124. Extractive Industries: Lumbering (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=169; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
16    -1    Task Present, sex ?
14    0     Task absent
135   1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
17    NA    NA
 
v125. Extractive Industries: Water Fetching (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
25    -1    Task Present, sex ?
4     1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
8     3     Equally
13    4     Females predominant
131   5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v126. Intermediate Processing: Skins (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
44    -1    Task Present, sex ?
48    0     Task absent
39    1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
31    5     Females exclusively
13    NA    NA
 
v127. Intermediate Processing: Spinning (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
9     -1    Task Present, sex ?
56    0     Task absent
7     1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
4     3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
72    5     Females exclusively
30    NA    NA
 
v128. Intermediate Processing: Loom Weaving (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     -1    Task Present, sex ?
81    0     Task absent
24    1     Males exclusively
6     3     Equally
8     4     Females predominant
50    5     Females exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v129. Intermediate Processing: Smelting (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
125   0     Task absent
37    1     Males exclusively
24    NA    NA
 
v130. Manufacturing: Matmaking (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
31    -1    Task Present, sex ?
29    0     Task absent
30    1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
9     3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
55    5     Females exclusively
23    NA    NA
 
v131. Manufacturing: Netmaking (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
45    -1    Task Present, sex ?
45    0     Task absent
42    1     Males exclusively
2     2     Males predominant
5     3     Equally
1     4     Females predominant
15    5     Females exclusively
31    NA    NA
 
v132. Manufacturing: Basketmaking (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
19    -1    Task Present, sex ?
21    0     Task absent
37    1     Males exclusively
9     2     Males predominant
15    3     Equally
18    4     Females predominant
51    5     Females exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v133. Manufacturing: Rope or Cordage (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
56    -1    Task Present, sex ?
3     0     Task absent
62    1     Males exclusively
7     2     Males predominant
18    3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
19    5     Females exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v134. Manufacturing: Leather (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
32    -1    Task Present, sex ?
57    0     Task absent
35    1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
5     4     Females predominant
29    5     Females exclusively
23    NA    NA
 
v135. Manufacturing: Clothing (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
5     -1    Task Present, sex ?
36    0     Task absent
16    1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
11    3     Equally
13    4     Females predominant
78    5     Females exclusively
23    NA    NA
 
v136. Manufacturing: Pottery (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     -1    Task Present, sex ?
61    0     Task absent
14    1     Males exclusively
5     2     Males predominant
6     3     Equally
6     4     Females predominant
74    5     Females exclusively
14    NA    NA
 
v137. Manufacturing: Wood (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
17    -1    Task Present, sex ?
1     0     Task absent
159   1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
1     3     Equally
1     4     Females predominant
4     NA    NA
 
v138. Manufacturing: Bone (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
44    -1    Task Present, sex ?
14    0     Task absent
71    1     Males exclusively
7     2     Males predominant
2     3     Equally
2     5     Females exclusively
46    NA    NA
 
v139. Manufacturing: Stone (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=143; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
31    -1    Task Present, sex ?
39    0     Task absent
67    1     Males exclusively
6     3     Equally
43    NA    NA
 
v140. Manufacturing: Metal (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
93    0     Task absent
85    1     Males exclusively
1     2     Males predominant
7     NA    NA
 
v141. Manufacturing: Musical Instruments (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
74    -1    Task Present, sex ?
8     0     Task absent
83    1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
1     3     Equally
1     5     Females exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v142. Miscellaneous: Fire (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
96    -1    Task Present, sex ?
3     0     Task absent
40    1     Males exclusively
6     2     Males predominant
16    3     Equally
4     4     Females predominant
20    5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
v143. Miscellaneous: Laundering (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
9     -1    Task Present, sex ?
52    0     Task absent
5     1     Males exclusively
4     3     Equally
8     4     Females predominant
49    5     Females exclusively
59    NA    NA
 
v144. Miscellaneous: Bodily Mutilation (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=164; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
45    -1    Task Present, sex ?
13    0     Task absent
36    1     Males exclusively
4     2     Males predominant
48    3     Equally
6     4     Females predominant
12    5     Females exclusively
22    NA    NA
 
v145. Miscellaneous: Bonesetting/Surgery (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=98; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
17    -1    Task Present, sex ?
37    0     Task absent
34    1     Males exclusively
6     2     Males predominant
4     3     Equally
88    NA    NA
 
v146. Miscellaneous: Burden Carrying (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     -1    Task Present, sex ?
3     0     Task absent
18    1     Males exclusively
12    2     Males predominant
46    3     Equally
34    4     Females predominant
36    5     Females exclusively
31    NA    NA
 
v147. Miscellaneous: Boatbuilding (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     -1    Task Present, sex ?
79    0     Task absent
84    1     Males exclusively
3     2     Males predominant
3     3     Equally
1     5     Females exclusively
11    NA    NA
 
v148. Miscellaneous: Housebuilding (sexual division of labor)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     -1    Task Present, sex ?
1     0     Task absent
105   1     Males exclusively
30    2     Males predominant
14    3     Equally
9     4     Females predominant
20    5     Females exclusively
1     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Murdock, George P., and Catherine Provost. 1973. Measurement of Cultural Complexity. Ethnology 12:379-392.
 
v149. Scale 1- Writing and Records
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
73    1     None
49    2     Mnemonic devices
21    3     Nonwritten records
12    4     True writing; no records
31    5     True writing; records
 
v150. Scale 2- Fixity of Residence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Nomadic
21    2     Seminomadic
20    3     Semisedentary
15    4     Sedentary; impermanent
102   5     Sedentary
 
v151. Scale 3- Agriculture
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
38    1     None
17    2     10 pct food supply
11    3     10 pct ; secondary
63    4     Primary; not intensive
57    5     Primary; intensive
 
v152. Scale 4- Urbanization
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
56    1     fewer than 100 persons
43    2     100-199 persons
33    3     200-399 persons
30    4     400-999 persons
24    5     1000 persons
 
v153. Scale 5- Technological Specialization
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
39    1     None
27    2     Pottery only
31    3     Loom weaving only
56    4     Metalwork only
33    5     Smiths, weavers, potters
 
v154. Scale 6- Land Transport
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
108   1     Human only
42    2     Pack animals
14    3     Draft animals
11    4     Animal-drawn vehicles
11    5     Automotive vehicles
 
v155. Scale 7- Money
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
77    1     None
14    2     Domestically usable articles
43    3     Alien currency
27    4     Elementary forms
25    5     True money
 
v156. Scale 8- Density of Population
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
58    1     less than 1 person/square mile
25    2     1-5 persons/square mile
28    3     5.1-25 persons/square mile
35    4     26-100 persons/square mile
40    5     100 persons/square mile
 
v157. Scale 9- Political Integration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     None
71    2     Autonomous local communities
47    3     1 level above community
28    4     2 levels above community
29    5     3 levels above community
 
v158. Scale 10- Social Stratification
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
65    1     Egalitarian
52    2     Hereditary slavery
19    3     2 social classes, no castes/slavery
20    4     2 social classes, castes/slavery
30    5     3 social classes or castes, with or without slavery 158.1. SUM OF CULTURAL COMPLEXITY (v149-v158)
 
v158.1. Sum of Complexity measures
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=40
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  27.823
min   10
max   50
sd    10.312
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Gwen J. Broude and Sarah J. Greene. 1976. Cross-Cultural Codes on Twenty Sexual Attitudes and Practices. Ethnology 12: 409-429.
 
v159. Talk about Sex
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=60; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Adults and adults talk explicitly
2     2     Except with children
13    3     Except with certain people
9     4     Only with intimates
18    5     Never
126   NA    NA
 
v160. Sex Frequency in Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=66; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
11    1     No abstinence
40    2     Abstinence at times
6     3     Moderation
9     4     Abstinence admired
120   NA    NA
 
v161. Sex Believed Dangerous
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=34; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Absent
4     2     With specific categories
9     3     Only unusual practices
1     4     Only sexual secretions
6     5     Always
152   NA    NA
 
v162. Foreplay
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=35; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Present
4     2     Minimal
13    3     Absent
151   NA    NA
 
v163. Age for Clothing- Male
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Never
1     2     Adulthood
9     3     Puberty
19    4     Toddler to puberty
1     5     Toddler
3     6     At birth
147   NA    NA
 
v164. Age for Clothing- Female
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=48; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Never
2     2     Adulthood
7     3     Puberty
27    4     Toddler to puberty
5     5     Toddler
3     6     At birth
138   NA    NA
 
v165. Premarital Sex Attitudes- Female
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=130; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
30    1     Expected
28    2     Tolerated
22    3     Mildly disapproved
11    4     Moderately disapproved
4     5     Disallowed
35    6     Strongly disapproved
56    NA    NA
 
v166. Frequency of Premarital Sex- Male
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=102; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
60    1     Universal
18    2     Moderate
11    3     Occasional
13    4     Uncommon
84    NA    NA
 
v167. Frequency of Premarital Sex- Female
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=109; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
51    1     Universal
19    2     Moderate
16    3     Occasional
23    4     Uncommon
77    NA    NA
 
v168. Initiator of Premarital Sex
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=30; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Women always
9     3     Both equally
5     4     Men more than women
11    5     Men always
156   NA    NA
 
v169. Extramarital Sex
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=109; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Single standard- both allowed
48    2     Double standard- husband only
24    3     Double standard- both forbidden, women punished more
24    4     Single standard- both condemned equally
77    NA    NA
 
v170. Frequency of Extramarital Sex- Male
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=51; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Universal
29    2     Moderate
6     3     Occasional
10    4     Uncommon
135   NA    NA
 
v171. Frequency of Extramarital Sex- Female
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=53; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Universal
23    2     Moderate
9     3     Occasional
15    4     Uncommon
133   NA    NA
 
v172. Wifesharing
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=103; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
4     1     For any reason
11    2     Vis-a-vis specific group men
5     3     Vis-a-vis specific man
7     4     Occasionally for sex gratification
3     5     For husbands economic benefit
11    6     Aside from sex gratification
62    7     None
83    NA    NA
 
v173. Rape
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Accepted/ignored
4     2     Ridiculed
8     3     Mildly disapproved
18    4     Strongly disapproved
147   NA    NA
 
v174. Frequency of Rape
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=31; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Absent
10    2     Rare
13    3     Common
155   NA    NA
 
v175. Male Sexual Aggressiveness
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=60; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Men diffident, shy
7     2     Men sexually forward but not diffident
26    3     Men forward verbally
7     4     Men forward physically
6     5     Men forward; hostile occasionally
9     6     Men forward; hostile typically
126   NA    NA
 
v176. Homosexuality
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Accepted/ignored
4     2     None
6     3     Ridiculed, no punishment
4     4     Mildly disapproved
17    5     Strongly disapproved
146   NA    NA
 
v177. Frequency of Homosexuality
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=69; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
40    1     Absent
29    2     Present
117   NA    NA
 
v178. Impotence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=37; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
7     1     No concern
30    2     Concern
149   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Whiting, John W. M. (New Codes: Not Previously Published). Referenced in "Winter temperature as a constraint to the migration of preindustrial peoples", Whiting, et al. American Anthropologist 84:279-298 (1982). The weather data is cited as coming from Walter, H., and H. Leith (1964) Klimadiagramm-Weltatlas, Jena: Gustav Fischer.
 
These codes are taken from Climate maps, for weather stations closest to the time and place of each societal focus.
 
v179. Latitude of Weather Station
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=59
Stat  Value
nobs  179
mean  23.469
min   1
max   71
sd    17.988
 
v180. Latitude Hemisphere (for Weather Stations)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
128   1     North
52    2     South
6     NA    NA
 
v181. Longitude of Weather Station
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=112
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  79.672
min   1
max   176
sd    47.724
 
v182. Longitude Hemisphere (for Weather Stations)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
105   1     East
75    2     West
6     NA    NA
 
v183. Altitude in Meters
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=136
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  453.6
min   0
max   3822
sd    675.411
 
v184. Years of Observation: Temperature
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=43
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  18.572
min   0
max   70
sd    16.521
 
v185. Years of Observation: Precipitation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=53
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  23.356
min   0
max   73
sd    16.932
 
v186. Mean Annual Temperature (Xc)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=35
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  18.889
min   -16
max   29
sd    9.854
 
v187. Hottest Month Mean Temperature (Xc)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=29
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  24.394
min   4
max   46
sd    6.129
 
v188. Coldest Month Mean Temperature (Xc)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=46
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  12.75
min   -28
max   28
sd    14.544
 
v189. Mean Annual Precipitation (mm)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=165
Stat  Value
nobs  177
mean  1303.734
min   1
max   4819
sd    1011.52
 
v190. Mean Daily Min Coldest Month (Xc)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=95; Number of unique values=40
Stat  Value
nobs  95
mean  2.821
min   -61
max   24
sd    18.24
 
v191. Mean Daily Max Hottest Month (Xc)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=31; Number of unique values=13
Freq  Value Description
1     -2    Min
2     0     0
1     26    26
4     27    27
2     30    30
3     31    31
4     32    32
4     33    33
2     34    34
1     35    35
1     36    36
5     39    39
1     41    Max
155   NA    NA
 
v192. Highest Precipitation in Wettest Month (mm)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=101
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  216.956
min   1
max   670
sd    149.462
 
v193. Lowest Precipitation in Dryest Month (mm)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=68
Stat  Value
nobs  180
mean  34.411
min   0
max   295
sd    53.463
 
v194. Wettest Month
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Jan
2     3     March
6     4     Apr
12    5     May
20    6     June
39    7     July
38    8     Aug
23    9     Sept
15    10    Oct
6     11    Nov
8     12    Dec
6     NA    NA
 
v195. Dryest Month
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=12
Freq  Value Description
52    1     Jan
36    2     Feb
12    3     March
11    4     Apr
4     5     May
10    6     June
16    7     July
8     8     Aug
3     9     Sept
2     10    Oct
4     11    Nov
22    12    Dec
6     NA    NA
 
v196. Number of Dry Months
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=13
Freq  Value Description
70    0     None
8     1     1
13    2     2
10    3     3
19    4     4
13    5     5
15    6     6
10    7     7
8     8     8
1     9     9
3     10    10
1     11    11
9     12    12
6     NA    NA
 
v197. Hottest Month
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=12
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Jan
5     2     Feb
11    3     Mar
23    4     Apr
30    5     May
13    6     June
66    7     July
18    8     Aug
7     9     Sept
2     10    Oct
2     11    Nov
1     12    Dec
6     NA    NA
 
v198. Coldest Month
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
117   1     Jan
14    2     Feb
1     3     Mar
1     4     Apr
4     6     June
7     7     July
8     8     Aug
1     9     Sept
2     10    Oct
1     11    Nov
24    12    Dec
6     NA    NA
 
v199. Number of Frost Months
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
152   0     None
1     1     1
1     5     5
1     6     6
7     7     7
3     8     8
6     9     9
2     10    10
5     11    11
2     12    12
6     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Murdock, George P. 1962-1971. Installments in Ethnology. Ethnoatlas codes 200-291 were changed by J. Patrick Gray, 1998. World Cultures 10(1):86-136.
 
v200. Region
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Africa Exclusive of Madagascar and the Sahara
28    2     Circum-Mediterranean North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Semitic Near East
34    3     East Eurasia including Madagascar and Islands in Indian Ocean
31    4     Insular Pacific including Australia, Indonesia, Formosa, Phillipines
33    5     North America indigenous societies to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
32    6     South America including Antilles, Yucatan, Central America
 
v201. Area
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
21    0     0
26    1     1
21    2     2
18    3     3
19    4     4
18    5     5
16    6     6
16    7     7
13    8     8
18    9     9
 
v202. EA Number
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
7     0     0
37    1     1
24    2     2
40    3     3
23    4     4
15    5     5
10    6     6
11    7     7
7     8     8
12    9     9
 
v203. Dependence on Gathering (Atlas 1)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
86    0     0 - 5 pct
51    1     6 - 15 pct
23    2     16 - 25 pct
9     3     26 - 35 pct
9     4     36 - 45 pct
4     5     46 - 55 pct
3     6     56 - 65 pct
1     8     76 - 85 pct
 
v204. Dependence on Hunting (Atlas 3)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
63    0     0 - 5 pct
48    1     6 - 15 pct
33    2     16 - 25 pct
19    3     26 - 35 pct
11    4     36 - 45 pct
5     5     46 - 55 pct
3     6     56 - 65 pct
2     7     66 - 75 pct
1     8     76 - 85 pct
1     9     86 - 100 pct
 
v205. Dependence on Fishing (Atlas 3)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
57    0     0 - 5 pct
54    1     6 - 15 pct
30    2     16 - 25 pct
14    3     26 - 35 pct
12    4     36 - 45 pct
11    5     46 - 55 pct
5     6     56 - 65 pct
1     7     66 - 75 pct
1     8     76 - 85 pct
1     9     86 - 100 pct
 
v206. Dependence on Animal Husbandry (Atlas 4)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
77    0     0 - 5 pct
39    1     6 - 15 pct
29    2     16 - 25 pct
19    3     26 - 35 pct
7     4     36 - 45 pct
3     5     46 - 55 pct
2     6     56 - 65 pct
1     7     66 - 75 pct
4     8     76 - 85 pct
5     9     86 - 100 pct
 
v207. Dependence on Agriculture (Atlas 5)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
44    0     0 - 5 pct
11    1     6 - 15 pct
4     2     16 - 25 pct
2     3     26 - 35 pct
16    4     36 - 45 pct
37    5     46 - 55 pct
38    6     56 - 65 pct
17    7     66 - 75 pct
13    8     76 - 85 pct
4     9     86 - 100 pct
 
v208. Mode of Marriage (Atlas 6)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Bride-Price or -Wealth, to brides family
24    2     Bride-Service, to brides family
16    3     Token Bride-price
15    4     Gift Exchange, reciprocal
9     5     Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride
42    6     Absence of Consideration
9     7     Dowry, to bride from her family
 
v209. Mode of Marriage (Alternate) (Atlas 7)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Bride-Price or -Wealth, to brides family
15    2     Bride-Service, to brides family
4     3     Token Bride-price
3     5     Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride
9     7     Dowry, to bride from her family
146   9     No Alternative
 
v210. Domestic Organization (Atlas 8)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Independent Nuclear Family, Monogamous
43    2     Independent Nuclear Family, occasional Polygyny
2     3     Independent Polyandrous Families
6     4     Polygynous: Unusual Co-wives Pattern (4, 6 below)
22    5     Polygynous: Usual Co-Wife Pattern (3, 5 below)
12    6     Minimal (stem) extended families
44    7     Small Extended Families
42    8     Large Extended Families
1     NA    NA
 
v211. Composition of Domestic Group (Atlas 9 Combined)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Independent Nuclear, Monogamous
43    2     Independent Nuclear, Occasional Polygyny
4     3     Preferentially Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling
1     4     Preferentially Sororal, Cowives separate dwellings
18    5     Non-Sororal, Cowives in separate dwellings
5     6     Non-Sororal, Cowives in same dwelling
2     7     Independent Polyandrous Families
98    8     Extended Family
1     NA    NA
 
v212. Marital Composition within Extended Families (Atlas 9 Combined)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Monogamy
39    2     Occasional or limited polygyny
12    3     Preferentially sororal, co-wives in same dwelling
1     4     Preferentially sororal, co-wives separate dwelling
16    5     Non-sororal, co-wives separate dwelling
9     6     Non-sororal polygyny, co-wives in same dwelling
87    7     Polyandry, or no extended family 88->87
1     NA    NA
 
v213. Marital Residence with Kin: First Years (Atlas 10 Combined)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Ambilocal: with either kin group
4     2     Nonestablishment of Common Household
32    3     Uxorilocal: with wifes parents
3     4     Virilocal: with husbands parents
145   5     Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)
1     NA    NA
 
v214. Transfer of Residence at Marriage: First Years (Atlas 10 Combined)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Wife to Husbands Group (7 in 213)
1     2     Couple to either Group or Neolocal (4 in 213)
32    3     Husband to Wifes Group (2 in 213)
4     4     No Common Residence (0 in 213)
145   5     Same as Prevalent Residence (#216)
1     NA    NA
 
v215. Marital Residence with Kin: after First Years (Atlas 12) (Atlas 11) -> (Atlas 12)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Nonestablishment of Common Household
16    1     Matrilocal: with wifes unilineal kin group
14    2     Uxorilocal: with wifes parents
1     3     Optional avuncu- or uxori-local
12    4     Bilocal: with either kin group
8     5     Avunculocal: with husbands mothers brother
1     6     Optional avuncu-, viri-, or patri-locality
48    7     Virilocal: with husbands parents
69    8     Patrilocal: with husbands unilineal kin group
15    9     Neolocal: independent of kin
1     NA    NA
 
v216. Transfer of Residence at Marriage: after First Years (Atlas 11) (Atlas 12) -> (Atlas 11)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
126   1     Wife to Husbands Group (1,4,8,10 above)
28    2     Couple to either Group or Neolocal (2,3,6 above)
30    3     Husband to Wifes Group (5,9 above)
1     4     No Common Residence (9 above)
1     NA    NA
 
v217. Marital Residence with Kin: Alternate Form
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
29    2     Uxorilocal: with wifes parents
1     3     Optional avuncu- or uxori-local
9     5     Avunculocal: with husbands mothers brother
17    7     Virilocal: with husbands parents
2     8     Patrilocal: with husbands unilineal kin group
22    9     Neolocal: independent of kin
105   10    Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)
1     NA    NA
 
v218. Transfer of Residence at Marriage: Alternate Form (Atlas 13)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Wife to Husbands Group (Patrilocal, Virilocal)
23    2     Couple to either Group or Neolocal (bilocal, optional patr-,-viri- or avuncu-,neolocal)
29    3     Husband to Wifes Group (Avunculocal, matrilocal, uxorilocal, optional avuncu- or uxori-)
105   4     Same as Prevalent Residence (#215)
1     NA    NA
 
v219. Community Marriage Organization (Atlas 15)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Demes (not segmented into clan barrios)
40    2     Segmented communities without local exogamy
67    3     Agamous communities
27    4     Exogamous communities (not clans)
2     5     Segmented communities (containing localized clans) with local exogamy
29    6     Clan communities (or clan barrios)
4     NA    NA
 
v220. Community Marriage Organization (Alternate) (Atlas 16)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Segmented communities without local exogamy
179   9     No secondary organization
4     NA    NA
 
v221. Largest Patrilineal Kin Group (Atlas 17)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
104   1     None
17    3     Lineages in a Single Community
43    4     Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities)
15    5     Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs)
6     6     Moieties
1     NA    NA
 
v222. Largest Patrilineal Exogamous Group (If Different)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
13    3     Lineages in a Single Community
5     4     Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities)
167   9     No Difference
1     NA    NA
 
v223. Largest Matrilineal Kin Group
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
144   1     None
3     2     Exogamous Group
7     3     Lineages in a Single Community
15    4     Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities)
5     5     Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs)
11    6     Moieties
1     NA    NA
 
v224. Largest Matrilineal Exogamous Group (If Different)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     3     Lineages in a Single Community
3     4     Sibs (Lineages in Multiple Communities)
180   9     No Difference
1     NA    NA
 
v225. Cognatic Kin Groups
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
48    1     Bilateral descent
27    2     Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups
7     4     Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups
2     5     Exogamous ramages
4     6     Quasi-lineages: filiation based, not descent
97    9     No Secondary cognatic group
1     NA    NA
 
v226. Secondary Cognatic Kin Group: Where Both Kindreds and Ramages
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups
1     4     Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups
182   9     No Secondary cognatic group
1     NA    NA
 
v227. Number of Cousin Marriages (Allowed)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
25    1     All four cousins
8     2     Three of four cousins
44    3     Two of four cousins (e.g., paternal)
6     4     One of four cousins (e.g., FaBrDa)
19    5     No first cousins
2     6     First and some second cousins excluded
27    7     No first, unknown for second
43    8     No first or second cousins
12    NA    NA
 
v228. Number of Cousin Marriages (Preferred)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
12    1     All four cousins
1     2     Three of four cousins
36    3     Two of four cousins (e.g., paternal)
6     4     One of four cousins (e.g., FaBrDa)
4     5     No first cousins
2     6     First and some second cousins excluded
113   9     No preferential or prescriptive unions
12    NA    NA
 
v229. Subtypes of Cousin Marriages (Allowed)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Paternal (FBD if only one)
166   4     Other
1     6     Maternal
6     7     MoBrDa
12    NA    NA
 
v230. Subtypes of Cousin Marriages (Preferred)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
5     1     FaSiDa
8     2     Paternal (FBD if only one)
25    4     Other
23    7     MoBrDa
113   9     No preferential or prescriptive unions
12    NA    NA
 
v231. Kin Terms for Cousins
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Descriptive terms, e.g. mothers brothers son
1     2     Sudanese: Siblings, cross and parallel cousins distinguished but not by descriptive terms
44    3     Iroquois: Cross cousins versus parallel are siblings
4     4     Mixed or deviant
14    5     Omaha: Generational merging; MoBrCh up; FaSCh down
15    6     Crow: Generational merging; MoBrCh down; FaSCh up
23    7     Eskimo: Cousins versus siblings
55    8     Hawaiian: Siblings plus cousins equated
14    NA    NA
 
v232. Intensity of Cultivation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
42    1     No agriculture
10    2     Casual agriculture, incidental to other subsistence modes
55    3     Extensive or shifting agriculture, long fallow, and new fields cleared annually
18    4     Horticulture, vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees
32    5     Intensive agriculture, using fertilization, crop rotation, or other techniques to shorten or eliminate fallow period
29    6     Intensive irrigated agriculture
 
v233. Major Crop Type
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
44    1     None or none specified
13    4     Tree fruits
38    5     Roots or tubers
91    6     Cereal grains
 
v234. Settlement Patterns
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Nomadic or fully migratory
24    2     Seminomadic
13    3     Semisedentary
3     4     Compact but impermanent settlements
20    5     Neighborhoods of dispersed family homesteads
17    6     Separated hamlets, forming a single community
75    7     Compact and relatively permanent settlements
8     8     Complex settlements
 
v235. Mean Size of Local Communities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Fewer than 50
29    2     50-99
24    3     100-199
17    4     200-399
12    5     400-1000
4     6     1,000 without any town of more than 5000
10    7     One or more towns of 5,000-50,000
21    8     One or more cities of more than 50,000
38    NA    NA
 
v236. Jurisdictional Hierarchy of Local Community
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
45    2     Two levels (theoretical minimum, e.g., family and band)
117   3     Three levels
24    4     Four levels (e.g., nuclear family, extended family, clan barrios, village levels)
 
v237. Jurisdictional Hierarchy beyond Local Community
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
82    1     No levels (no political authority beyond community)
48    2     One level (e.g., petty chiefdoms)
23    3     Two levels (e.g., larger chiefdoms)
19    4     Three levels (e.g., states)
12    5     Four levels (e.g., large states)
2     NA    NA
 
v238. High Gods
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
68    1     Absent or not reported
47    2     Present but not active in human affairs
13    3     Present and active in human affairs but not supportive of human morality
40    4     Present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality
18    NA    NA
 
v239. Games { Can Also Be Expressed in a Semi-order or Partial Guttman Scale, as There Are Five Latent Classes or Dominant Scale Types: for P C S, These Are - - - + - - + + - + - + + + + }
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=122; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
10    1     None of the three types
41    2     Physical skill
2     4     Strategy
40    5     Skill and chance
11    6     Skill and strategy
18    8     All
64    NA    NA
 
v240. Post-partum Sex Taboos
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=107; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     1     None
24    2     No longer than 1 month
33    3     1 to 6 months
8     4     6 months to 1 year
19    5     More than one year to two years
18    6     More than two years
79    NA    NA
 
v241. Male Genital Mutilations
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
135   0     Absent
5     1     Within first two months after birth
1     2     Two months to two years
5     3     Two to five years
15    4     Six to ten years
16    5     11 to 15 years
2     6     16 to 25 years
1     8     After 50 years
3     9     Normal age unclear
3     NA    NA
 
v242. Segregation of Adolescent Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
106   1     Absence
19    2     Partial
8     3     Complete, with relatives outside nuclear family
4     4     Complete, with non-relatives
18    5     Complete, with peers
31    NA    NA
 
v243. Animals and Plow Cultivation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
153   1     Absent (no plow animals)
2     2     Not aboriginal but well established at period of observation
31    3     Prior to contract
 
v244. Predominant Type of Animal Husbandry
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Absence or near absence of large domestic animals
31    2     Pigs the only large domestic animals
15    3     Sheep and/or goats without larger domestic animals
10    4     Equine animals (horses, donkeys)
3     5     Deer (reindeer)
5     6     Camels, alpacas, or llamas
68    7     Bovine animals (cattle, mithun, water buffalo, yaks)
 
v245. Milking of Domestic Animals
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
129   1     Little or no milking, or insufficient information
57    2     Milked more often than sporadically
 
v246. Subsistence Economy { Roughly Equal to the Categories below for 858. Subsistence Type - Ecological Classification (858 Categories) }
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
15    1     Gathering
19    2     Fishing
12    3     Hunting, or Marine animals, or Mounted Hunting
16    4     Pastoral
60    6     Shifting Cultivation or Horticulture or Tree fruits
57    7     Intensive agriculture
7     8     Two or more sources contribute equally
 
v247. Descent: Major Type (from Variables 121-126)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
59    1     Patrilineal
11    2     Duolateral
27    3     Matrilineal
4     4     Quasi-lineages
6     5     Ambilineal
64    6     Bilateral
14    7     Mixed
1     NA    NA
 
v248. Sex Differences in Metal Working
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
79    1     Males alone or almost alone
1     2     Males appreciably more
1     7     Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized
1     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
101   9     Activity absent or unimportant
3     NA    NA
 
v249. Sex Differences in Weaving
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
20    1     Males alone or almost alone
3     2     Males appreciably more
5     3     Differentiation but equal participation
1     5     Females appreciably more
47    6     Females alone or almost alone
9     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
89    9     Activity absent or unimportant
12    NA    NA
 
v250. Sex Differences in Leather Working
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
32    1     Males alone or almost alone
1     2     Males appreciably more
1     4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
3     5     Females appreciably more
32    6     Females alone or almost alone
22    8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
48    9     Activity absent or unimportant
47    NA    NA
 
v251. Sex Differences in Pottery Making
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Males alone or almost alone
2     2     Males appreciably more
4     3     Differentiation but equal participation
2     4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
2     5     Females appreciably more
73    6     Females alone or almost alone
1     7     Gender irrelevant, esp. industrialized
19    8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
58    9     Activity absent or unimportant
16    NA    NA
 
v252. Sex Differences in Boat Building
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
73    1     Males alone or almost alone
5     2     Males appreciably more
1     6     Females alone or almost alone
19    8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
62    9     Activity absent or unimportant
26    NA    NA
 
v253. Sex Differences in House Construction
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
90    1     Males alone or almost alone
18    2     Males appreciably more
17    3     Differentiation but equal participation
5     4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
5     5     Females appreciably more
14    6     Females alone or almost alone
1     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
36    NA    NA
 
v254. Age or Occupational Specialization in Metal Working
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
76    3     Craft specialization
2     4     Industrialized specialization
105   9     Activity absent
3     NA    NA
 
v255. Age or Occupational Specialization in Weaving
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=174; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
16    3     Craft specialization
1     4     Industrialized specialization
157   9     Activity absent
12    NA    NA
 
v256. Age or Occupational Specialization in Leather Working
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
18    3     Craft specialization
121   9     Activity absent
47    NA    NA
 
v257. Age or Occupational Specialization in Pottery Making
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
23    3     Craft specialization
1     4     Industrialized specialization
146   9     Activity absent
16    NA    NA
 
v258. Age or Occupational Specialization in Boat Building
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
12    3     Craft specialization
148   9     Activity absent
26    NA    NA
 
v259. Age or Occupational Specialization in House Construction
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
14    3     Craft specialization
136   9     Activity absent
36    NA    NA
 
v260. Sex Differences in Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Males alone or almost alone
4     2     Males appreciably more
3     3     Differentiation but equal participation
11    4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
24    5     Females appreciably more
64    6     Females alone or almost alone
4     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
49    9     Activity absent or unimportant
24    NA    NA
 
v261. Sex Differences in Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
152   1     Males alone or almost alone
2     2     Males appreciably more
25    9     Activity absent or unimportant
7     NA    NA
 
v262. Sex Differences in Fishing
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
65    1     Males alone or almost alone
43    2     Males appreciably more
10    3     Differentiation but equal participation
8     4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
5     5     Females appreciably more
3     6     Females alone or almost alone
1     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
38    9     Activity absent or unimportant
13    NA    NA
 
v263. Sex Differences in Animal Husbandry
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Males alone or almost alone
23    2     Males appreciably more
18    3     Differentiation but equal participation
13    4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
4     5     Females appreciably more
12    6     Females alone or almost alone
2     8     Activity present: sex partic. unspecified
56    9     Activity absent or unimportant
23    NA    NA
 
v264. Sex Differences in Agriculture
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Males alone or almost alone
37    2     Males appreciably more
14    3     Differentiation but equal participation
25    4     Equal partic. w/out marked differentiation
37    5     Females appreciably more
5     6     Females alone or almost alone
43    9     Activity absent or unimportant
9     NA    NA
 
v265. Age or Occupational Specialization in Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Junior age specialization (before puberty)
161   9     Activity absent or unimportant
24    NA    NA
 
v266. Age or Occupational Specialization in Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Junior age specialization (before puberty)
8     3     Craft specialization
170   9     Activity absent or unimportant
7     NA    NA
 
v267. Age or Occupational Specialization in Fishing
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
8     3     Craft specialization
165   9     Activity absent or unimportant
13    NA    NA
 
v268. Age or Occupational Specialization in Animal Husbandry
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Junior age specialization (before puberty)
1     3     Craft specialization
158   9     Activity absent or unimportant
23    NA    NA
 
v269. Murdock's Language Code: Revised in a Later Issue; No Codes Here
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=0; Number of unique values=0
Freq  Value Description
186   NA    NA
 
v270. Class Stratification
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
76    1     Absence among freemen
45    2     Wealth distinctions
3     3     Elite (based on control of land or other resources)
37    4     Dual (hereditary aristocracy)
25    5     Complex (social classes)
 
v271. Class Stratification, Secondary Feature
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Wealth distinctions
4     3     Elite (based on control of land or other resources)
4     4     Dual (hereditary aristocracy)
2     5     Complex (social classes)
173   9     No second type or absence of stratification
 
v272. Caste Stratification (Endogamy)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
153   1     Absent or insignificant
18    2     Despised occupational group(s)
3     3     Ethnic stratification
7     4     Complex
5     NA    NA
 
v273. Caste Stratification, Secondary Type
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Despised occupational group(s)
1     3     Ethnic stratification
179   9     No second type or absence of stratification
5     NA    NA
 
v274. Type of Slavery
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
100   1     Absence or near absence
27    2     Incipient or nonhereditary
9     3     Reported but type not identified
44    4     Hereditary and socially significant
6     NA    NA
 
v275. Former Presence of Slavery
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
130   1     Absent or no difference from preceding column
50    2     Formerly present
6     NA    NA
 
v276. Succession to the Office of Local Headman
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
59    1     Patrilineal heir
17    2     Matrilineal heir
5     3     Nonhereditary (appointed by higher authority)
7     4     Nonhereditary on basis of seniority or age
9     5     Nonhereditary through influence (wealth or social status)
24    6     Nonhereditary through election or other formal consensus
23    7     Nonhereditary through informal consensus
19    9     Absence of any such office
23    NA    NA
 
v277. Succession to Office of Local Headman, Breakdown of Hereditary Succession
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Hereditary by a son (patrilineal)
15    2     Hereditary by other patrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)
8     3     Hereditary by a sisters son (matrilineal)
9     4     Hereditary by other matrilineal heir (e.g., YoBr)
87    9     Nonhereditary or absence of any such office
23    NA    NA
 
v278. Inheritance of Real Property (Land) : Rule or Practice for Inheritance
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
59    1     Absence of individual property rights or rules
3     2     Matrilineal (sisters sons)
10    3     Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)
12    4     Children, with daughters receiving less
9     5     Children, equally for both sexes
8     6     Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)
54    7     Patrilineal (sons)
31    NA    NA
 
v279. Inheritance of Movable Property: Rule or Practice for Inheritance
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=152; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Absence of individual property rights or rules
5     2     Matrilineal (sisters sons)
9     3     Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)
14    4     Children, with daughters receiving less
22    5     Children, equally for both sexes
9     6     Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)
72    7     Patrilineal (sons)
34    NA    NA
 
v280. Inheritance of Real Property: Distribution of Inheritance among Individuals of Same Category
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Equal or relatively equal
6     2     Exclusively or predominantly to the one adjudged best qualified
4     3     Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual)
28    4     Primogeniture (to the senior individual)
94    NA    NA
 
v281. Inheritance of Movable Property: Distribution of Inheritance among Individuals of Same Category
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
86    1     Equal or relatively equal
6     2     Exclusively or predominantly to the one adjudged best qualified
5     3     Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual)
27    4     Primogeniture (to the senior individual)
62    NA    NA
 
v282. Norms of Premarital Sex Behavior of Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Early marriage of females (at or before puberty)
38    2     Insistence on virginity
37    3     Prohibited but weakly censured and not infrequent
16    4     Allowed, censured only if pregnancy results
5     5     Trial marriage, promiscuous relations prohibited
37    6     Freely permitted, even if pregnancy results
40    NA    NA
 
v283. Prevailing Type of Dwelling: Ground Plan
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Semicircular
58    2     Circular
6     3     Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends
108   5     Rectangular or square
9     6     Quadrangular around (if only partially) inner court
4     NA    NA
 
v284. Prevailing Type of Dwelling: Floor Level
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)
138   2     Floor formed by ground
12    3     Elevated slightly or on raised platform
18    4     Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers
5     NA    NA
 
v285. Prevailing Type of Dwelling: Wall Material
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=122; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick
19    2     Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
35    3     Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
1     4     Bark
1     5     Hides or skin
6     6     Felt, cloth, or other fabrics
17    7     Mats, latticework, or wattle
14    8     Grass, leaves, or other thatch
17    9     Adobe, clay, or dried brick
64    NA    NA
 
v286. Prevailing Type of Dwelling: Shape of Roof
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Rounded or semi-cylindrical
20    2     Dome or hemisphere
7     3     Beehive with pointed peak
33    4     Conical
2     5     Semi-hemisphere
6     6     Shad (one slope)
14    7     Flat or horizontal
69    8     Gabled (two slopes)
15    9     Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)
10    NA    NA
 
v287. Prevailing Type of Dwelling: Roofing Materials
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick
3     2     Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
10    3     Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
6     4     Bark
5     5     Hides or skin
5     6     Felt, cloth, or other fabric
9     7     Mats
118   8     Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch
18    9     Earth or turf
1     10    Ice or snow
9     NA    NA
 
v288. Secondary or Alternative House Type: Ground Plan
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Semicircular
18    2     Circular
3     3     Elliptical or elongated with rounded ends
38    5     Rectangular or square
7     6     Quadrangular around (or partially around) an inner court
118   NA    NA
 
v289. Secondary or Alternative House Type: Floor Level
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=67; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Subterranean or semi-subterranean (ignoring cellars)
50    2     Floor formed by ground
8     3     Elevated slightly or on raised platform
8     4     Raised substantially on piles, posts, or piers
119   NA    NA
 
v290. Secondary or Alternative House Type: Wall Material
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick
5     2     Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
10    3     Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
3     4     Bark
2     6     Felt, cloth, or other fabrics
3     7     Mats, latticework or wattle
3     8     Grass, leaves, or other thatch
8     9     Adobe, clay, or dried brick
144   NA    NA
 
v291. Secondary or Alternative House Type: Shape of Roof
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=67; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Dome or hemisphere
16    4     Conical
2     5     Semi-hemisphere
2     6     Shad (one slope)
7     7     Flat or horizontal
31    8     Gabled (two slopes)
8     9     Hipped or pyramidal (four slopes)
119   NA    NA
 
v292. Secondary or Alternative House Type: Roofing Materials
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=66; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick
1     2     Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
3     3     Wood, incl. logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
1     4     Bark
5     5     Hides or skin
2     6     Felt, cloth or other fabric
4     7     Mats
42    8     Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch
5     9     Earth or turf
120   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Herbert Barry III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall. 1976. Traits Inculcated in Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 5. Ethnology 15:83-114.
 
v293. Duration of Early Childhood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
87    1     short (ending at about 7 years of age)
36    2     medium (ending at about 9 years of age)
56    3     long (ending at about 11 years of age or later)
7     NA    NA
 
v294. Fortitude: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
17    2     (2 of 10)
16    3     (3 of 10)
11    4     (4 of 10)
61    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
24    6     (6 of 10)
3     7     (7 of 10)
6     8     (8 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
46    NA    NA
 
v295. Fortitude: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
19    2     (2 of 10)
17    3     (3 of 10)
13    4     (4 of 10)
60    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
15    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
3     8     (8 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
55    NA    NA
 
v296. Fortitude: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
3     2     (2 of 10)
5     3     (3 of 10)
10    4     (4 of 10)
40    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
49    6     (6 of 10)
14    7     (7 of 10)
24    8     (8 of 10)
8     9     (9 of 10)
2     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
31    NA    NA
 
v297. Fortitude: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
5     2     (2 of 10)
11    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
50    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
44    6     (6 of 10)
12    7     (7 of 10)
12    8     (8 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
41    NA    NA
 
v298. Aggression: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
6     1     (1 of 10)
25    2     (2 of 10)
14    3     (3 of 10)
7     4     (4 of 10)
40    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
28    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
8     8     (8 of 10)
3     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
53    NA    NA
 
v299. Aggression: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=118; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
7     1     (1 of 10)
30    2     (2 of 10)
15    3     (3 of 10)
10    4     (4 of 10)
30    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
17    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
5     8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
68    NA    NA
 
v300. Aggression: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
4     1     (1 of 10)
9     2     (2 of 10)
11    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
40    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
43    6     (6 of 10)
5     7     (7 of 10)
19    8     (8 of 10)
6     9     (9 of 10)
2     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
38    NA    NA
 
v301. Aggression: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=128; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
5     1     (1 of 10)
16    2     (2 of 10)
17    3     (3 of 10)
10    4     (4 of 10)
37    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
26    6     (6 of 10)
5     7     (7 of 10)
10    8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
58    NA    NA
 
v302. Competitiveness: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=111; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
6     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
21    2     (2 of 10)
15    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
38    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
18    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
75    NA    NA
 
v303. Competitiveness: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=106; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
6     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
21    2     (2 of 10)
15    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
35    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
18    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
80    NA    NA
 
v304. Competitiveness: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=135; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
5     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
15    2     (2 of 10)
18    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
42    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
30    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
11    8     (8 of 10)
3     9     (9 of 10)
51    NA    NA
 
v305. Competitiveness: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=126; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
5     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
17    2     (2 of 10)
16    3     (3 of 10)
10    4     (4 of 10)
44    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
25    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
7     8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
60    NA    NA
 
v306. Self-reliance: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
7     1     (1 of 10)
39    2     (2 of 10)
27    3     (3 of 10)
9     4     (4 of 10)
42    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
16    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
10    8     (8 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
31    NA    NA
 
v307. Self-reliance: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
8     1     (1 of 10)
48    2     (2 of 10)
29    3     (3 of 10)
11    4     (4 of 10)
35    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
12    6     (6 of 10)
4     7     (7 of 10)
4     8     (8 of 10)
33    NA    NA
 
v308. Self-reliance: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
4     1     (1 of 10)
6     2     (2 of 10)
5     3     (3 of 10)
5     4     (4 of 10)
34    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
39    6     (6 of 10)
6     7     (7 of 10)
49    8     (8 of 10)
11    9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
26    NA    NA
 
v309. Self-reliance: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
5     1     (1 of 10)
10    2     (2 of 10)
15    3     (3 of 10)
10    4     (4 of 10)
48    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
34    6     (6 of 10)
6     7     (7 of 10)
19    8     (8 of 10)
4     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
33    NA    NA
 
v310. Achievement: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
3     1     (1 of 10)
49    2     (2 of 10)
23    3     (3 of 10)
4     4     (4 of 10)
44    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
17    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
3     8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
40    NA    NA
 
v311. Achievement: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=136; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
2     1     (1 of 10)
49    2     (2 of 10)
24    3     (3 of 10)
4     4     (4 of 10)
36    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
17    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
2     8     (8 of 10)
50    NA    NA
 
v312. Achievement: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
14    2     (2 of 10)
16    3     (3 of 10)
8     4     (4 of 10)
46    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
47    6     (6 of 10)
3     7     (7 of 10)
22    8     (8 of 10)
5     9     (9 of 10)
24    NA    NA
 
v313. Achievement: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=152; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     1     (1 of 10)
7     2     (2 of 10)
16    3     (3 of 10)
8     4     (4 of 10)
50    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
45    6     (6 of 10)
4     7     (7 of 10)
18    8     (8 of 10)
2     9     (9 of 10)
34    NA    NA
 
v314. Industry: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=166; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
10    1     (1 of 10)
83    2     (2 of 10)
28    3     (3 of 10)
14    4     (4 of 10)
20    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
6     6     (6 of 10)
1     8     (8 of 10)
20    NA    NA
 
v315. Industry: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=165; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
3     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
3     1     (1 of 10)
62    2     (2 of 10)
35    3     (3 of 10)
13    4     (4 of 10)
35    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
14    6     (6 of 10)
21    NA    NA
 
v316. Industry: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
10    2     (2 of 10)
17    3     (3 of 10)
16    4     (4 of 10)
69    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
37    6     (6 of 10)
3     7     (7 of 10)
19    8     (8 of 10)
3     9     (9 of 10)
11    NA    NA
 
v317. Industry: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     2     (2 of 10)
11    3     (3 of 10)
6     4     (4 of 10)
41    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
63    6     (6 of 10)
8     7     (7 of 10)
38    8     (8 of 10)
4     9     (9 of 10)
11    NA    NA
 
v318. Responsibility: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=151; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
11    0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
8     1     (1 of 10)
73    2     (2 of 10)
23    3     (3 of 10)
6     4     (4 of 10)
21    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
8     6     (6 of 10)
1     8     (8 of 10)
35    NA    NA
 
v319. Responsibility: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=150; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
5     1     (1 of 10)
63    2     (2 of 10)
32    3     (3 of 10)
5     4     (4 of 10)
33    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
7     6     (6 of 10)
1     8     (8 of 10)
36    NA    NA
 
v320. Responsibility: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=161; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
3     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
15    2     (2 of 10)
20    3     (3 of 10)
15    4     (4 of 10)
49    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
37    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
19    8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
25    NA    NA
 
v321. Responsibility: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=158; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
3     2     (2 of 10)
11    3     (3 of 10)
12    4     (4 of 10)
50    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
51    6     (6 of 10)
3     7     (7 of 10)
28    8     (8 of 10)
28    NA    NA
 
v322. Obedience: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
2     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
3     1     (1 of 10)
27    2     (2 of 10)
11    3     (3 of 10)
14    4     (4 of 10)
45    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
27    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
22    8     (8 of 10)
4     9     (9 of 10)
3     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
26    NA    NA
 
v323. Obedience: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=161; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
3     1     (1 of 10)
23    2     (2 of 10)
13    3     (3 of 10)
11    4     (4 of 10)
44    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
31    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
25    8     (8 of 10)
5     9     (9 of 10)
4     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
25    NA    NA
 
v324. Obedience: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
1     1     (1 of 10)
15    2     (2 of 10)
10    3     (3 of 10)
12    4     (4 of 10)
45    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
33    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
32    8     (8 of 10)
8     9     (9 of 10)
3     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
24    NA    NA
 
v325. Obedience: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
10    2     (2 of 10)
10    3     (3 of 10)
11    4     (4 of 10)
45    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
36    6     (6 of 10)
3     7     (7 of 10)
32    8     (8 of 10)
11    9     (9 of 10)
4     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
24    NA    NA
 
v326. Self-restraint: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=134; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     1     (1 of 10)
38    2     (2 of 10)
35    3     (3 of 10)
5     4     (4 of 10)
29    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
13    6     (6 of 10)
8     8     (8 of 10)
52    NA    NA
 
v327. Self-restraint: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
7     1     (1 of 10)
32    2     (2 of 10)
31    3     (3 of 10)
7     4     (4 of 10)
34    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
14    6     (6 of 10)
7     8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
53    NA    NA
 
v328. Self-restraint: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=135; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
19    2     (2 of 10)
19    3     (3 of 10)
12    4     (4 of 10)
35    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
26    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
20    8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
51    NA    NA
 
v329. Self-restraint: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=132; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
16    2     (2 of 10)
16    3     (3 of 10)
11    4     (4 of 10)
45    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
26    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
13    8     (8 of 10)
3     9     (9 of 10)
54    NA    NA
 
v330. Sexual Restraint: Early Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
14    1     (1 of 10)
67    2     (2 of 10)
22    3     (3 of 10)
14    4     (4 of 10)
30    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
7     6     (6 of 10)
1     8     (8 of 10)
30    NA    NA
 
v331. Sexual Restraint: Early Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
11    1     (1 of 10)
57    2     (2 of 10)
19    3     (3 of 10)
14    4     (4 of 10)
32    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
14    6     (6 of 10)
1     7     (7 of 10)
5     8     (8 of 10)
32    NA    NA
 
v332. Sexual Restraint: Late Boy { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=164; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
7     1     (1 of 10)
41    2     (2 of 10)
27    3     (3 of 10)
25    4     (4 of 10)
41    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
15    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
6     8     (8 of 10)
22    NA    NA
 
v333. Sexual Restraint: Late Girl { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=165; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
4     1     (1 of 10)
32    2     (2 of 10)
18    3     (3 of 10)
25    4     (4 of 10)
24    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
27    6     (6 of 10)
6     7     (7 of 10)
18    8     (8 of 10)
5     9     (9 of 10)
6     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
21    NA    NA
 
v334. Generosity { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=104; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 10)
4     2     (2 of 10)
6     3     (3 of 10)
4     4     (4 of 10)
24    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
31    6     (6 of 10)
2     7     (7 of 10)
27    8     (8 of 10)
4     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
82    NA    NA
 
v335. Trust { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=138; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
6     1     (1 of 10)
19    2     (2 of 10)
5     3     (3 of 10)
15    4     (4 of 10)
34    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
18    6     (6 of 10)
11    7     (7 of 10)
25    8     (8 of 10)
3     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
48    NA    NA
 
v336. Honesty { (Higher values represent stronger inculcation) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
1     0     no inculcation, or opposite trait (0 of 10)
5     1     (1 of 10)
18    2     (2 of 10)
15    3     (3 of 10)
13    4     (4 of 10)
28    5     moderately strong inculcation (5 of 10)
15    6     (6 of 10)
5     7     (7 of 10)
8     8     (8 of 10)
1     9     (9 of 10)
1     10    extremely strong inculcation (10 of 10)
76    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall. 1977. Agents and Techniques for Child Training: Cross-Cultural Codes 6. Ethnology 16: 191-230
 
v337. Importance of Non-family Companions: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Parents predominantly
11    2     Siblings; not other children
104   3     Primarily siblings, secondarily other children
45    4     Primarily other children, secondarily siblings
18    5     Other children; not siblings
6     NA    NA
 
v338. Importance of Non-family Companions: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Parents predominantly
12    2     Siblings; not other children
105   3     Primarily siblings, secondarily other children
44    4     Primarily other children, secondarily siblings
17    5     Other children; not siblings
6     NA    NA
 
v339. Importance of Non-family Companions: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Parents predominantly
3     2     Siblings; not other children
80    3     Primarily siblings, secondarily other children
47    4     Primarily other children, secondarily siblings
49    5     Other children; not siblings
6     NA    NA
 
v340. Importance of Non-family Companions: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Parents predominantly
8     2     Siblings; not other children
91    3     Primarily siblings, secondarily other children
37    4     Primarily other children, secondarily siblings
41    5     Other children; not siblings
8     NA    NA
 
v341. Sex of Companions: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Male exclusively
62    2     Male predominantly
111   3     Both sexes equally
1     4     Female predominantly
6     NA    NA
 
v342. Sex of Companions: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
112   3     Both sexes equally
62    4     Female predominantly
6     5     Female exclusively
6     NA    NA
 
v343. Sex of Companions: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
58    1     Male exclusively
90    2     Male predominantly
31    3     Both sexes equally
1     4     Female predominantly
6     NA    NA
 
v344. Sex of Companions: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Male predominantly
32    3     Both sexes equally
84    4     Female predominantly
61    5     Female exclusively
8     NA    NA
 
v345. Importance of Non-parent in Residence: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
56    1     Exclusively parental
63    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
7     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
39    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
14    5     Two or more categories, at least oneof which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
4     NA    NA
 
v346. Importance of Non-parent in Residence: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Exclusively parental
67    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
10    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
28    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
12    5     Two or more categories, at least oneof which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
4     NA    NA
 
v347. Importance of Non-parent in Residence: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Exclusively parental
52    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
4     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
34    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
19    5     Two or more categories, at least oneof which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
5     6     More typical and frequent than parents
24    7     Exclusively non-parental
4     NA    NA
 
v348. Importance of Non-parent in Residence: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
48    1     Exclusively parental
67    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
11    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
25    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
14    5     Two or more categories, at least oneof which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
14    7     Exclusively non-parental
4     NA    NA
 
v349. Principal Category of Non-parental Agent: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=126; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
100   1     Foster parent
7     3     Grandparent
4     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
10    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
2     6     Child
3     7     Nonrelative
60    NA    NA
 
v350. Principal Category of Non-parental Agent: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=120; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
90    1     Foster parent
9     3     Grandparent
2     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
7     5     Relative (including fathers brother)
3     6     Child
9     7     Nonrelative
66    NA    NA
 
v351. Principal Category of Non-parental Agent: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=138; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
77    1     Foster parent
4     3     Grandparent
5     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
15    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
21    6     Child
12    7     Nonrelative
4     9     Independence of child; no agent
48    NA    NA
 
v352. Principal Category of Non-parental Agent: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=135; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
74    1     Foster parent
12    3     Grandparent
2     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
13    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
10    6     Child
23    7     Nonrelative
1     9     Independence of child; no agent
51    NA    NA
 
v353. Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Male predominantly
135   3     Both sexes equally
22    4     Female predominantly
23    5     Female exclusively
4     NA    NA
 
v354. Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Male predominantly
135   3     Both sexes equally
21    4     Female predominantly
25    5     Female exclusively
4     NA    NA
 
v355. Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=158; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
124   3     Both sexes equally
13    4     Female predominantly
11    5     Female exclusively
28    NA    NA
 
v356. Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Male predominantly
127   3     Both sexes equally
16    4     Female predominantly
24    5     Female exclusively
18    NA    NA
 
v357. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=125; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
114   3     Both sexes equally
2     5     Female exclusively
61    NA    NA
 
v358. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=121; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Male exclusively
107   3     Both sexes equally
1     4     Female predominantly
9     5     Female exclusively
65    NA    NA
 
v359. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=134; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
33    1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
98    3     Both sexes equally
2     5     Female exclusively
52    NA    NA
 
v360. Sex of Non-parents in Residence: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
105   3     Both sexes equally
18    5     Female exclusively
53    NA    NA
 
v361. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
33    1     Exclusively parental
19    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
21    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
26    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
57    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
17    6     More typical and frequent than parents
6     7     Exclusively non-parental
7     NA    NA
 
v362. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Exclusively parental
19    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
21    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
24    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
59    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
17    6     More typical and frequent than parents
5     7     Exclusively non-parental
6     NA    NA
 
v363. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
34    1     Exclusively parental
13    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
17    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
24    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
35    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
9     6     More typical and frequent than parents
28    7     Exclusively non-parental
26    NA    NA
 
v364. Non-parental Involvement in Child Caring: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Exclusively parental
14    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
19    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
22    4     Single category that typical and frequent but less important than parents
41    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
10    6     More typical and frequent than parents
18    7     Exclusively non-parental
23    NA    NA
 
v365. Principal Category of Non-parental Caretaker: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
58    2     Sibling
38    3     Grandparent
4     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
18    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
4     6     Child
22    7     Nonrelative
1     8     Teacher
1     9     No agent
40    NA    NA
 
v366. Principal Category of Non-parental Caretaker: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
59    2     Sibling
39    3     Grandparent
1     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
17    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
4     6     Child
24    7     Nonrelative
1     9     No agent
41    NA    NA
 
v367. Principal Category of Non-parental Caretaker: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
40    2     Sibling
26    3     Grandparent
2     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
13    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
4     6     Child
18    7     Nonrelative
1     8     Teacher
23    9     No agent
59    NA    NA
 
v368. Principal Category of Non-parental Caretaker: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=123; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
42    2     Sibling
32    3     Grandparent
2     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
14    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
2     6     Child
19    7     Nonrelative
1     8     Teacher
11    9     No agent
63    NA    NA
 
v369. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Male exclusively
4     2     Male predominantly
26    3     Both sexes equally
38    4     Female predominantly
104   5     Female exclusively
13    NA    NA
 
v370. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Male exclusively
2     2     Male predominantly
25    3     Both sexes equally
29    4     Female predominantly
117   5     Female exclusively
11    NA    NA
 
v371. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=132; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Male exclusively
3     2     Male predominantly
17    3     Both sexes equally
22    4     Female predominantly
79    5     Female exclusively
54    NA    NA
 
v372. Sex of Parental Caretakers: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
17    3     Both sexes equally
22    4     Female predominantly
103   5     Female exclusively
41    NA    NA
 
v373. Sex of Principal Non-parental Caretakers: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Male exclusively
4     2     Male predominantly
59    3     Both sexes equally
12    4     Female predominantly
65    5     Female exclusively
41    NA    NA
 
v374. Sex of Principal Non-parental Caretakers: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=144; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Male exclusively
2     2     Male predominantly
54    3     Both sexes equally
11    4     Female predominantly
75    5     Female exclusively
42    NA    NA
 
v375. Sex of Principal Non-parental Caretakers: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=103; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
43    3     Both sexes equally
7     4     Female predominantly
41    5     Female exclusively
83    NA    NA
 
v376. Sex of Principal Non-parental Caretakers: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=111; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
42    3     Both sexes equally
6     4     Female predominantly
59    5     Female exclusively
75    NA    NA
 
v377. Non-parental Involvement in Authority: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=175; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
61    1     Exclusively parental
13    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
8     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
45    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
34    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
11    6     More typical and frequent than parents
3     7     Exclusively non-parental
11    NA    NA
 
v378. Non-parental Involvement in Authority: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
67    1     Exclusively parental
15    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
10    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
42    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
30    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
9     6     More typical and frequent than parents
3     7     Exclusively non-parental
10    NA    NA
 
v379. Non-parental Involvement in Authority: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
49    1     Exclusively parental
12    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
5     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
38    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
33    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
10    6     More typical and frequent than parents
25    7     Exclusively non-parental
14    NA    NA
 
v380. Non-parental Involvement in Authority: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Exclusively parental
13    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
9     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
41    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
28    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
7     6     More typical and frequent than parents
16    7     Exclusively non-parental
10    NA    NA
 
v381. Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=114; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
33    2     Sibling
26    3     Grandparent
17    4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
24    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
3     6     Child
9     7     Nonrelative
1     8     Teacher
1     9     Independence of child; no agent
72    NA    NA
 
v382. Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=109; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
34    2     Sibling
28    3     Grandparent
12    4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
23    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
1     6     Child
9     7     Nonrelative
1     8     Teacher
1     9     Independence of child; no agent
77    NA    NA
 
v383. Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=123; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
32    2     Sibling
22    3     Grandparent
15    4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
19    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
9     6     Child
17    7     Nonrelative
7     8     Teacher
2     9     Independence of child; no agent
63    NA    NA
 
v384. Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=114; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
32    2     Sibling
26    3     Grandparent
8     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
22    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
4     6     Child
15    7     Nonrelative
5     8     Teacher
2     9     Independence of child; no agent
72    NA    NA
 
v385. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
36    1     Male exclusively
66    2     Male predominantly
55    3     Both sexes equally
8     4     Female predominantly
7     5     Female exclusively
14    NA    NA
 
v386. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=173; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Male exclusively
58    2     Male predominantly
59    3     Both sexes equally
20    4     Female predominantly
19    5     Female exclusively
13    NA    NA
 
v387. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Male exclusively
53    2     Male predominantly
43    3     Both sexes equally
3     4     Female predominantly
5     5     Female exclusively
39    NA    NA
 
v388. Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Male exclusively
50    2     Male predominantly
52    3     Both sexes equally
20    4     Female predominantly
21    5     Female exclusively
26    NA    NA
 
v389. Sex of Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=113; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
66    1     Male exclusively
4     2     Male predominantly
37    3     Both sexes equally
2     4     Female predominantly
4     5     Female exclusively
73    NA    NA
 
v390. Sex of Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=108; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
48    1     Male exclusively
5     2     Male predominantly
35    3     Both sexes equally
2     4     Female predominantly
18    5     Female exclusively
78    NA    NA
 
v391. Sex of Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=121; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
80    1     Male exclusively
6     2     Male predominantly
29    3     Both sexes equally
2     4     Female predominantly
4     5     Female exclusively
65    NA    NA
 
v392. Sex of Principal Non-parental Authority Figures: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=108; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
38    1     Male exclusively
5     2     Male predominantly
31    3     Both sexes equally
4     4     Female predominantly
30    5     Female exclusively
78    NA    NA
 
v393. Non-parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=76; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
34    1     Exclusively parental
2     2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
3     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
12    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
14    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
8     7     Exclusively non-parental
110   NA    NA
 
v394. Non-parental Involvement in Discipline: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=74; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
32    1     Exclusively parental
3     2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
2     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
11    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
13    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
10    7     Exclusively non-parental
112   NA    NA
 
v395. Non-parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
25    1     Exclusively parental
2     2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
3     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
18    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
12    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
4     6     More typical and frequent than parents
13    7     Exclusively non-parental
109   NA    NA
 
v396. Non-parental Involvement in Discipline: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=73; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Exclusively parental
6     2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
2     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
14    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
8     5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
3     6     More typical and frequent than parents
12    7     Exclusively non-parental
113   NA    NA
 
v397. Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
12    2     Sibling
6     3     Grandparent
4     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
5     5     Relative (including fathers brother)
2     6     Child
8     7     Nonrelative
2     8     Teacher
3     9     Independence of child; no agent
144   NA    NA
 
v398. Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
13    2     Sibling
7     3     Grandparent
3     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
5     5     Relative (including fathers brother)
2     6     Child
7     7     Nonrelative
2     8     Teacher
3     9     Independence of child; no agent
144   NA    NA
 
v399. Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=52; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
10    2     Sibling
6     3     Grandparent
3     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
5     5     Relative (including fathers brother)
7     6     Child
9     7     Nonrelative
9     8     Teacher
3     9     Independence of child; no agent
134   NA    NA
 
v400. Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
13    2     Sibling
5     3     Grandparent
3     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
5     5     Relative (including fathers brother)
1     6     Child
10    7     Nonrelative
5     8     Teacher
3     9     Independence of child; no agent
141   NA    NA
 
v401. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Male exclusively
9     2     Male predominantly
21    3     Both sexes equally
6     4     Female predominantly
14    5     Female exclusively
118   NA    NA
 
v402. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Early Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=64; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Male exclusively
7     2     Male predominantly
21    3     Both sexes equally
7     4     Female predominantly
21    5     Female exclusively
122   NA    NA
 
v403. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=64; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Male exclusively
8     2     Male predominantly
18    3     Both sexes equally
2     4     Female predominantly
12    5     Female exclusively
122   NA    NA
 
v404. Sex of Parental Disciplinarians: Late Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=61; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Male exclusively
6     2     Male predominantly
18    3     Both sexes equally
7     4     Female predominantly
23    5     Female exclusively
125   NA    NA
 
v405. Sex of Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
20    3     Both sexes equally
5     5     Female exclusively
147   NA    NA
 
v406. Sex of Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Male exclusively
21    3     Both sexes equally
1     4     Female predominantly
10    5     Female exclusively
147   NA    NA
 
v407. Sex of Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=49; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
20    3     Both sexes equally
4     5     Female exclusively
137   NA    NA
 
v408. Sex of Principal Non-parental Disciplinarians: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Male exclusively
21    3     Both sexes equally
12    5     Female exclusively
144   NA    NA
 
v409. Non-parental Involvement in Education: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
36    1     Exclusively parental
18    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
7     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
26    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
46    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
30    6     More typical and frequent than parents
13    7     Exclusively non-parental
10    NA    NA
 
v410. Non-parental Involvement in Education: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
51    1     Exclusively parental
16    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
10    3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
30    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
42    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
21    6     More typical and frequent than parents
6     7     Exclusively non-parental
10    NA    NA
 
v411. Non-parental Involvement in Education: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Exclusively parental
16    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
7     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
31    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
50    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
29    6     More typical and frequent than parents
21    7     Exclusively non-parental
9     NA    NA
 
v412. Non-parental Involvement in Education: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
53    1     Exclusively parental
16    2     Single atypical or occasional category of non-parent
7     3     Two or more atypical or occasional categories of non-parent
26    4     Single category typical and frequent but less important than parents
44    5     Two or more categories, at least one of which typical and frequent, but less important than parents
15    6     More typical and frequent than parents
16    7     Exclusively non-parental
9     NA    NA
 
v413. Principal Category of Non-parental Educators: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
28    2     Sibling
18    3     Grandparent
7     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
19    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
37    6     Child
21    7     Nonrelative
9     8     Teacher
47    NA    NA
 
v414. Principal Category of Non-parental Educators: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=125; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
28    2     Sibling
23    3     Grandparent
2     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
20    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
28    6     Child
20    7     Nonrelative
4     8     Teacher
61    NA    NA
 
v415. Principal Category of Non-parental Educators: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
21    2     Sibling
13    3     Grandparent
11    4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
13    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
26    6     Child
34    7     Nonrelative
35    8     Teacher
33    NA    NA
 
v416. Principal Category of Non-parental Educators: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
21    2     Sibling
15    3     Grandparent
1     4     Uncle (mothers brother only)
19    5     Relative (including fathers brother)
13    6     Child
33    7     Nonrelative
22    8     Teacher
62    NA    NA
 
v417. Sex of Parental Educators: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
58    1     Male exclusively
27    2     Male predominantly
51    3     Both sexes equally
17    4     Female predominantly
10    5     Female exclusively
23    NA    NA
 
v418. Sex of Parental Educators: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Male exclusively
2     2     Male predominantly
40    3     Both sexes equally
20    4     Female predominantly
104   5     Female exclusively
16    NA    NA
 
v419. Sex of Parental Educators: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
117   1     Male exclusively
18    2     Male predominantly
14    3     Both sexes equally
3     4     Female predominantly
3     5     Female exclusively
31    NA    NA
 
v420. Sex of Parental Educators: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
11    3     Both sexes equally
12    4     Female predominantly
133   5     Female exclusively
26    NA    NA
 
v421. Sex of Principal Non-parental Educators: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
67    1     Male exclusively
6     2     Male predominantly
61    3     Both sexes equally
6     5     Female exclusively
46    NA    NA
 
v422. Sex of Principal Non-parental Educators: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=125; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Male exclusively
1     2     Male predominantly
53    3     Both sexes equally
5     4     Female predominantly
61    5     Female exclusively
61    NA    NA
 
v423. Sex of Principal Non-parental Educators: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
106   1     Male exclusively
3     2     Male predominantly
42    3     Both sexes equally
3     5     Female exclusively
32    NA    NA
 
v424. Sex of Principal Non-parental Educators: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Male exclusively
30    3     Both sexes equally
3     4     Female predominantly
84    5     Female exclusively
62    NA    NA
 
v425. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
46    1     Informal training, with minimal guidance
20    2     Apprenticeship atypical or occasional
78    3     Apprenticeship typical and frequent but informal training more prevalent
8     4     Apprenticeship predominant
14    5     Formal schooling atypical or occasional
11    6     Formal schooling typical and frequent
9     NA    NA
 
v426. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=177; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
47    1     Informal training, with minimal guidance
11    2     Apprenticeship atypical or occasional
88    3     Apprenticeship typical and frequent but informal training more prevalent
11    4     Apprenticeship predominant
10    5     Formal schooling atypical or occasional
10    6     Formal schooling typical and frequent
9     NA    NA
 
v427. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Informal training, with minimal guidance
6     2     Apprenticeship atypical or occasional
42    3     Apprenticeship typical and frequent but informal training more prevalent
43    4     Apprenticeship predominant
33    5     Formal schooling atypical or occasional
41    6     Formal schooling typical and frequent
8     NA    NA
 
v428. Guidance or Formal Schooling: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Informal training, with minimal guidance
3     2     Apprenticeship atypical or occasional
55    3     Apprenticeship typical and frequent but informal training more prevalent
47    4     Apprenticeship predominant
32    5     Formal schooling atypical or occasional
25    6     Formal schooling typical and frequent
8     NA    NA
 
v429. Use of Example: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=152; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
25    6     Children are expected to do things more or less by example
22    7     7
2     8     8
79    9     Children frequently shown example; consi- dered very important in socializing child
21    10    10
3     11    Example given as most important method of education, or adults are constantly showing children how to do things.
34    NA    NA
 
v430. Use of Example: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
24    6     Children are expected to do things more or less by example
23    7     7
2     8     8
79    9     Children frequently shown example; consi- dered very important in socializing child
22    10    10
3     11    Example given as most important method of education, or adults are constantly showing children how to do things.
33    NA    NA
 
v431. Use of Example: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
20    6     Children are expected to do things more or less by example
23    7     7
2     8     8
83    9     Children frequently shown example; consi- dered very important in socializing child
22    10    10
3     11    Example given as most important method of education, or adults are constantly showing children how to do things.
33    NA    NA
 
v432. Use of Example: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
20    6     Children are expected to do things more or less by example
23    7     7
2     8     8
84    9     Children frequently shown example; consi- dered very important in socializing child
23    10    10
3     11    Example given as most important method of education, or adults are constantly showing children how to do things.
31    NA    NA
 
v433. Control by Public Opinion: Early Boys { (higher values indicate that approval by people serves as a stronger control of the behavior of children) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     3     (3 of 11)
2     4     (4 of 11)
2     5     (5 of 11)
20    6     (6 of 11)
28    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
30    9     (9 of 11)
4     10    (10 of 11)
95    NA    NA
 
v434. Control by Public Opinion: Early Girls { (higher values indicate that approval by people serves as a stronger control of the behavior of children) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     3     (3 of 11)
2     4     (4 of 11)
2     5     (5 of 11)
20    6     (6 of 11)
28    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
30    9     (9 of 11)
5     10    (10 of 11)
94    NA    NA
 
v435. Control by Public Opinion: Late Boys { (higher values indicate that approval by people serves as a stronger control of the behavior of children) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=95; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     3     (3 of 11)
2     4     (4 of 11)
2     5     (5 of 11)
21    6     (6 of 11)
29    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
33    9     (9 of 11)
4     10    (10 of 11)
91    NA    NA
 
v436. Control by Public Opinion: Late Girls { (higher values indicate that approval by people serves as a stronger control of the behavior of children) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=94; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     3     (3 of 11)
2     4     (4 of 11)
2     5     (5 of 11)
20    6     (6 of 11)
30    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
31    9     (9 of 11)
5     10    (10 of 11)
92    NA    NA
 
v437. Lecturing: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=137; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 11)
10    3     (3 of 11)
10    4     (4 of 11)
7     5     (5 of 11)
48    6     Often, but not constant lectures / myths (6 of 11)
25    7     (7 of 11)
4     8     (8 of 11)
22    9     Almost daily (9 of 11)
6     10    (10 of 11)
4     11    Constant and one of the most important methods used in socializing child (11 of 11)
49    NA    NA
 
v438. Lecturing: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=134; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
10    3     (3 of 11)
11    4     (4 of 11)
8     5     (5 of 11)
46    6     Often, but not constant lectures / myths (6 of 11)
24    7     (7 of 11)
4     8     (8 of 11)
22    9     Almost daily (9 of 11)
5     10    (10 of 11)
4     11    Constant and one of the most important methods used in socializing child (11 of 11)
52    NA    NA
 
v439. Lecturing: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=141; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
6     3     (3 of 11)
9     4     (4 of 11)
6     5     (5 of 11)
44    6     Often, but not constant lectures / myths (6 of 11)
31    7     (7 of 11)
5     8     (8 of 11)
29    9     Almost daily (9 of 11)
8     10    (10 of 11)
3     11    Constant and one of the most important methods used in socializing child (11 of 11)
45    NA    NA
 
v440. Lecturing: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
6     3     (3 of 11)
10    4     (4 of 11)
8     5     (5 of 11)
42    6     Often, but not constant lectures / myths (6 of 11)
28    7     (7 of 11)
5     8     (8 of 11)
29    9     Almost daily (9 of 11)
7     10    (10 of 11)
4     11    Constant and one of the most important methods used in socializing child (11 of 11)
47    NA    NA
 
v441. Teasing: Early Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control due to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
9     3     (3 of 11)
8     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
34    6     (6 of 11)
24    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
19    9     (9 of 11)
1     10    (10 of 11)
85    NA    NA
 
v442. Teasing: Early Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control due to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=101; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
8     3     (3 of 11)
10    4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
33    6     (6 of 11)
23    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
20    9     (9 of 11)
1     10    (10 of 11)
85    NA    NA
 
v443. Teasing: Late Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control due to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=113; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
5     3     (3 of 11)
8     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
39    6     (6 of 11)
31    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
23    9     (9 of 11)
1     10    (10 of 11)
73    NA    NA
 
v444. Teasing: Late Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control due to shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=112; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
5     3     (3 of 11)
9     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
38    6     (6 of 11)
30    7     (7 of 11)
2     8     (8 of 11)
23    9     (9 of 11)
1     10    (10 of 11)
74    NA    NA
 
v445. Scolding: Early Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control by verbal reprimands, nagging, scolding for misbehavior) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     1     (1 of 11)
3     2     (2 of 11)
11    3     (3 of 11)
8     4     (4 of 11)
9     5     (5 of 11)
54    6     (6 of 11)
15    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
7     9     (9 of 11)
76    NA    NA
 
v446. Scolding: Early Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control by verbal reprimands, nagging, scolding for misbehavior) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=112; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     1     (1 of 11)
2     2     (2 of 11)
13    3     (3 of 11)
7     4     (4 of 11)
9     5     (5 of 11)
54    6     (6 of 11)
16    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
8     9     (9 of 11)
74    NA    NA
 
v447. Scolding: Late Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control by verbal reprimands, nagging, scolding for misbehavior) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=115; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
2     1     (1 of 11)
1     2     (2 of 11)
8     3     (3 of 11)
8     4     (4 of 11)
10    5     (5 of 11)
51    6     (6 of 11)
19    7     (7 of 11)
13    9     (9 of 11)
2     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
71    NA    NA
 
v448. Scolding: Late Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control by verbal reprimands, nagging, scolding for misbehavior) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=117; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
2     1     (1 of 11)
1     2     (2 of 11)
9     3     (3 of 11)
7     4     (4 of 11)
9     5     (5 of 11)
51    6     (6 of 11)
21    7     (7 of 11)
14    9     (9 of 11)
2     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
69    NA    NA
 
v449. Warning: Early Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control through threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=99; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     3     (3 of 11)
3     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
29    6     (6 of 11)
38    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
14    9     (9 of 11)
6     10    (10 of 11)
87    NA    NA
 
v450. Warning: Early Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control through threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=99; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     3     (3 of 11)
3     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
29    6     (6 of 11)
38    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
14    9     (9 of 11)
6     10    (10 of 11)
87    NA    NA
 
v451. Warning: Late Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control through threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=100; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     2     (2 of 11)
5     3     (3 of 11)
4     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
32    6     (6 of 11)
36    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
11    9     (9 of 11)
6     10    (10 of 11)
86    NA    NA
 
v452. Warning: Late Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control through threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=100; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     2     (2 of 11)
5     3     (3 of 11)
4     4     (4 of 11)
4     5     (5 of 11)
32    6     (6 of 11)
36    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
11    9     (9 of 11)
6     10    (10 of 11)
86    NA    NA
 
v453. Corporal Punishment: Early Boys { (higher values represent greater social control through whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
10    1     (1 of 11)
6     2     (2 of 11)
34    3     (3 of 11)
18    4     (4 of 11)
11    5     (5 of 11)
39    6     (6 of 11)
20    7     (7 of 11)
3     9     (9 of 11)
3     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
41    NA    NA
 
v454. Corporal Punishment: Early Girls { (higher values represent greater social control through whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
10    1     (1 of 11)
6     2     (2 of 11)
35    3     (3 of 11)
18    4     (4 of 11)
11    5     (5 of 11)
37    6     (6 of 11)
16    7     (7 of 11)
3     9     (9 of 11)
3     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
46    NA    NA
 
v455. Corporal Punishment: Late Boys { (higher values represent greater social control through whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
9     1     (1 of 11)
4     2     (2 of 11)
29    3     (3 of 11)
15    4     (4 of 11)
8     5     (5 of 11)
41    6     (6 of 11)
17    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
18    9     (9 of 11)
4     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
39    NA    NA
 
v456. Corporal Punishment: Late Girls { (higher values represent greater social control through whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
9     1     (1 of 11)
4     2     (2 of 11)
30    3     (3 of 11)
15    4     (4 of 11)
9     5     (5 of 11)
39    6     (6 of 11)
16    7     (7 of 11)
1     8     (8 of 11)
16    9     (9 of 11)
2     10    (10 of 11)
1     11    (11 of 11)
44    NA    NA
 
v457. Ceremonies for Children: Early Boys { (higher values indicate more ceremonies exclusively for the children of this age and sex) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=132; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     1     (1 of 9)
1     2     (2 of 9)
48    3     (3 of 9)
20    4     (4 of 9)
6     5     (5 of 9)
38    6     (6 of 9)
13    7     (7 of 9)
3     9     (9 of 9)
54    NA    NA
 
v458. Ceremonies for Children: Early Girls { (higher values indicate more ceremonies exclusively for the children of this age and sex) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     1     (1 of 9)
5     2     (2 of 9)
47    3     (3 of 9)
22    4     (4 of 9)
5     5     (5 of 9)
26    6     (6 of 9)
11    7     (7 of 9)
4     9     (9 of 9)
62    NA    NA
 
v459. Ceremonies for Children: Late Boys { (higher values indicate more ceremonies exclusively for the children of this age and sex) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 9)
20    3     (3 of 9)
18    4     (4 of 9)
5     5     (5 of 9)
61    6     (6 of 9)
32    7     (7 of 9)
1     8     (8 of 9)
8     9     (9 of 9)
40    NA    NA
 
v460. Ceremonies for Children: Late Girls { (higher values indicate more ceremonies exclusively for the children of this age and sex) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
2     2     (2 of 9)
32    3     (3 of 9)
25    4     (4 of 9)
9     5     (5 of 9)
42    6     (6 of 9)
13    7     (7 of 9)
8     9     (9 of 9)
55    NA    NA
 
v461. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control by rewards for approved behaviors, e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=141; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
24    2     (2 of 8)
18    3     (3 of 8)
8     4     (4 of 8)
65    5     (5 of 8)
22    6     (6 of 8)
4     8     (8 of 8)
45    NA    NA
 
v462. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control by rewards for approved behaviors, e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=136; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
20    2     (2 of 8)
22    3     (3 of 8)
8     4     (4 of 8)
61    5     (5 of 8)
19    6     (6 of 8)
6     8     (8 of 8)
50    NA    NA
 
v463. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Boys { (higher values indicate greater social control by rewards for approved behaviors, e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
17    2     (2 of 8)
19    3     (3 of 8)
8     4     (4 of 8)
72    5     (5 of 8)
23    6     (6 of 8)
6     8     (8 of 8)
41    NA    NA
 
v464. Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Girls { (higher values indicate greater social control by rewards for approved behaviors, e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=143; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
17    2     (2 of 8)
23    3     (3 of 8)
8     4     (4 of 8)
66    5     (5 of 8)
21    6     (6 of 8)
8     8     (8 of 8)
43    NA    NA
 
v465. Permissiveness: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=169; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Harsh socialization by parents or other authority figures with severe punishment (0 of 10)
1     1     (1 of 10)
4     2     Generally harsh treatment, not extreme (2 of 10)
9     3     (3 of 10)
12    4     (4 of 10)
31    5     Generally moderate or balanced degree of both harshness and permissiveness (5 of 10)
37    6     (6 of 10)
31    7     (7 of 10)
28    8     Generally indulgent, not extreme (8 of 10)
15    9     (9 of 10)
17    NA    NA
 
v466. Permissiveness: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=167; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Harsh socialization by parents or other authority figures with severe punishment (0 of 10)
1     1     (1 of 10)
7     2     Generally harsh treatment, not extreme (2 of 10)
7     3     (3 of 10)
17    4     (4 of 10)
37    5     Generally moderate or balanced degree of both harshness and permissiveness (5 of 10)
41    6     (6 of 10)
29    7     (7 of 10)
19    8     Generally indulgent, not extreme (8 of 10)
8     9     (9 of 10)
19    NA    NA
 
v467. Permissiveness: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Harsh socialization by parents or other authority figures with severe punishment (0 of 10)
5     1     (1 of 10)
6     2     Generally harsh treatment, not extreme (2 of 10)
10    3     (3 of 10)
23    4     (4 of 10)
52    5     Generally moderate or balanced degree of both harshness and permissiveness (5 of 10)
32    6     (6 of 10)
14    7     (7 of 10)
15    8     Generally indulgent, not extreme (8 of 10)
10    9     (9 of 10)
18    NA    NA
 
v468. Permissiveness: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Harsh socialization by parents or other authority figures with severe punishment (0 of 10)
7     1     (1 of 10)
8     2     Generally harsh treatment, not extreme (2 of 10)
13    3     (3 of 10)
31    4     (4 of 10)
61    5     Generally moderate or balanced degree of both harshness and permissiveness (5 of 10)
22    6     (6 of 10)
9     7     (7 of 10)
12    8     Generally indulgent, not extreme (8 of 10)
4     9     (9 of 10)
18    NA    NA
 
v469. Affection: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
6     2     Generally low expression of affection and attention
3     3     3
16    4     4
40    5     Moderate or sporadic expression of affection and attention
43    6     6
19    7     7
24    8     Consistent, occasional strong expression
4     9     9
31    NA    NA
 
v470. Affection: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     1
9     2     Generally low expression of affection and attention
3     3     3
19    4     4
35    5     Moderate or sporadic expression of affection and attention
41    6     6
21    7     7
22    8     Consistent, occasional strong expression
4     9     9
31    NA    NA
 
v471. Affection: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
10    2     Generally low expression of affection and attention
4     3     3
20    4     4
43    5     Moderate or sporadic expression of affection and attention
44    6     6
17    7     7
16    8     Consistent, occasional strong expression
32    NA    NA
 
v472. Affection: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     1     1
13    2     Generally low expression of affection and attention
4     3     3
24    4     4
37    5     Moderate or sporadic expression of affection and attention
42    6     6
19    7     7
14    8     Consistent, occasional strong expression
32    NA    NA
 
v473. Evaluation by Society: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Only slight, sporadic expression of valuation of children
3     3     3
11    4     4
39    5     Moderate or occasionally strong expression of value of children
46    6     6
32    7     7
26    8     Strong, but no extreme valuation of children
13    9     9
14    NA    NA
 
v474. Evaluation by Society: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     1
7     2     Only slight, sporadic expression of valuation of children
9     3     3
23    4     4
30    5     Moderate or occasionally strong expression of value of children
50    6     6
25    7     7
18    8     Strong, but no extreme valuation of children
9     9     9
14    NA    NA
 
v475. Evaluation by Society: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Only slight, sporadic expression of valuation of children
3     3     3
9     4     4
39    5     Moderate or occasionally strong expression of value of children
48    6     6
32    7     7
27    8     Strong, but no extreme valuation of children
12    9     9
14    NA    NA
 
v476. Evaluation by Society: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
1     1     1
6     2     Only slight, sporadic expression of valuation of children
9     3     3
21    4     4
35    5     Moderate or occasionally strong expression of value of children
49    6     6
26    7     7
17    8     Strong, but no extreme valuation of children
8     9     9
14    NA    NA
 
v477. Incorporation into Society: Early Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     0     Almost complete exclusion from adult working, ceremonial, social activities
22    1     1
50    2     Children are usually excluded from membership in adult activities
49    3     3
22    4     4
19    5     Inconsistent but substantial participation by children in adult activities
4     6     6
1     8     Children closely integrated in adult family activities with substantial participation in adult community life
16    NA    NA
 
v478. Incorporation into Society: Early Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=170; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     0     Almost complete exclusion from adult working, ceremonial, social activities
21    1     1
38    2     Children are usually excluded from membership in adult activities
47    3     3
25    4     4
32    5     Inconsistent but substantial participation by children in adult activities
3     6     6
1     8     Children closely integrated in adult family activities with substantial participation in adult community life
16    NA    NA
 
v479. Incorporation into Society: Late Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     1     1
7     2     Children are usually excluded from membership in adult activities
14    3     3
13    4     4
54    5     Inconsistent but substantial participation by children in adult activities
37    6     6
27    7     7
11    8     Children closely integrated in adult family activities with substantial participation in adult community life
6     9     9
15    NA    NA
 
v480. Incorporation into Society: Late Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     1     1
2     2     Children are usually excluded from membership in adult activities
7     3     3
12    4     4
40    5     Inconsistent but substantial participation by children in adult activities
44    6     6
37    7     7
17    8     Children closely integrated in adult family activities with substantial participation in adult community life
11    9     9
1     10    Almost complete, continual inclusion of children in adult activities
14    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Rohner, Ronald P., and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1981. Parental-Acceptance- Rejection and Parental Control: Cross-Cultural Codes. Ethnology 20: 245-260.
 
v481. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=12; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     5     (5 of 8)
2     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
8     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
174   NA    NA
 
v482. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=12; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
3     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
6     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
174   NA    NA
 
v483. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Mother: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=71; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
2     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
3     5     (5 of 8)
10    6     Frequently (6 of 8)
7     7     (7 of 8)
46    8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
115   NA    NA
 
v484. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=11; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
3     7     (7 of 8)
3     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
175   NA    NA
 
v485. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=12; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     5     (5 of 8)
5     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
2     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
174   NA    NA
 
v486. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Father: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=60; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
8     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
3     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     5     (5 of 8)
5     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
5     7     (7 of 8)
37    8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
126   NA    NA
 
v487. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=2; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
184   NA    NA
 
v488. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=1; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
185   NA    NA
 
v489. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Others: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=21; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
7     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
2     7     (7 of 8)
9     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
165   NA    NA
 
v490. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
2     7     (7 of 8)
3     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
181   NA    NA
 
v491. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=6; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
3     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
2     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
180   NA    NA
 
v492. Warmth and Affection of Caretakers - Overall: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=97; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
3     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
4     5     (5 of 8)
14    6     Frequently (6 of 8)
16    7     (7 of 8)
57    8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
89    NA    NA
 
v493. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=4; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
2     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
182   NA    NA
 
v494. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=4; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
2     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
182   NA    NA
 
v495. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Mother: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
21    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
3     3     (3 of 8)
13    4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     5     (5 of 8)
3     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
2     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
141   NA    NA
 
v496. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=1; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
185   NA    NA
 
v497. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=1; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
185   NA    NA
 
v498. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Father: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 8)
23    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
11    4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     5     (5 of 8)
4     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
145   NA    NA
 
v499. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=1; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
185   NA    NA
 
v500. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=2; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
184   NA    NA
 
v501. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Others: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=15; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
6     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
3     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
171   NA    NA
 
v502. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
2     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
181   NA    NA
 
v503. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=1; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
185   NA    NA
 
v504. Hostility and Aggression of Caretakers - Overall: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=112; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 8)
58    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
9     3     (3 of 8)
31    4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
5     5     (5 of 8)
5     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
2     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
74    NA    NA
 
v505. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=8; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
6     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
178   NA    NA
 
v506. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=17; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
15    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
169   NA    NA
 
v507. Indifference of Caretakers - Mother: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=52; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 8)
38    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
2     3     (3 of 8)
5     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
4     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
134   NA    NA
 
v508. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=17; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
2     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
169   NA    NA
 
v509. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
3     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
181   NA    NA
 
v510. Indifference of Caretakers - Father: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
27    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
2     3     (3 of 8)
6     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
3     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
146   NA    NA
 
v511. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
4     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
181   NA    NA
 
v512. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=3; Number of unique values=1
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
183   NA    NA
 
v513. Indifference of Caretakers - Others: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=15; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
171   NA    NA
 
v514. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=6; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
5     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
180   NA    NA
 
v515. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=4; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Rarely (2 of 8)
1     4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
182   NA    NA
 
v516. Indifference of Caretakers - Overall: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=98; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     1     (1 of 8)
67    2     Rarely (2 of 8)
5     3     (3 of 8)
18    4     Sometimes (4 of 8)
1     5     (5 of 8)
3     6     Frequently (6 of 8)
2     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Almost Always (8 of 8)
88    NA    NA
 
v517. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=15; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     2     No Control (2 of 8)
6     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
3     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
171   NA    NA
 
v518. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=20; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     2     No Control (2 of 8)
2     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
9     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
3     7     (7 of 8)
5     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
166   NA    NA
 
v519. Control by Caretakers - Mother: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=48; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
10    2     No Control (2 of 8)
2     3     (3 of 8)
16    4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
1     5     (5 of 8)
11    6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
3     7     (7 of 8)
5     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
138   NA    NA
 
v520. Control by Caretakers - Father: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=24; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
5     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
12    6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
6     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
162   NA    NA
 
v521. Control by Caretakers - Father: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=11; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
3     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
4     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
3     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
175   NA    NA
 
v522. Control by Caretakers - Father: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=50; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
9     2     No Control (2 of 8)
2     3     (3 of 8)
11    4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
1     5     (5 of 8)
19    6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
2     7     (7 of 8)
6     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
136   NA    NA
 
v523. Control by Caretakers - Others: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=8; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
2     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
4     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
178   NA    NA
 
v524. Control by Caretakers - Others: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=4; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     2     No Control (2 of 8)
2     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
182   NA    NA
 
v525. Control by Caretakers - Others: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=17; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     2     No Control (2 of 8)
2     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
1     5     (5 of 8)
10    6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
1     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
169   NA    NA
 
v526. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Boy
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=28; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
6     2     No Control (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
8     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
2     5     (5 of 8)
6     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
4     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
158   NA    NA
 
v527. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Girl
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=24; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     2     No Control (2 of 8)
1     3     (3 of 8)
6     4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
1     5     (5 of 8)
9     6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
1     7     (7 of 8)
5     8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
162   NA    NA
 
v528. Control by Caretakers - Overall: Aver
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=115; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
23    2     No Control (2 of 8)
9     3     (3 of 8)
23    4     Lax Control (4 of 8)
7     5     (5 of 8)
34    6     Firm Control (6 of 8)
9     7     (7 of 8)
10    8     Restrictive (8 of 8)
71    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Schlegel, Alice, and Herbert Barry III. 1979. Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies: A Cross-Cultural Code. Ethnology 18: 199-210.
 
v529. Initiation Occurrence: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
80    0     Absent for both boys and girls
39    1     Absent for specified sex only
63    2     Present
4     NA    NA
 
v530. Initiation Occurrence: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
81    0     Absent for both boys and girls
17    1     Absent for specified sex only
85    2     Present
3     NA    NA
 
v531. Initiation Time: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
120   0     Absent
13    2     before genital maturation
18    3     at first signs of genital maturation
6     4     at genital maturation
17    5     within one year after genital maturation
8     6     later (up to 18 years)
4     NA    NA
 
v532. Initiation Time: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
9     2     before genital maturation
11    3     at first signs of genital maturation
57    4     at genital maturation
5     5     within one year after genital maturation
1     6     later (up to 18 years)
3     NA    NA
 
v533. Number of Concurrent Initiates: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
29    2     Single
7     3     Small group
27    4     Large group
4     NA    NA
 
v534. Number of Concurrent Initiates: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
73    2     Single
6     3     Small group
5     4     Large group
3     NA    NA
 
v535. Duration of Initiation Ceremony: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
28    2     Short
7     3     Medium
28    4     Long
4     NA    NA
 
v536. Duration of Initiation Ceremony: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
36    2     Short
21    3     Medium
27    4     Long
3     NA    NA
 
v537. Number of Participants: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
121   0     Absent
7     2     Immediate family
25    3     Local group
29    4     Large group
4     NA    NA
 
v538. Number of Participants: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
40    2     Immediate family
29    3     Local group
15    4     Large group
3     NA    NA
 
v539. Sexes of Participants: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
12    2     Both sexes
17    3     Partially limited to same sex as initiates
34    4     Exclusively same sex as initiates
4     NA    NA
 
v540. Sexes of Participants: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
11    2     Both sexes
28    3     Partially limited to same sex as initiates
45    4     Exclusively same sex as initiates
3     NA    NA
 
v541. Primary Physical Components: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
6     2     None
17    3     Manipulations or activities
20    4     Pain other than genital operation
13    5     Genital operation
7     6     Genital operation and other pain
4     NA    NA
 
v542. Primary Physical Components: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
11    2     None
45    3     Manipulations or activities
21    4     Pain other than genital operation
7     5     Genital operation
3     NA    NA
 
v543. Secondary Physical Components: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
15    2     Neither manipulations nor activities
14    3     Activities
9     4     Manipulation
25    5     Both manipulations and activities
4     NA    NA
 
v544. Secondary Physical Components: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
20    2     Neither manipulations nor activities
10    3     Activities
26    4     Manipulation
28    5     Both manipulations and activities
3     NA    NA
 
v545. Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
20    2     Symbolic only
3     3     Learning skills, sharing secrets, or other
8     4     Observing taboos
7     5     Seclusion
18    6     Both seclusion and observing taboos
7     7     Fear
4     NA    NA
 
v546. Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
15    2     Symbolic only
3     3     Learning skills, sharing secrets, or other
1     4     Observing taboos
9     5     Seclusion
54    6     Both seclusion and observing taboos
2     7     Fear
3     NA    NA
 
v547. Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
118   0     Absent
43    2     Neither learning skills nor sharing secrets
8     3     Sharing secrets
4     4     Learning skills
9     5     Both learning skills and sharing secrets
4     NA    NA
 
v548. Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
60    2     Neither learning skills nor sharing secrets
2     3     Sharing secrets
11    4     Learning skills
10    5     Both learning skills and sharing secrets
3     NA    NA
 
v549. Primary Emic Interpretations: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
119   0     Absent
4     2     None
41    3     Status marker, physical change, or behavior change
11    4     Spiritual change
7     5     Death-rebirth
4     NA    NA
 
v550. Primary Emic Interpretations: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
5     2     None
75    3     Status marker, physical change, or behavior change
2     4     Spiritual change
2     5     Death-rebirth
3     NA    NA
 
v551. Secondary Emic Interpretations: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
118   0     Absent
8     2     No status marker
17    3     General status marker
14    4     Status marker for adolescence or youth
25    5     Status marker for full adulthood
4     NA    NA
 
v552. Secondary Emic Interpretations: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
8     2     No status marker
25    3     General status marker
12    4     Status marker for adolescence or youth
38    5     Status marker for full adulthood
3     NA    NA
 
v553. Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
118   0     Absent
31    2     Neither physical nor behavior change
10    3     Behavior change
12    4     Physical change
11    5     Both physical and behavior change
4     NA    NA
 
v554. Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
48    2     Neither physical nor behavior change
12    3     Behavior change
16    4     Physical change
7     5     Both physical and behavior change
3     NA    NA
 
v555. Primary Social Consequences: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
118   0     Absent
19    2     None
14    3     Familial integration, familial independence, or other
8     4     Heterosexual intercourse
17    5     Same-sex bonding
6     6     Both same-sex bonding and heterosexual intercourse
4     NA    NA
 
v556. Primary Social Consequences: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
32    2     None
20    3     Familial integration, familial independence, or other
25    4     Heterosexual intercourse
3     5     Same-sex bonding
3     6     Both same-sex bonding and heterosexual intercourse
3     NA    NA
 
v557. Secondary Social Consequences: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
118   0     Absent
36    2     None
6     3     Other
13    4     Familial independence
9     5     Familial integration
4     NA    NA
 
v558. Secondary Social Consequences: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
100   0     Absent
57    2     None
8     3     Other
9     4     Familial independence
9     5     Familial integration
3     NA    NA
 
v559. Principal Focus: Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
120   0     Absent
11    2     Fertility
10    3     Sexuality
6     4     Valor
7     5     Wisdom
26    6     Responsibility
2     7     Other
4     NA    NA
 
v560. Principal Focus: Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
99    0     Absent
34    2     Fertility
18    3     Sexuality
1     4     Valor
1     5     Wisdom
23    6     Responsibility
7     7     Other
3     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Paige, Karen Paige and Jeffrey Paige. 1981. THE POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS. University of California Press.
 
v561. Menarcheal Ceremonies
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Absent if onset of menstruation not marked by special public ritual
44    2     Present if onset of menstruation associated with either elaborate or limited rites
98    NA    NA
 
v562. Circumcision
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
70    1     Superincision, or subincision, or absent
22    2     Circumcision
94    NA    NA
 
v563. Maternal Restrictions
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Absent
46    2     Present
97    NA    NA
 
v564. Husband Involvement Scale (Couvade)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
51    1     Minor Observance or informal
36    2     Seclusion, or postpartum work taboo, or food taboo
99    NA    NA
 
v565. Menstrual Segregation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
56    1     Absent
28    2     Present (either menstrual hut or structural isolation is reported)
102   NA    NA
 
v566. Male Segregation Practices
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
60    1     Absent or Minor
22    2     Present
104   NA    NA
 
v567. Combined Segregation Practices
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=76; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
42    1     Absent
22    2     Minor
12    3     Present
110   NA    NA
 
v568. Compensation Demands
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=70; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Absent
35    2     Present
116   NA    NA
 
v569. Fraternal Interest Group Size
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
54    1     1
16    2     2
14    3     3
102   NA    NA
 
v570. Fraternal Interest Group Strength
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Both brideprice and patrilineality are absent, and size of effective kin-based political subunit is less than 100
12    2     Either brideprice or patrilineality; size of political subunit between 100 and 999
16    3     a. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and brideprice and patrilineality are absent; or b. Size of political subunit is less than 100 and both brideprice and patrilineality are present; or c. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999 and either brideprice or patrilineality is present
8     4     a. Size of political subunit is between 100 and 999, and both brideprice and patrilineality are present; or b. Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greater, and either brideprice or patrilineality is present
11    5     Size of political subunit is 1,000 or greateb, and both brideprice and patrilineality are present
104   NA    NA
 
v571. Resource Base
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Low
35    2     Unstable
39    3     High
94    NA    NA
 
v572. Residence Pattern
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
36    1     Not favoring formation of fraternal interest groups including: a. Matrilocal or Uxorilocal Residence b. Ambilocal Residence c. Neolocal Residence
56    2     Favoring formation of fraternal interest groups: including a. Avunculocal Residence b. Patrilocal or Virilocal Residence c. Optionally Patrilocal or Avunculocal Residence
94    NA    NA
 
v573. Ritual Warfare
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
52    1     Absent
30    2     Present
104   NA    NA
 
v574. Achieved Leadership through Wealth Distribution
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=81; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
61    1     Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to the giver are not one of the most important factors in attaining and maintaining the highest degree of political power in the society
20    2     Acts of wealth distribution which bring prestige to the giver are one of the most important factors in attaining and maintaining the highest degree of political power in the society
105   NA    NA
 
v575. Unstable Political Power Index
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=76; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
44    1     All three variables--ritual warfare, achieved leadership, and social indebtedness--have a score of 0.
10    2     Only one of the three variables has a score of 1; the other two score 0
17    3     Two of the variables have a score of 1; the other has a score of 0
5     4     All three variables have a score of 1
110   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Martin K. Whyte. 1979. Cross-Cultural Codes Dealing with the Relative Status of Women. Ethnology 17:211-237.
 
Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study. Some of the even numbered societies, however, have been coded by undergraduates at U.C. Irvine. Many of these even-numbered societal codes are less reliable than the original codes, and it is advised that a sample of odd-numbered cases be selected for hypothesis testing.
 
v576. Sex of Gods and Spirits and Other Super-natural Beings
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=67; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
10    1     All male
24    2     Male are more numerous or more powerful
13    3     Male are more numerous while power equal or male are more powerful while numbers equal
20    4     Both and equal in numbers of power or women more numerous while power equal, or women more powerful while numbers equal
119   NA    NA
 
v577. Mythical Founders of the Culture
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=65; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
21    1     All male
18    2     Both sexes, but the role of men more important
19    3     Both sexes, and the role of both sexes fairly equal
7     4     Both sexes, but female role more important, or solely female
121   NA    NA
 
v578. Sex of Shamans
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=73; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
14    1     All male
26    2     Male more numerous, or more powerful
26    3     Male more numerous while power equal, or male more powerful while numbers equal, or about equal in both
7     4     Female more powerful or more numerous or solely female shamans
113   NA    NA
 
v579. Sex of Reputed Witches
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
16    1     All male
21    2     Male predominance in numbers or power
23    3     Both, and equal in numbers or power
8     4     Female predominance in numbers of power or only female witches
118   NA    NA
 
v580. Participation in Collective Religious Ceremonies and Rituals
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=73; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Only males
36    2     Both, but males more commonly or more prominently
28    3     Both, and fairly equal participation
5     4     Both, but women more prominent
113   NA    NA
 
v581. Funeral or Burial Ceremonies Held
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Only for males, or for both, but male more elaborate
73    2     For both, and roughly equal
102   NA    NA
 
v582. Intermediate or Local Political Leaders
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=74; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
65    1     Only males
7     2     Both sexes, but males more numerous or more powerful
2     3     Both sexes, and males more numerous while females equally powerful or males more powerful while females equally numerous
112   NA    NA
 
v583. Leadership Posts in Kinship or Extended Family Units
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=62; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
52    1     Include men only
6     2     Both, but men have more say and influence
4     3     Both, with roughly equal influence
124   NA    NA
 
v584. Participation in Collective Fighting and Warfare
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=70; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Only men
8     2     Both, but men do most fighting, women only aid
116   NA    NA
 
v585. Proportional Contribution of Women to Overall Subsistence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Low
2     2     2
14    3     3
23    4     4
27    5     5
18    6     6
2     7     7
4     8     High
94    NA    NA
 
v586. Relative Time and Effort Expended on Subsistence Activities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Men clearly expend more
54    2     Men and women expend roughly equal
20    3     Women clearly expend more
98    NA    NA
 
v587. Community-wide Exclusively Male Work Groups
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=78; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
20    1     None
44    2     For one activity
14    3     For two or more activities
108   NA    NA
 
v588. Community-wide Exclusively Female Work Groups
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=72; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
45    1     None
27    2     For one or more activity
114   NA    NA
 
v589. Degree of Segregation in Subsistence Activities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
15    1     Men and women are sharply segregated
41    2     Some segregation
21    3     Little or no segregation in these activities
109   NA    NA
 
v590. Inheritance of Property of Some Economic Value
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=71; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Only males, or males except in unusual circumstances
27    2     Both, but males have definite preference
22    3     Roughly equal inheritance rights by sex
4     4     Female preference, or exclusive female rights
115   NA    NA
 
v591. Ownership or Control of the Use of Dwellings
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=72; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
22    1     Solely by men
12    2     Most owned by men
25    3     Equal ownership, or no preferential rights
13    4     Most or all owned or controlled by women
114   NA    NA
 
v592. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Men
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
30    1     Men have virtually total say
41    2     Men have predominant say, or no indication of preference
12    3     Men and women have equal say
9     4     Women have the predominant or total say
94    NA    NA
 
v593. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done by Men and Women
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=81; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Men have virtually total say
6     2     Men have the predominant say
60    3     Men and women have equal say, or no indication of preference
8     4     Women have the predominant or total say
105   NA    NA
 
v594. Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Women
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Men have virtually total say or predominant say
10    2     Men and women have equal say
62    3     Women have the predominant say, or no indication of preference
14    4     Women have virtually total say
94    NA    NA
 
v595. Men's Domestic Work
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
47    1     Males do virtually none, females virtually all
45    2     Males do some, but mostly done by females
94    NA    NA
 
v596. (No) Double Standard in Regard to Premarital Sex { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=73; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
32    1     Yes
41    2     No, equal restrictions on male and female
113   NA    NA
 
v597. (No) Double Standard in Regard to Extramarital Sex { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=75; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
32    1     Yes
41    2     No, equal restrictions
2     3     Male punished more severely for transgression
111   NA    NA
 
v598. Extramarital Affairs of Married Women
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
40    1     Not allowed, and apparently rare
29    2     Not allowed, but apparently not uncommon
17    3     Allowed, or very common
100   NA    NA
 
v599. Menstrual Taboos
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=62; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
11    1     No menstrual taboos
15    2     Rule vs. intercourse with menstruating woman
9     3     Personal restrictions on menstruants, e.g., dietary
3     4     Stated belief that menstrual blood is dangerous to men
3     5     A rule that menstruating women may not cook for men
6     6     Menstruating women are segregated from men, perhaps in a menstrual hut
15    7     A rule that menstruating women may not have contact with some male things, e.g., fishing gear, bows
124   NA    NA
 
v600. The Role of Men and Women in Procreation Understood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Men are thought to play the more important role
80    2     Belief in roughly equal contributions, or no evidence of greater contribution by either sex
6     3     Women are thought to play the more important role
93    NA    NA
 
v601. Sexual Drives and Urges Understood
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Men are thought to have stronger urges
71    2     Belief that urges are roughly equal, or no evidence of belief in greater urges by either sex
5     3     Women are thought to have stronger urges
93    NA    NA
 
v602. (No) Explicit View That Sexual Activity Is Dangerous or Contaminating { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
15    1     Yes
53    2     No
118   NA    NA
 
v603. Role of the Older Generation in Arranging Marriages (1st Marriages Only)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=83; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Males monopolize arrangement
33    2     Both males and females participate, males have more say
28    3     Both participate, and with roughly equal say
9     4     Both males and females participate, females have more say
103   NA    NA
 
v604. Voice of the Potential Bride and Groom in Marriage Decisions
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Only the groom can initiate or refuse a match
27    2     Groom has more ability to initiate or refuse
46    3     Equal ability to initiate or refuse a match
3     4     Bride has more ability to initiate or refuse
106   NA    NA
 
v605. Marriage Payments
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Woman exchange
36    2     Substantial bride price
10    3     Bride service
10    4     Token bride price
10    5     Gift exchange
6     6     Dowry
109   NA    NA
 
v606. Preferred Marriage Forms
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
22    1     Polygynous unions over 20 pct
36    2     Polygynous unions under 20 pct
34    3     Monogamy
1     4     Polyandry
93    NA    NA
 
v607. (No Male) Multiple Spouses { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Only for males
4     2     For both, but more commonly for males
15    3     For neither
2     4     For both, but more commonly for females
94    NA    NA
 
v608. (No) Levirate { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=76; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
54    1     Present
22    2     Absent
110   NA    NA
 
v609. Relative Distances Moved by the Bride and Groom Away from Their Families of Orientation at First Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
58    1     The female moves farther away
7     2     About equal distance
19    3     The male moves farther away
102   NA    NA
 
v610. Relative Ease of Initiating Divorce
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Divorce is in theory only available to male
12    2     Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for female
72    3     Divorce equally possible, no indication of bias
4     4     Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for male, or in theory only available to female
93    NA    NA
 
v611. Relative Ease of Remarriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=85; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Possible for both, but fewer obstacles for men
64    2     Equally possible for both men and women
101   NA    NA
 
v612. Average Relative Age at First Marriage of Men and of Women
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=70; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Women generally older
7     2     Ages about equal
12    3     Men 1-2 years older
18    4     Men 3-4 years older
31    5     Men more than 4 years older
116   NA    NA
 
v613. Final Authority over the Care, Handling and Discipline of Infants
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=67; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
12    1     monopolized by males, or males have more say
11    2     is divided roughly equally
21    3     is divided, but females have more say
23    4     is monopolized by females
119   NA    NA
 
v614. Final Authority over the Up-bringing and Discipline of Post-infant Unmarried Children Living in the Home
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
11    1     is virtually monopolized by males
14    2     is divided, but males have more say
34    3     is divided roughly equally
9     4     is divided but females have more say, or final say is virtually monopolized by females
118   NA    NA
 
v615. Wife to Husband Institutionalized Deference (Guttman Scale)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
29    1     None of the following coded
15    2     Husband dominates domestic decision making
21    3     + Wife excluded from many social gatherings
9     4     + Wife rarely disputes husband
7     5     + Husband has seating priority
3     6     + Wife kneels and bows when greeting husband
102   NA    NA
 
v616. A Stated Preference for Children of One Sex
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
28    1     For males
54    2     Equal, no preference
11    3     For females
93    NA    NA
 
v617. Any Evidence of Infanticide
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=71; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Mostly for females
64    2     For both, or for neither
1     3     Mostly for males
115   NA    NA
 
v618. Early Training for Adult Duties
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Boys are trained earlier generally
70    2     Training begins at roughly equal ages, no stated bias by sex
22    3     Girls are trained earlier generally
93    NA    NA
 
v619. Punishment for Equal Misbehavior
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Boys are punished more severely
82    2     Punishment about equal, no stated bias by sex
8     3     Girls are punished more severely
93    NA    NA
 
v620. Physical Punishment of the Spouse Condoned
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=63; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Only husband hitting wife generally
16    2     Physical punishment by neither
8     3     Either may hit the other, or only wife may hit husband
123   NA    NA
 
v621. (No) Explicit View That Men Should and Do Dominate Their Wives { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=63; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
42    1     Yes
19    2     No, evidence of rough equality
2     3     No, evidence of wife dominance
123   NA    NA
 
v622. Attendance and Participation in General Community Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=62; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Only men, or both, but men more often or more prominently
35    2     Both equally, although perhaps segregated
124   NA    NA
 
v623. Existence of General Female Initiation Ceremonies
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=76; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
36    1     No initiations for females
8     2     Customary minimal social recognition
10    3     +Personal dramatization of the initiate
12    4     +Organized social response
10    5     +Affective social response (e.g., punishment or operations
110   NA    NA
 
v624. Any Belief That the Status of Women Has Changed in Folklore or History
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
6     1     A belief it has declined
83    2     No such belief, or no change
4     3     A belief it has improved
93    NA    NA
 
v625. High Value Placed on Males Being Aggressive, Strong, and Sexually Potent
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=81; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Marked emphasis
33    2     Moderate emphasis
22    3     Little or no emphasis
105   NA    NA
 
v626. (No) Belief That Women Are Generally Inferior to Men { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Yes
66    2     No such belief
93    NA    NA
 
v627. A Statement That Women Have More Informal Influence than Formal Norms of the Society Would Make It Appear
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
49    1     No such statement or implication
25    2     A statement or implication of somewhat more informal influence
19    3     A statement or implicaton of much more informal influence
93    NA    NA
 
v628. Property Control Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Women have low control over property
19    2     2
60    3     3
10    4     Women have high control over property
93    NA    NA
 
v629. Kin Power Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
19    1     Low power of women in kinship contexts
52    2     2
22    3     High power of women in kinship contexts
93    NA    NA
 
v630. Value of Life Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Low value placed on womens lives
37    2     2
48    3     High value placed on womens lives
93    NA    NA
 
v631. Value of Labor
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Low value of womens labor
9     2     2
40    3     3
34    4     4
9     5     High value of womens labor
93    NA    NA
 
v632. Domestic Authority Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Low womens domestic authority
21    2     Med-Low
32    3     Med-High
28    4     High womens domestic authority
97    NA    NA
 
v633. Ritualized Female Solidarity Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Low female solidarity
38    2     2
29    3     High female solidarity
93    NA    NA
 
v634. Control of Sex Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Stricter controls over womens marital and sexual lives
56    2     2
33    3     More equal controls over womens marital and sexual lives
94    NA    NA
 
v635. Ritualized Fear Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
6     1     High ritualized fear of women
18    2     2
69    3     Low ritualized fear of women
93    NA    NA
 
v636. Joint Participation Scale
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Low joint participation of men and women
50    2     2
31    3     High joint participation of men and women
95    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Murdock, George P. 1970. Ethnology 9:165-207.
 
v637. Patterns for Grandparents
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
91    1     Bisexual Pattern
24    2     Merging Pattern
23    3     Bifurcate Bisexual Pattern
4     4     Matri-skewed Pattern
3     5     Null Pattern
1     7     Patri-Skewed Pattern
2     8     Rare Patterns
38    NA    NA
 
v638. Patterns for Grandchildren
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=144; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
76    1     Merging Pattern
20    2     Bisexual Pattern
23    3     Self-Reciprocal Pattern
11    4     Bifurcate Bisexual Pattern
5     5     Null Pattern
4     6     Speakers Sex Pattern
2     7     Bifurcate Pattern
3     8     Bifuracte Speakers Sex Pattern
42    NA    NA
 
v639. Patterns for Uncles
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Simple Bifurcate Merging Pattern
47    2     Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
21    3     Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
19    4     Lineal Pattern
7     5     Generation Pattern
2     6     Age-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
6     7     Relative Age Pattern
1     8     Speaker-Differentiated Bifurcate Merging Pattern
1     9     Speaker-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
38    NA    NA
 
v640. Patterns for Aunts
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
45    1     Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
43    2     Bifurcate Merging Pattern
20    3     Lineal Pattern
14    4     Generation Pattern
16    5     Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
6     6     Relative Age Pattern
3     7     Age-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
1     9     Rare Patterns
38    NA    NA
 
v641. Patterns for Nephews and Nieces (Male Speaking)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=144; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
32    1     Simple Bifurcate Merging Pattern
22    2     Sex-Differentiated Bifurcate Merging Pattern
20    3     Simple Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
15    4     Simple Lineal Pattern
17    5     Generation Pattern
16    6     Sex-Differentiated Lineal Pattern
15    7     Sex-Differentiated Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
3     8     Age-Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
3     11    Brother-Skewed Bifurcate Collateral Pattern
1     13    Rare Pattern between 5 and 7, distinguishing BrSo, SiSo, SbDa
42    NA    NA
 
v642. Patterns for Siblings
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=16
Freq  Value Description
30    1     Dravidian Pattern
23    2     European Pattern
17    3     Yoruban Pattern
16    4     Algonkian Pattern
6     5     Kordofanian Pattern
9     6     Southern Bantu Pattern
9     7     East Polynesian Pattern
8     8     Quechuan Pattern
6     9     Carolinian Pattern
2     11    Caddoan Pattern
4     12    Malagasy Pattern
3     13    Jivaran Pattern
7     16    Rare Patterns
2     17    17
1     19    19
3     20    20
40    NA    NA
 
v643. Patterns for Cross-cousins
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=147; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Hawaiian Pattern
39    2     Iroquois Pattern
19    3     Eskimo Pattern
10    4     Omaha Pattern
19    5     Crow Pattern
10    6     Descriptive Pattern
7     7     Sudanese Pattern
39    NA    NA
 
v644. Patterns for Siblings-in-law
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=112; Number of unique values=18
Freq  Value Description
19    1     Merging Pattern
11    2     Simple Bisexual Pattern
15    3     Speakers Sex Bisexual Pattern
15    4     Opposite Sex Pattern
10    5     Null Pattern
5     6     Differentiated Pattern
5     7     Strongly Differentiated Pattern
4     8     Relative Sex Pattern
7     9     Sex-of-link Bisexual Pattern
3     10    Spouses Sibling vs. Siblings Spouse Pattern
1     12    Paired Bisexual Pattern
3     13    Potential Spouse Pattern
5     14    Same Sex Pattern
3     15    15
2     20    20
1     21    21
1     22    22
2     25    25
74    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: George P. Murdock and Suzanne Wilson. 1978. Ethnology 17:449-470.
 
v645. Theories of Infection
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=122; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
91    1     Absence of such a cause
30    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
1     4     Predominant cause recognized by the society
64    NA    NA
 
v646. Theories of Stress
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
56    1     Absence of such a cause
68    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
3     3     An important auxiliary cause
59    NA    NA
 
v647. Theories of Deterioration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=128; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
99    1     Absence of such a cause
29    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
58    NA    NA
 
v648. Theories of Accident
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=128; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
91    1     Absence of such a cause
37    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
58    NA    NA
 
v649. Theories of Fate
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
99    1     Absence of such a cause
27    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
1     3     An important auxiliary cause
59    NA    NA
 
v650. Theories of Ominous Sensation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
90    1     Absence of such a cause
37    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
59    NA    NA
 
v651. Theories of Contagion
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=128; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
81    1     Absence of such a cause
46    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
1     3     An important auxiliary cause
58    NA    NA
 
v652. Theories of Mystical Retribution
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Absence of such a cause
68    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
32    3     An important auxiliary cause
5     4     Predominant cause recognized by the society
55    NA    NA
 
v653. Theories of Soul Loss
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=127; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
96    1     Absence of such a cause
30    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
1     3     An important auxiliary cause
59    NA    NA
 
v654. Theories of Spirit Aggression
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Absence of such a cause
18    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
37    3     An important auxiliary cause
74    4     Predominant cause recognized by the society
55    NA    NA
 
v655. Theories of Sorcery
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=130; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Absence of such a cause
45    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
45    3     An important auxiliary cause
24    4     Predominant cause recognized by the society
56    NA    NA
 
v656. Theories of Witchcraft
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
81    1     Absence of such a cause
24    2     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
17    3     An important auxiliary cause
9     4     Predominant cause recognized by the society
55    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Sanday, Peggy. 1981. Female Power and Male Dominance. Previously unpublished.
 
v657. Flexible Marriage Mores (Divorce for Both Men and Women: or Mild Punishment for Adultery)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Absent
114   2     Present
44    NA    NA
 
v658. Females Produce Goods for Nondomestic Distribution
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=152; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Absent
125   2     Present
34    NA    NA
 
v659. Demand for Female Produce beyond Household
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=135; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
40    1     Absent
95    2     Present
51    NA    NA
 
v660. Female Economic Control of Products of Own Labor
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
41    1     Absent
98    2     Present
47    NA    NA
 
v661. Female Political Participation, at Least Informal Influence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Absent
83    2     Present
41    NA    NA
 
v662. Female Solidarity Groups, Formal or Informal
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=130; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
93    1     Absent
37    2     Present
56    NA    NA
 
v663. Female Power Guttman Scale Constructed from 657-662
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
11    1     all items absent
9     2     flexible marriage mores only (657)
5     3     plus female nondomestic production (658)
13    4     plus demand for female produce (659)
23    5     plus female economic control (660)
41    6     plus female political participation (661)
31    7     plus female solidarity groups (662)
53    NA    NA
 
v664. Ideology of Male Toughness
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=108; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Absent
87    2     Present
78    NA    NA
 
v665. Male Segregation { One or More Places Where Males Congregate Alone, or Males Occupy a Separate Part of the Household, or There Is Sharp Ceremonial Segregation of the Sexes. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=111; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Absent
87    2     Present
75    NA    NA
 
v666. Moderate or Frequent Interpersonal Violence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Absent
88    2     Present
55    NA    NA
 
v667. Rape: Incidents Reports, or Thought of as Means of Punishment Women, or Part of Ceremony
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=95; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
45    1     Absent
50    2     Present
91    NA    NA
 
v668. At Least Some Wives Taken from Hostile Groups
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=131; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
84    1     Absent
47    2     Present
55    NA    NA
 
v669. Male Aggression Guttman Scale Constructed from 664-668
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=107; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
15    1     no items present (none of 664-668)
5     2     ideology of male toughness only (664)
18    3     plus separate places for men (665)
12    4     plus interpersonal violence (666)
19    5     plus rape institutionalized or reported (667)
38    6     plus taking wives from hostile groups (668)
79    NA    NA
 
v670. Composite of Male Dominance Constructed from 663 plus 669 (657-669)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
45    1     sexes `equal -- i.e., female power scale 5 or above, and male aggression scale 4 or below
55    2     `mythical male -- female power scale 5 or above, and male aggression scale 5 or above
39    3     sexes `unequal -- female power scale 4 or below
47    NA    NA
 
v671. Menstrual Taboos (H16)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
8     1     no menstrual restrictions
26    2     one restriction present
25    3     two restrictions
17    4     three
15    5     four
19    6     five
76    NA    NA
 
v672. Male Avoidance of Female Sexuality (A11)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=116; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
26    1     none
51    2     sexual intercourse prohibited during menstruation
31    3     sexual intercourse prohibited at other times also
8     4     men avoid or fear female genitals Creation Stories
70    NA    NA
 
v673. Sex of Creative Agent, Ancestor, or Culture-hero
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Female
2     2     Sexless
6     3     Couple
9     4     Male
3     5     Animal
13    6     Supreme being or force
147   NA    NA
 
v674. Origin of First Creator or Ancestor
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     From within (`feminine)
3     2     From within and without
21    3     From without (`masculine)
2     4     Void
147   NA    NA
 
v675. Mode of First-mentioned Creation
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
14    1     From the body: Union and/or birth
2     2     From the body: Self-propagation
20    3     From other than the body
3     4     Cannot be determined
147   NA    NA
 
v676. Creation Stories { (Composite of 675 and 674, plus Additional Societies) Sanday P244: Masculine-feminine (Reverse) and Inner-outer }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=112; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
20    1     feminine symbolism
36    2     couple symbolism
56    3     masculine symbolism
74    NA    NA
 
v677. Migration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=105; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
47    1     aboriginal area or migrated centures ago
58    2     recent migration, within past 100-150 years, or people are said to be migrating conquerors
81    NA    NA
 
v678. Food Stress or Hunger
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=138; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
47    1     food constant
62    2     occasional hunger or famine
26    3     periodic or chronic hunger
3     4     starvation or evidence of protein deficiency (note: exact coding distinction between 3 and 4 unclear)
48    NA    NA
 
v679. Warfare or Fighting
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
41    1     absent or occasional or periodical
92    2     frequent or endemic
53    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Whyte, Martin K. 1978. The Status of Women in PreIndustrial Societies.  Princeton University Press. Previously Unpublished.
 
Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study.
 
v680. Plow
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
66    1     Absent
26    2     Present
94    NA    NA
 
v681. Irrigation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
55    1     Absent
31    2     Present
100   NA    NA
 
v682. Cereal Grains the Principal Crop
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
45    1     Absent
47    2     Present
94    NA    NA
 
v683. Roots or Tubers the Principal Crop
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Absent
22    2     Present
93    NA    NA
 
v684. Tree Fruits and Starches the Principal Crops
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
82    1     Absent
10    2     Present
94    NA    NA
 
v685. Large Nonmilked Aboriginal Domestic Animals
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
75    1     Absent
12    2     Present
99    NA    NA
 
v686. Large Milked Aboriginal Domestic Animals
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
61    1     Absent
29    2     Present
96    NA    NA
 
v687. Small Aboriginal Domestic Animals - excluding Dogs, Cats, Fowl, Guinea Pigs
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Absent
49    2     Present
98    NA    NA
 
v688. Large Domestic Animals, Only since European Contact
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
77    1     Absent
12    2     Present
97    NA    NA
 
v689. Small Domestic Animals, Only since European Contact
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Absent
9     2     Present
106   NA    NA
 
v690. Large Animals Are Hunted and Important to the Diet
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
44    1     Absent
42    2     Present
100   NA    NA
 
v691. Small Animals Are Hunted and Important to the Diet
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Absent
47    2     Present
104   NA    NA
 
v692. Intermediate Animals Are Hunted and Important to the Diet
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
33    1     Absent
49    2     Present Warfare
104   NA    NA
 
v693. Frequency of Intercommunity Armed Conflict
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
49    1     Past, supralocal, or absent
42    2     Present and endemic local warfare (collapsed from an original five categories)
95    NA    NA
 
v694. Male Initiation Ceremonies (Guttman Scale - See Frank Young, 1965)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=75; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
37    1     No initiation
10    2     Minimal social recognition
7     3     Personal dramatization of the initiate
3     4     Organized social response
18    5     Affective social response: beating, hazing or operations
111   NA    NA
 
v695. Male Solidarity (Guttman Scale - See Young and Bacdayan 1965)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
57    1     No institutionalized male solidarity
7     2     Some exclusive male activity protected by physical or normative barriers
6     3     Ritualization given to this activity
14    4     Definite ranking of men within this activity
9     5     War training or planning a part of this activity
93    NA    NA
 
v696. Matrilineal Descent
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
76    1     Patrilineal, dual, bilateral, or other
17    2     Matrilineal
93    NA    NA
 
v697. Matrilocal Residence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
72    1     All other
18    2     Matrilocal Extended Families
96    NA    NA
 
v698. Preferred Family Form (Adapted from Murdock 1961)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Nuclear
23    2     Stem
10    3     Lineal
30    4     Extended
97    NA    NA
 
v699. Political Organization (Adapted from Murdock 1961, P. 207)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Absence of local political integration - family heads acknowledge no higher authority
40    2     Autonomous local community -- population below 1500
13    3     Minimal State -- political integration in independent units averaging 1500 - 10,000
27    4     Little State -- political integration in independent units averaging 10,000 - 100,000
2     5     State political integration in a unit of 100,000 plu
93    NA    NA
 
v700. Crimes against Person Punished
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
37    1     By person or group wronged
55    2     By government action
94    NA    NA
 
v701. (No) Government Full-time Bureaucrats { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Full time bureaucrats unrelated to government head
30    2     No full time bureaucrats, or only relatives of head
94    NA    NA
 
v702. Community Is Part of a Kingdom { Defined as a Centralized Political Unit with Centralized Organs of Political Control, Power to Tax, and Rule Concentrated in a Single Office, Which Is Hereditary : following Stephens 1963 }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
70    1     No
17    2     Yes
99    NA    NA
 
v703. Community Part of a Kingdom in the past That No Longer Exists
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
74    1     No
13    2     Yes
99    NA    NA
 
v704. Private Property
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
70    1     Present
14    2     Absent
102   NA    NA
 
v705. Settlement Type
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
7     1     Fully migratory or nomadic bands
21    2     Seminomadic - bands which wander for at least half the year, but occupy a fixed settlement for some season(s)
22    3     Neighborhoods of dispersed family settlements
28    4     Separated hamlets, where several form more or less a single permanent community
12    5     Compact and permanent village or town
3     6     Complex settlements surrounded by homesteads or hamlets considered part of the community
93    NA    NA
 
v706. Metalworking
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
33    1     Absent
53    2     Present
100   NA    NA
 
v707. Manufacture of Pottery
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Absent
64    2     Present
96    NA    NA
 
v708. True Weaving
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Absent
43    2     Present
100   NA    NA
 
v709. Social Stratification in the Larger Society
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Lack of significant stratification among free men
31    2     Differences in wealth and control, but not crystallized into distinct and hereditary social classes
11    3     Dual stratification into hereditary elites and commoners
26    4     Complex stratification into three or more classes/castes
94    NA    NA
 
v710. Social Stratification in the Local Community
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
29    1     Lack of significant stratification among free men
36    2     Differences in wealth and control, but not crystallized into distinct and hereditary social classes
8     3     Dual stratification into hereditary elites and commoners
18    4     Complex stratification into three or more classes/castes
95    NA    NA
 
v711. Societal Complexity (Guttman Scale - Freeman and Winch 1957)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
37    1     Absence of all traits in scale
13    2     Crimes punished by government (704)
9     3     Full-time specialized priests
1     4     Formal education
8     5     Written language
25    6     Full-time bureaucrats (705) (scalability .643, a shade below accepted minimum of .65)
93    NA    NA
 
v712. Institutionalized Envy { Scaled by Unweighted Sum for Presence or Absence of Four Correlated Indicators : (a) Men Imitate Women, (B) Women Imitate Men, and (C) Exclusive Mother-infant Sleeping, and (3) Exclusive Mother-child Sleeping) . Constructed Arithmetically from Means and Cutting Points. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
13    1     No items present
14    2     One or two item present
59    3     Three of four items present
100   NA    NA
 
v713. (Pre-classical) Religion { inaccurate for 27, See 713rev from 1807: Additional 85 Coded) in a Previous Edition of the Codebook Codes 1-3 Were Reversed 3-1 as Were the Frequencies for the Named Categories. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism)
31    2     Mixture of classical and preclassical
48    3     Preclassical
93    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Whyte, Martin K. 1978. The Status of Women in PreIndustrial Societies.  Princeton University Press.  Revised by Andrey Korotayev and Daria Khaltourina. Andrey Korotayev. 2004. World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective
 
v713rev. Revised v713 Classical religions
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Classical religion (Xianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism)
31    2     Mixture of classical and preclassical
116   3     Preclassical
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Whyte, Martin K. 1978. The Status of Women in PreIndustrial Societies.  Princeton University Press. Previously Unpublished.
 
v714. Sex Ratio
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Female excess
60    2     Roughly equal
20    3     Male excess
96    NA    NA
 
v715. Systematic Absences of Married Males (Military Service, Labor Elsewhere, Extended Trade Expeditions, etc.)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
38    1     No systematic absences
6     2     Systematic absences -- not presently, but within 6 memory of present adults
48    3     Systematic absences common presently
94    NA    NA
 
v716. Sex of Coders
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Both male
43    2     Male and female
38    3     Both female
93    NA    NA
 
v717. Number of Sources Consulted
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     One
23    2     Two
27    3     Three
21    4     Four or five
11    5     Six to nine
93    NA    NA
 
v718. Number of Authorities Consulted
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
27    1     One
31    2     Two
17    3     Three
18    4     Four to seven
93    NA    NA
 
v719. Total Pages in Sources Consulted
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
15    1     Under 300
22    2     300-499
44    3     500-999
12    4     Over 1000
93    NA    NA
 
v720. Sex of Authorities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
66    1     All males
23    2     Mixed males and females
4     3     All females
93    NA    NA
 
v721. Nationality of Authorities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
28    1     All Americans
28    2     Some Americans
37    3     None Americans
93    NA    NA
 
v722. Occupation of Authorities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
55    1     No anthropologist
30    2     Some anthropologists
6     3     All anthropologists
95    NA    NA
 
v723. Formal Fieldwork Training of Authorities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
56    1     All had some
29    2     some had
7     3     None had any
94    NA    NA
 
v724. Knowledge of Native Language ** (e.g., by Ethnographers)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
52    1     All knew it well
33    2     Some knew it well
2     3     None knew it well
99    NA    NA
 
v725. Total Periods of Fieldwork
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
11    1     One year or less
36    2     One to three years
42    3     More than three years
97    NA    NA
 
v726. Anthropological Present
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Before 1800 A.D.
34    2     1801-1900
40    3     1901-1950
11    4     After 1950 A.D.
93    NA    NA
 
v727. Importance of Agriculture in Subsistence, including Gardening
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Dominant, the principal subsistence activity
20    2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
6     3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
2     4     Present, but relatively unimportant
22    5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v728. Importance of Animal Husbandry in Subsistence { Raising domestic animals, using milk, eggs, etc. -- even if this involves only the raising of draft animals for use in agriculture }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Dominant, the principal subsistence activity
12    2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
32    3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
14    4     Present, but relatively unimportant
29    5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v729. Importance of Fishing, Shellfishing and Marine Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Dominant, the principal subsistence activity
13    2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
26    3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
19    4     Present, but relatively unimportant
31    5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v730. Importance of Hunting and Gathering in Subsistence
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Dominant, the principal subsistence activity
14    2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
28    3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
24    4     Present, but relatively unimportant
15    5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v731. Importance of Handicrafts, Manufacturing { Insofar as they contribute to subsistence, defined as supplying the overall needs for food, clothing, and shelter of the community }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
42    3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
44    4     Present, but relatively unimportant
6     5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v732. Importance of Trade in Subsistence { Include trade conducted to gain needed subsistence items, not simply exchange of ceremonial items; measure of extent to which members of the community depend upon trading in order to acquire items needed for subsistence that they do not produce themselves }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Co-dominant with one or more other categories
33    3     Important, but not a major subsistence activity
44    4     Present, but relatively unimportant
13    5     Insignificant, sporadic, or absent
93    NA    NA
 
v733. Contribution of the Sexes to Agriculture
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
18    2     Male participation appreciably greater
22    3     Equal participation
17    4     Female participation appreciably greater
3     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
27    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
v734. Contribution of the Sexes to Animal Husbandry
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
17    2     Male participation appreciably greater
11    3     Equal participation
7     4     Female participation appreciably greater
4     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
42    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
v735. Contribution of the Sexes to Fishing, Shellfishing, and Marine Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
25    1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
18    2     Male participation appreciably greater
13    3     Equal participation
2     4     Female participation appreciably greater
2     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
33    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
v736. Contribution of the Sexes to Hunting and Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
19    2     Male participation appreciably greater
37    3     Equal participation
6     4     Female participation appreciably greater
1     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
20    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
v737. Relative Contribution of the Sexes to Handicrafts and Manufacture
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
21    2     Male participation appreciably greater
44    3     Equal participation
10    4     Female participation appreciably greater
1     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
13    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
v738. Relative Contribution of the Sexes to Trade
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=93; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Male participation exclusively, or female contribution negligible
15    2     Male participation appreciably greater
24    3     Equal participation
5     4     Female participation appreciably greater
3     5     Female participation exclusively, or male contribution negligible
30    6     Activity conducted solely by slaves or members of servile classes, or does not apply, OR NO INFORMATION
93    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene. 1983. Ethnology 22:263-280.
 
v739. Marriage Arrangements
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=148; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
46    1     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: approval by parents or others unnecessary
26    2     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or highly desireable
5     3     Individual suggests partner to parents or others: arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed if choice is approved OR parents ask approval of individuals to initiate a match OR individual is approached by parent or others on behalf of suitor and can accept or reject the match
27    4     Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives
25    5     Parents choose partner: individual can object
19    6     Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object or rarely objects in fact
38    NA    NA
 
v740. Marriage Arrangements (Female)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=151; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously: approval by parents or others unnecessary
40    2     Individual selects and/or courts partner authonomously: parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or highly desireable
4     3     Individual suggests partner to parents or others; arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed if choice is approved OR parents ask approval of individuals to initiate a match OR individual is approached by parent or others on behalf of suitor and can accept or reject the match
27    4     Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives
35    5     Parents choose partner: individual can object
33    6     Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object or rarely objects in fact
35    NA    NA
 
v741. Widow Remarriage: Choice of Partner
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=92; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Widow chooses new husband herself with no outside interferences
27    2     Remarriage into first husbands kin group usually or preferred, but widow can choose new husband from elsewhere if she wishes
4     3     Widow chooses new husband herself, but from first husbands kin group or community
27    4     Widows husbands kin chooses new husband
6     5     Remarriage is absent, uncommon, or strongly disapproved
94    NA    NA
 
v742. Time of Mourning before Remarriage of Widows
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     No period of mourning: remarriage as soon as possible
3     2     One week to two months of mourning
9     3     Over two months but less than one year of mourning
18    4     One year or over of mourning
5     5     No remarriage
147   NA    NA
 
v743. (Neg) Attitude towards Divorce { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=60; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved
16    2     Mildly disapproved, e.g., attempts by others to reconcile couple, marriages expected to be permanent but divorce accepted without stigma if inevitable
11    3     Approved if reasons are considered justified; otherwise disapproved
11    4     Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved in first years of marriage and/or before children; otherwise disapproved
11    5     Strongly disapproved; stigma attached to divorce
126   NA    NA
 
v744. (Neg) Frequency of Divorce { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=85; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Universal or almost universal
31    2     Common, frequent, not uncommon
11    3     Moderate: a small minority of couples divorce
10    4     Frequent in first years of marriage and/or before children; rare thereafter
25    5     Rare, isolated instances, never
101   NA    NA
 
v745. Grounds for Divorce (Male)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=81; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
54    1     No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equaly easy or difficult with out without justification
17    2     Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is financially, legally and/or socially earlier with them
7     3     Divorce only with grounds
3     4     No divorce
105   NA    NA
 
v746. Grounds for Divorce (Female)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
39    1     No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equally easy or difficult with or without justification
30    2     Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is financially, legally and/or socially earier with them
9     3     Divorce only with grounds
4     4     No divorce
104   NA    NA
 
v747. Honeymoon Customs
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=52; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Couple goes off alone or is secluded for some period
7     2     Special schedules set up to allow couple to spend time together; e.g., coule given special dispensation to work together, visit or receive visitors together
20    3     Special schedules set up for newlyweds, but not necessarily for the purpose of allowing them time together, e.g., wife excused from housework, visitors received by spouses separately, wife secluded
11    4     No special arrangements for newlyweds
8     5     Newlyweds avoid each others, either by tradition or from shyness
134   NA    NA
 
v748. Customs Surrounding Consummation of Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=66; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Socially recognized as a special occasion and couple granted privacy
6     2     Special occasion and private, but signal of consummation proof of potency, virginity awaited by others
8     3     Special occasion, others present
31    4     Not a special occasion
120   NA    NA
 
v749. Living Arrangements for Newlyweds
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=116; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Couple move into own house ideally or in reality
12    2     Couple move in with parents, but separate room or partitioned area is provided
29    3     Couple move in with parents for first year or so and then set up a separate household
27    4     Couple live permanently in extended family setting; no special arrangements for newlyweds
5     5     Couple live separated from each other for a period of time
70    NA    NA
 
v750. (Distant) Sleeping Proximity between Husbands and Wives { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
43    1     Same room and close proximity: e.g., same bed, same blanket, touching, back to back, adjacent sleeping places allocated to spouses
15    2     Same room but no close proximity: e.g., different beds, different hammocks, different sections of room
45    3     Same room, proximity unknown
7     4     Different rooms
76    NA    NA
 
v751. (Low) Privacy in Sleeping for Husbands and Wives (Only If Husband and Wife Sleep in Same Room) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Husband and wife sleep together alone or with infants
13    2     Husband and wife sleep with prepubescent children
6     3     Unmarried members of nuclear family sleep with husband and wife, but either sons or daughters sleep elsewhere after early childhood
22    4     All members of nuclear family below marriageable age sleep with husband and wife
11    5     Other adults occasionally sleep with husband and and wife; e.g., other adult dependents who are temporary members of the newlyweds household
32    6     Other adults permanently sleep with husband and wife
96    NA    NA
 
v752. (No) Husband-wife Eating Arrangements { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Husband and wife usually eat together
11    2     Husband and wife are together during meals; wife does not eat with husband, but serves him and/or converses
28    3     Husband and wife often, usually, or always eat apart
76    NA    NA
 
v753. (No) Husband-wife Leisure Time Activities { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=98; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together and at home, alone or with nuclear or extended family members
21    2     Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together at home, and sometimes together in a group (e.g., they go over or have visitors); same-sex activities may be present, but they are not salient
21    3     Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together, but group activities are emphasized: e.g., couple go to dances together, spend their time habitually in camp with others
28    4     Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together as a couple or in a group, but sex- segregated activities are also salient: e.g., couple goes to dances, market together, but then join same-sex group
24    5     Husband and wife generally spend leisure time apart: same-sex activities prgdominate
88    NA    NA
 
v754. Wife-beating
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=70; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Absent
56    2     Present
116   NA    NA
 
v755. (No) Husband Attends Birth { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=68; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Husbands expected or allowed to attend the births of their children and usually do
4     2     No taboo against presence of husband at births but husbands often (?) or usually are absent
4     3     Husbands attend births only in emergencies
8     4     Husbands not allowed to attend births, but have specific tasks or roles associated with labor or delivery
41    5     Husbands not allowed to attend births and are explicitly barred from playing any role in labor or delivery
118   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Marc Ross, 1983. Political Decision Making and Conflict: Additional Cross-Cultural Codes and Scales. Ethnology 22: 169-192.
 
v756. (Low) Political Role Differentiation: Full Time Specialists and Their Differentiation from Others in the Society { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Highly differentiated by wealth, special titles or life style
10    2     Moderately differentiated
11    3     Somewhat wealthier but share much of life style by age, gender
7     4     Same life style, may be older and have somewhat more prestige
18    5     Few exist but leadership roles present, wealthier than others
15    6     Few exist but leadership roles present, same life style (as #4)
11    7     None exist, no permanent leadership roles
96    NA    NA
 
v757. Political and Religious Differentiation
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=83; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Consider overlap between political and religious leaders
30    2     Some overlap
30    3     Distinct
103   NA    NA
 
v758. Local Community Leadership Selection: Basis
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
21    1     Kinship; highly constrained
25    2     Kinship; broad choice within group
31    3     Non-hereditary, personal characteristics involved
13    4     Informal, shifts across situations
96    NA    NA
 
v759. Perceptions of Political Leaders' Power as Seen by Society
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Very powerful
29    2     Somewhat powerful, often variable across leaders, situations
37    3     Limited
96    NA    NA
 
v760. Perceptions of Political Leaders' Benevolence as Seen by Society
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=66; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
16    1     Capricious and arbitrary, power used to further own interests
13    2     Neither particularly malevolent nor benevolent in use of power
37    3     Basically benevolent, working in interest of entire community
120   NA    NA
 
v761. Checks on Leaders' Power
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
5     1     Few, or those which exist not invoked very often
24    2     Checks exist which seem to make leaders sensitive to populace
38    3     Leaders carefully secure substantial support before taking action
19    4     No leaders act independently lest their community backing lost
100   NA    NA
 
v762. (No) Removal of Leaders Who Are Incompetent or Disliked { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
11    1     No way other than rebellion or popular uprisings
18    2     Institutionalized means invoked occasionally, possibly by elites
30    3     Not removed in formal manner but lose influence and are ignored
18    4     No formal leadership, loss of power when support diminishes
109   NA    NA
 
v763. (Low) Leaders' Exercise of Authority { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Frequently act independently and make authoritative decisions
26    2     Make relatively few decisions on own without consultation
37    3     Use persuasion to help organized and structure group action
99    NA    NA
 
v764. (Few) Decision Making Bodies: How Most Decisions Are Made { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Individual(s), perhaps with advice of few advisors
16    2     Individual(s), working with an elite council
14    3     Individual(s), working with a broad based council
19    4     Broad based community council
16    5     Few explicit decisions, some made by community at large
98    NA    NA
 
v765. (Low) Political Participation: Range of Community Decision Making { Extent to Which Community Control Is Exercised over Different Areas of Life through Collective Decision Making, Which May Be of a Formal or Informal Nature. (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Collective decisions impinge on many aspects of peoples lives
18    2     Collective decisions impinge on a moderate number of areas
25    3     Collective decisions impinge on few aspects of peoples lives
19    4     Minimal collective decisions which impinge on peoples lives
98    NA    NA
 
v766. (Low) Political Participation: Extensivity of Adult Participation in Areas Where Collective Decision Making Present { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Widespread: decision making forums open to all adults and involvement is relatively great
31    2     High or some: widespread for some groups, but exclusion of others on the basis of gender, age, or kinship status
24    3     Moderate: some consultation present but low input from community
16    4     Low or non-existent: Leaders make most decisions and involvement of average person highly limited or absent
102   NA    NA
 
v767. (No) Conflict (Social or Political) in the Local Community { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     Endemic: a reality of daily existence (e.g., physical violence, feuding, bitter factionalism)
20    2     High: Conflict present but not a pervasive aspect of daily life
46    3     Moderate: Disagreements and differences do not result in high violence or severe disruption
20    4     Mild or rare
96    NA    NA
 
v768. (No) Conflict between Communities of the Same Society { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
25    1     Endemic: High physical violence, feuding, and/or raiding occur regularly
23    2     Moderately High, often involving physical violence
21    3     Moderate: Disputes may occur regularly but tendency to manage them in a more or less peaceful manner
20    4     Mild or rare
97    NA    NA
 
v769. Conflict Management in Local Community: Dominant Mode
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Conflicting parties encouraged to find a solution on their own
27    2     Conflicting parties easily draw new parties in but pressures for resolving disputes using informal mechanisms
30    3     Authorities often get involved and work to achieve a settlement
98    NA    NA
 
v770. (No) Resort to Physical Force by Disputants in Settling Disputes, Exclusive of Police or Institutionalized Force, { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
34    1     Often used
32    2     Sometimes used
24    3     Rarely or never used
96    NA    NA
 
v771. (No) Mediation/Negotiation/Arbitration: Third Parties in Disputes, Unable to Impose a Binding Decision, but May Facilitate Settlement { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=88; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
57    1     Often used (to settle disputes)
19    2     Sometimes used
12    3     Rarely or never used
98    NA    NA
 
v772. (No) Litigation: Use of Third Parties Offering Binding Decisions, with or without Formal Court Systems { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Frequent involvement in litigation by society members
21    2     Occasional involvement
41    3     Rare or non-involvement
97    NA    NA
 
v773. (No) Internal Warfare (between Communities of Same Society) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=85; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Frequent, occurring at least yearly
14    2     Common, at least every five years
10    3     Occasional, at least every generation
30    4     Rare or never
101   NA    NA
 
v774. (No) External Warfare (with Other Societies) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
45    1     Frequent, occurring at least yearly
13    2     Common, at least every five years
6     3     Occasional, at least every generation
20    4     Rare or never
102   NA    NA
 
v775. (Low) Compliance of Individuals with Community Norms and Decisions { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
43    1     High
31    2     Moderate
12    3     Highly Variable
100   NA    NA
 
v776. (Few) Formal Sanctions and Enforcement for Community Decisions { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Great sanctioning power available
32    2     Some
35    3     Little or none
96    NA    NA
 
v777. (No) Enforcement Specialists (e.g., Police, Tax Collectors) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
29    1     Present
21    2     Not specialized but done by leaders who do other things as well
39    3     Absent, or carried out by social pressure of wider community
97    NA    NA
 
v778. (Low) Loyalty to the Local Community { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=83; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
30    1     Especially high
33    2     High
14    3     Moderate
6     4     Low
103   NA    NA
 
v779. (Low) Loyalty to the Wider Society (in Some Cases Indistinguishable from the Local Community) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
11    1     Especially high -- uniformly high across groups
16    2     High for the most part across groups in the society
33    3     Moderate -- some noticeable variation across groups in society
24    4     Low -- not terribly salient or rarely important as a concern
102   NA    NA
 
v780. (Low) Hostility toward Other Societies { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=74; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
28    1     Extensive: bitter feelings toward almost all outsiders
18    2     High: bitter feelings toward outsiders, but not always
17    3     Moderate: sometimes bitter feelings, but much differentiation
11    4     Low: little hostility toward outsiders
112   NA    NA
 
v781. (Un) Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the Local Community { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=86; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
7     2     Acceptable
18    3     Tolerated
61    4     Disapproved
100   NA    NA
 
v782. (Un) Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the Same Society, but outside the Local Community { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=77; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
12    1     Valued
28    2     Acceptable
10    3     Tolerated
27    4     Disapproved
109   NA    NA
 
v783. (Un) Acceptability of Violence toward People in Other Societies { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=64; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Valued
16    2     Acceptable
3     3     Tolerated
6     4     Disapproved
122   NA    NA
 
v784. (No) Taxation Paid to Community (e.g., in Agricultural Produce, Labor, Finished Goods) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=85; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Regular and non-negligible taxes to community
20    2     Only in special situations or Modest level
34    3     None
101   NA    NA
 
v785. (No) Local Political Fission of Dissatisfied Persons { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=64; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
30    1     Often move to another community following disputes
20    2     Sometimes move to another community following disputes
14    3     Rarely or never move to another community following disputes
122   NA    NA
 
v786. Adult Mobility
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=79; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Adults generally attached to particular communities throughout their lives, especially after marriage
22    2     Individuals occasionally move to new communities as adults
39    3     Movement between communities is quite common for adults
107   NA    NA
 
v787. (Low) Contact with Other Societies { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=87; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
45    1     Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc.
28    2     Occasional but not often
14    3     Rare or never
99    NA    NA
 
v788. Cross-cutting Ties: Extent to Which Individuals Living in Different Communities of the Same Society Linked Together in Politically Relevant Ways
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
34    1     No politically relevant links, formal organizations, or strong informal obligations which extend beyond the local community
30    2     Some politically relevant ties, but wider society divided into some discrete groups not linked through cross-cutting ties
25    3     Cross-cutting ties link individuals throughout the society, cutting across territorial groups in one or more ways
97    NA    NA
 
v789. Type of Cross-cutting Ties: Age Organizations (Grades, Sets) Cutting across Communities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
78    1     Absent
5     2     Present but not politically important
6     3     Present and political important
97    NA    NA
 
v790. Type of Cross-cutting Ties: Kinship Organizations Cutting across Communities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Absent
27    2     Present but not politically important
40    3     Present and political important
96    NA    NA
 
v791. Type of Cross-cutting Ties: Moieties Cutting across Communities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
76    1     Absent
8     2     Present but not politically important
5     3     Present and political important
97    NA    NA
 
v792. Types of Cross-cutting Ties: Ritual Organizations (Religious, Cult Groups) Cutting across Communities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
42    1     Absent
27    2     Present but not politically important
20    3     Present and political important
97    NA    NA
 
v793. (Low) Female Participation in Public Political Arenas, Relative to Males { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
8     1     High: in some situations equal to or greater than that of men
27    2     Significant but not as high as male involvement
19    3     Not great but clearly some role for women in public aspects of political life
26    4     Women generally excluded from public aspects of politics
106   NA    NA
 
v794. (Low) Female Participation in Private Political Arenas, Relative to Males { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=66; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
35    1     High: in some situations equal to or greater than that of men
15    2     Significant but not as high as male involvement
12    3     Not great but clearly some role for women in private aspects of political life
4     4     Women do not seem to get involved in political life in private arenas
120   NA    NA
 
v795. (Low) Gender Differences in Political or Quasi-political Positions of Authority { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=84; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
8     1     Women and men eligible for some of the same positions and women commonly do so
18    2     Women and men eligible for some of the same positions and women occasionally do so
7     3     Women rarely, if ever, hold some of the same positions regardless of rules of eligibility
51    4     The same political positions are not open to both women and men
102   NA    NA
 
v796. (No) Separate Female Organizations and Positions { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=69; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
22    1     Some associations or organizations under exclusive control of women
15    2     No associations but some positions of authority for which only women are eligible
32    3     No associations or positions exclusively controlled by women
117   NA    NA
 
v797. (Low) Coder Assessment of Data Quality { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=90; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Especially high -- judgments not difficult to make
31    2     Good -- some missing data, those available seemed good
34    3     Moderate but acceptable -- a good deal of inference sometimes required
11    4     Weak for certain variables with much missing data and only the most general descriptions for some domains
96    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Ronald P. Rohner, D. Scott Berg, and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1982. Data Quality Control in the Standard Sample: Cross-Cultural Codes. Ethnology 21: 359-372.
 
The references used for coding the sample were derived from Barry and Paxson's (1971) research on infancy and childhood.
 
v798. Date of Publication
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=65
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  1940.269
min   1780
max   1972
sd    26.866
 
v799. Number of Pages in the Book
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=163
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  299.156
min   6
max   1449
sd    239.79
 
v800. Number of Pages Related to Child Training Practices
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=41
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  12.914
min   0
max   273
sd    26.785
 
v801. Proportion of Book Devoted to Child Training 0 - 99 Pct
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=88
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  0.061
min   0
max   0.999
sd    0.113
 
v802. Year Fieldwork Began
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=73; Number of unique values=41
Stat  Value
nobs  73
mean  1935.685
min   1869
max   1965
sd    19.05
 
v803. Total Months of Fieldwork
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=83; Number of unique values=30
Stat  Value
nobs  83
mean  22.711
min   2
max   99
sd    26.848
 
v804. Age of Informants
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
66    1     Adults
14    2     Children and Adults
106   NA    NA
 
v805. Sex of Informants
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=80; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
39    1     Males
6     2     Females
35    3     Both
106   NA    NA
 
v806. Number of Informants
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=81; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
14    1     1
31    2     2 or 3
20    3     4 through 7
2     4     8 through 10
14    5     11 or more
105   NA    NA
 
v807. Repeated Observation of Different Families' Socialization Practices
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
123   1     No (but not distinguished from missing data)
63    2     Yes be clearly distinguished from cases where the verification efforts identified by the codes were not used.]
 
v808. Use of Multiple Informants to Collect Data on Child Rearing
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
119   1     No (but not distinguished from missing data)
67    2     Yes
 
v809. Use of Tests (e.g., Rorschach, Tat, Sentence Completion, I.q.)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
167   1     No (but not distinguished from missing data)
19    2     Yes
 
v810. Other Verification Efforts
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
179   1     No (but not distinguished from missing data)
7     2     Yes
 
v811. Number of Verification Efforts
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=94; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
3     0     none
41    1     1
36    2     2
3     3     3
5     4     4
6     5     5 or more
92    NA    NA
 
v812. Language Familiarity ** (e.g., by Ethnographers)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=89; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Little or none
35    2     Some
23    3     Fluent
97    NA    NA
 
v813. Community Involvement ** (e.g., by Ethnographers)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=91; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Limited
38    2     Intermediate
36    3     Extensive
95    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Herbert Barry III and Alice Schlegel. 1982. Cross-Cultural Codes on Contributions by Women to Subsistence. Ethnology 21: 165-188.
 
Percent Importance in Contribution to Subsistence and Trade Computed indirectly from variables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 1.
 
v814. Importance of Agriculture
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=17
Freq  Value
38    0
17    5
2     15
3     20
7     25
2     30
18    35
10    40
12    45
26    55
23    60
13    65
4     70
7     75
2     80
1     85
1     99
 
v815. Importance of Domes. Anim
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=13
Freq  Value
50    0
66    5
3     10
4     15
9     20
35    25
3     35
4     55
8     60
1     65
1     70
1     80
1     90
 
v816. Importance of Fishing
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=15
Freq  Value
30    0
78    5
2     10
5     15
8     20
39    25
1     35
5     40
3     45
2     50
3     55
1     60
3     65
4     70
2     90
 
v817. Importance of Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=16
Freq  Value
25    0
85    5
2     10
3     15
11    20
36    25
2     30
2     35
7     40
4     45
2     50
1     55
1     60
1     65
3     70
1     80
 
v818. Importance of Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=13
Freq  Value
20    0
116   5
1     10
1     15
10    20
22    25
2     30
2     35
3     40
5     45
1     50
1     65
2     75
 
v819. Importance of Trade
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value
65    0
80    5
2     10
1     15
7     20
29    25
1     55
1     65
 
v820. Principal Subsistence Category
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
10    1     G Gathering
16    2     H Hunting
23    3     F Fishing
18    4     I Incipient Agriculture
16    5     D Domestic Animals
46    6     E Extensive Agriculture
55    7     N Intensive Agriculture
2     8     T Trade
 
Percent Female Contribution to Subsistence Tasks computed indirectly from the variables 108-112 (agriculture), 113-115 (domestic animals), 101, 104, 107 (Fishing), 103, 105, 106 (Hunting), and 99, 100, 102 (Gathering)
 
v821. Percent Female Contribution to Agriculture
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=29
Stat  Value
nobs  142
mean  39.38
min   0
max   100
sd    23.764
 
v822. Percent Female Contribution to Domestic Animals
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=114; Number of unique values=31
Stat  Value
nobs  114
mean  43.974
min   0
max   100
sd    35.59
 
v823. Percent Female Contribution to Fishing
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=21
Freq  Value Description
64    0     0
1     5     5
2     13    13
4     15    15
6     19    19
5     20    20
23    25    25
1     30    30
4     33    33
3     35    35
2     38    38
5     42    42
3     44    44
1     45    45
5     50    50
1     63    63
1     65    65
1     67    67
5     75    75
2     81    81
1     100   100
46    NA    NA
 
v824. Percent Female Contribution to Hunting
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=158; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
138   0     0
4     5     5
4     8     8
2     10    10
1     13    13
4     15    15
1     17    17
1     20    20
1     25    25
2     33    33
28    NA    NA
 
v825. Percent Female Contribution to Gathering
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=137; Number of unique values=26
Freq  Value Description
14    0     0
1     11    11
1     19    19
8     25    25
1     30    30
1     31    31
3     33    33
4     38    38
1     39    39
1     40    40
2     42    42
3     45    45
13    50    50
7     56    56
1     57    57
2     58    58
2     60    60
2     63    63
1     65    65
2     67    67
2     69    69
1     70    70
23    75    75
1     81    81
2     88    88
38    100   100
49    NA    NA
 
v826. Average Female Contribution to Subsistence { Percentages, Computed from Weighted Sum of Variables: (814x821 + 815x822 + 816x823 + 817x824 + 818x825)/(100-819). This differs from Barry's calculations by at most 1%. Two additional societies are coded with 50% or more trade dependence. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=63
Stat  Value
nobs  183
mean  32.869
min   0
max   79
sd    16.55
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Herbert Barry, III, and Alice Schlegel. 1984. Measurements of Adolescent Sexual Behavior in the Standard Sample of Societies. Ethnology 23: 315-332.
 
Encouragement of sexual behavior, taking into account its frequency, emotional intensity, importance, and variety (including range of partners) in adolescence. Heterosexual intercourse is the principal criterion, but heterosexual foreplay, masturbation, homosexuality, sexual jokes, and exposing the genitals were also considered.
 
v827. Sexual Expression in Adolescent Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
9     1     1
27    2     Not approved or admired by parents or authorities Mild forms (e.g. sexual jokes) sometimes approved.
5     3     3
12    4     4
33    5     Normally and generally approved [by parents, etc.] Moderate frequency, intensity, importance, variety
15    6     6
7     7     7
44    8     Strongly approved and valued [by parents, etc.] High frequency, variety of sexual behavior admired.
2     9     9
32    NA    NA
 
v828. Sexual Expression in Adolescent Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=158; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     0
23    1     1
37    2     Not approved or admired by parents or authorities Mild forms (e.g. sexual jokes) sometimes approved.
3     3     3
10    4     4
31    5     Normally and generally approved [by parents, etc.] Moderate frequency, intensity, importance, variety
9     6     6
7     7     7
34    8     Strongly approved and valued [by parents, etc.] High frequency, variety of sexual behavior admired.
3     9     9
28    NA    NA
 
The absence of sexual restraints such as taboos or restrictions on heterosexual intercourse and other erotic behavior, including heterosexual play, masturbation, and homosexuality. A high degree of modesty, such as the requirement to keep the genitals constantly covered in public, indicates moderate restraint. Incest taboos, if highly emphasized or widely extended, are considered as indicators of restraint. Note: Sexual nonrestraint = Sexual expression + 1 more or less. The authors indicate the advisability of using the sum of the two scores as a Sexual Freedom index.
 
v829. Sexual Nonrestraint in Adolescent Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=155; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
4     1     1
21    2     Strictly and effectively prohibited
7     3     3
10    4     4
30    5     Disapproved and punished mildly and inconsistent
13    6     6
5     7     7
45    8     Condoned and not generally punished
20    9     9
31    NA    NA
 
v830. Sexual Nonrestraint in Adolescent Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=159; Number of unique values=10
Freq  Value Description
1     0     0
7     1     1
36    2     Strictly and effectively prohibited
10    3     3
9     4     4
32    5     Disapproved and punished mildly and inconsistent
9     6     6
3     7     7
37    8     Condoned and not generally punished
15    9     9
27    NA    NA
 
Differentiation of adolescent from preadolescent activities, status, and all other attributes of behavior and self-concept
 
v831. Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=166; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
48    1     Low, mostly the same, no formal transition. Frequent companionship between the two stages
57    2     Substantial, but inconsistent, not formalized, or companionship only for some activities
61    3     High, with formal transition. Infrequent companionship with younger children.
20    NA    NA
 
v832. Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=164; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
62    1     Low, mostly the same, no formal transition. Frequent companionship between the two stages
59    2     Substantial, but inconsistent, not formalized, or companionship only for some activities
43    3     High, with formal transition. Infrequent companionship with younger children.
22    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White. 1969. Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Ethnology 8: 329-369.
 
v833. Subsistence Economy: Dominant Mode
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
56    1     Advanced Agriculture
18    2     Horticulture
51    3     Simple or Shifting Cultivation
15    4     Domestic Animals
1     5     Exchange
17    6     Fishing
13    7     Gathering
15    8     Hunting
 
v834. Subsistence Economy: Subsidiary Mode
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=96; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Advanced Agriculture
33    4     Domestic Animals
3     5     Exchange
22    6     Fishing
10    7     Gathering
26    8     Hunting
90    NA    NA
 
v835. Political Integration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=183; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
80    1     Independent local communities
49    2     Single level of political integration
24    3     Two levels of supra-community integration
30    4     Three or more levels of supra-community integration
3     NA    NA
 
v836. Rule of Descent: Primary
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
24    1     Matrilineal, with non-avunculocal residence
6     2     Matrilineal, with predominantly avunculocal residence
66    3     Nonlineal or bilateral, i.e., without lineages though often with personal kindreds
71    4     Patrilineal
2     5     Quasi-Patrilineal, incipient or decadent patrilineages (5)
10    6     Ambilineal, e.g., with nonunilineal ramages
6     8     Patrilineal, with Matrilineal secondary
1     9     Matrilineal, predominantly avunculocal residence, with Patrilineal secondary
 
v837. Adequacy of Hraf File
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
51    0     No File
98    1     Inadequate
26    2     Useful
11    3     Satisfactory
 
v838. Pinpointing Date by Year
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=76
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  1853.333
min   -1750
max   1965
sd    358.382
 
v840. Outline of World Cultures Region, Sub-region, and Societal Code (Murdock 1975)
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=139; Number of unique values=138
First six non-missing records:
society     v840
Nama  FX13
Kung  FX10
Thonga      FT06
Lozi  FQ09e
Mbundu      FP13e
Bemba FQ05e
 
v841. Ethnographic Atlas Region, Sub-region, and Societal Code (Murdock 1962)
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=181
First six non-missing records:
society     v841
Nama  Aa 3
Kung  Aa 1
Thonga      Ab 4
Lozi  Ab 3
Mbundu      Ab 4
Suku  Ac17
 
v842. Ethnographic Atlas Sequence Number (Murdock 1962)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=186
Stat  Value
nobs  186
mean  358.699
min   1
max   1267
sd    365.274
 
v843. Atlas of World Cultures Region, Sub-region, and Societal Code (Murdock 1981)
Class=character; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=176; Number of unique values=174
First six non-missing records:
society     v843
Nama  A01a
Kung  A02a
Thonga      A03a
Lozi  A03f
Mbundu      A04a
Suku  A05a
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Douglas R. White, John W. M. Whiting, and Michael L. Burton. 1986. New Codes.
 
v854. Niche Temperature (Approximate) Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
129   1     Very hot Af Am Aw Caf Caw BSh BWh
9     2     Hot Caw Hh_ BWn Bw
13    3     Warm Csb Cbw Hk BWk
14    4     Mild Cbf Cc BSk
3     5     Cool Daf Daw
4     6     Cold Dbf
11    7     Very cold Dcf Dcw
3     8     Polar ET
 
v855. Niche Rainfall (Approximate) Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
49    1     Tropical rainforest
36    2     Very wet
24    3     Wet
20    4     Moderately wet
35    5     Dry
3     6     Very dry
19    7     Desert
 
v856. Niches Adapted from William Goode, World Atlas: No Key for Factor Levels
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=15
Freq  Value Description
34    1     1
28    2     2
19    3     3
12    4     4
7     5     5
9     6     6
7     7     7
9     8     8
9     9     9
37    10    10
3     11    11
1     12    12
6     13    13
4     14    14
1     15    15
 
v857. Climate Type - Ordered in Terms of Open Access to Rich Ecological Resources D. White and M. Burton L986
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     1     Polar
38    2     Desert or cold steppe
50    3     Tropical rainforest
39    4     Moist temperate
45    5     Tropical savanna
8     6     Tropical highlands
 
levels 1-4 FORAGERS: 80% or more dependence on food collection     levels 5-6 DOMESTICATED ANIMALS: Pastoralism >33% or Mounted Hunting     levels 7-8 SHIFTING CULTIVATION: new field cleared annually, cultivated for a year or two, then allowed to revert to forest     levels 9-10 HORTICULTURE: semi-intensive agriculture limited mainly to vegetal gardens or groves of fruit trees rather than field crops        levels 11-12 INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE: permanent fields or short fallow and long period of use of fields, with fertilization by compost, animal manure, crop rotation, or other
 
v858. Subsistence Type - Ecological Classification D. White, 1984, after Karen and Jeffrey Paige (L981)
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Gathering
9     2     Hunting and/or Marine Animals
12    3     Fishing
8     4     Anadromous Fishing (spawning fish such as Salmon)
5     5     Mounted Hunting
18    6     Pastoralism
33    7     Shifting Cultivation, with digging sticks or wooden hoes
19    8     Shifting Cultivation, with metal hoes
18    9     Horticultural Gardens or Tree Fruits
23    11    Intensive Agriculture, with no plow
32    12    Intensive Agriculture, with plow
 
v859. Resource Base - Reclassification of above, as per Paige and Paige
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=11
Freq  Value Description
9     1     (2) Hunting and/or Marine Animals
9     2     (1) Gathering
12    3     (3) Fishing
5     4     (5) Mounted Hunting
33    5     (7) Shifting Cultivation, with digging sticks or wooden hoes
8     6     (4) Anadromous Fishing
18    7     (9) Horticultural Gardens or Tree Fruits
23    8     (11) Intensive Agriculture, with no plow
19    10    (8) Shifting Cultivation, with metal hoes
18    11    (6) Pastoralism
32    12    (12) Intensive Agriculture, with plow
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Douglas R. White. 1988. Rethinking Polygyny: Co-Wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems. Current Anthropology 29:529-559. (project begun in collaboration with Michael L. Burton, and John W. M. Whiting).
 
v860. Cultural Basis of Polygyny
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=184; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Monogamy prescribed
32    2     Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny
45    3     Polygyny preferred by individual men with leadership attributes (chiefs, medicine men, outstanding hunters)
34    4     Polygyny preferred by men of a higher social class: men of wealth, rank, nobility, etc.
46    5     Polygyny preferred by most men, and attained by most men of sufficient years or wealth to obtain wives. Thus: (a) older men usually have more wives; (b) polygyny is generally based on the accumulation of wealth; and (c) extra wives are an economic asset in terms of labor.
2     NA    NA
 
v861. Standard Polygamy Code: Whyte, Murdock and Wilson, Murdock Atlas
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=178; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     0     Polyandry
27    1     Monogamy prescribed
33    2     Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny
56    3     Limited polygyny < 20 pct of married males
60    4     Full polygyny 20 pct or more of married males
8     NA    NA
 
NOTE: There is sufficient information for an exclusively non-sororal category, see especially Murdock's Africa (1959). Probably also sufficient for sororal preferred but not predominant.
 
v862. Sororal Polygyny
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=164; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
25    1     No polygyny (M)
94    2     Non-sororal polygyny predominant (Atlas PQ) (sororal may or may not be permitted)
36    3     Sororal or marriage to wifes kin predominant (Atlas RS)
9     4     Sororal or secondary marriage to wifes kin only
22    NA    NA
 
v863. Distance between Co-wives
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=156; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
1     0     One wife, multiple husbands
25    1     One wife (Atlas M)
59    2     Co-residence for multiple wives (Atlas PR)
25    3     One wife resides with husband, others in separate houses
13    4     One wife resides with husband, others in separate communities
31    5     Separate housing in compound for every wife (Atlas QS)
2     6     Separate housing in village for every wife [as might occur, for example, with mens houses, e.g., Otoro - check]
30    NA    NA
 
v864. Rooming Arrangement for Wives
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=180; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
130   1     Wife sleeps in same room with husband
50    2     Wife sleeps in room apart from husbands room, including cases of mens dormitories or 30 pct or more polygynously married women if co-wives sleep apart (e.g., Trobriand chiefs wives constitute circa 39 pct of the married women)
6     NA    NA
 
v865. Rooming Arrangement for Husband
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=179; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
141   1     Husband has no room apart (dominant pattern, e.g., for Trobriand commoners)
38    2     Husband has a room apart, even if rotates among wives
7     NA    NA
 
v866. Higher Rates of Polygyny for Men of Wealth, Rank, Nobility, or Higher Social Class
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=154; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
63    0     No Stratified polygyny
14    1     Hereditary upper social class (note: incompletely coded)
6     2     Achieved rank connected with groups (note: incompletely coded)
71    3     Achieved wealth - due to contributions of wives
32    NA    NA
 
v867. Multiple Wives for Skilled Hunters
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
141   0     No, or unimportant
22    1     exceptional skill in hunting
23    NA    NA
 
v868. Multiple Wives for Leaders, Headmen, Chiefs
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=162; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
95    0     No, or unimportant
67    1     Yes, or Leaders have more wives than commoners
24    NA    NA
 
NOTE: sometimes coded 0 for General polygyny although magicians also polygynous - unclear whether higher polygyny level should be required in this instance for this code
 
v869. Multiple Wives for Medicine Men or Shamans
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=161; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
141   0     No, or unimportant
20    1     Yes
25    NA    NA
 
NOTE: It is often difficult to distinguish secondary wives taken as slave concubines, or marriage to freed slaves, and wives taken from capture in warfare, as slavery areas often capture slaves
 
v870. Additional Wives or Concubines from Slavery or Capture in Warfare
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=158; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
92    1     No female captives
8     2     Women taken as captives but not married
58    3     Captives in war or slaves taken as wives or concubines
28    NA    NA
 
v871. Percentage of Married Men with More than One Wife
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=145; Number of unique values=39
Stat  Value
nobs  145
mean  15.703
min   0
max   90
sd    19.578
 
v872. Percentage of Married Women Polygynously Married (Share Husband with One or More Co-wives)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=143; Number of unique values=53
Stat  Value
nobs  143
mean  25.287
min   0
max   97
sd    27.855
 
v873. Reliability of Data for Percentage Polygynously Married
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=128; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
87    1     Direct percentages: good quantitative data
13    2     Direct percentages for male polygyny, female polygyny estimated for minimum of two wives per man, where if
2     3     percentage female polygyny estimated from ratios of men with different numbers of wives, provided by ethnographer
3     4     lower of two or more censuses used, or estimates where there is some other reason to believe that true percentages are higher for both males and females
23    5     estimates from 0 to 5 pct male polygyny inferred from statements about limited polygyny; these are doubled for female percentages (a minimal estimate)
58    NA    NA
 
v874. Polygyny Data Source
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=140; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
55    1     Sample of over 100 married men
29    2     Sample of less than 100 married men, but of an entire settlement
48    3     Estimate from Ethnographer Statements
8     4     Estimate by Inference from Ethnographer Statements
46    NA    NA
 
v875. Date for Polygyny Code
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=120; Number of unique values=19
Freq  Value Description
1     -1750 -1750
1     110   110
1     1630  1630
1     1750  1750
1     1820  1820
1     1830  1830
2     1840  1840
5     1850  1850
4     1860  1860
4     1870  1870
3     1880  1880
7     1890  1890
4     1900  1900
5     1910  1910
14    1920  1920
25    1930  1930
20    1940  1940
17    1950  1950
4     1960  1960
66    NA    NA
 
v876. Polygyny Distributions
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=51; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
25    1     True Binomial
26    2     Negative Binomial
135   NA    NA
 
v877. Polygyny Guttman Scale I: Co-wife Autonomy Constructed from 854-852
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=181; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
69    0     None of the following
51    1     Stratified Polygyny (854) only
6     2     Negative binomial (855), plus above
13    3     Marriage of female captives (858), plus above
7     4     General polygyny (849), plus above
9     5     Rooming apart (853), plus above
26    6     Polygynous compounds (852), plus above
5     NA    NA
 
v878. Polygyny Guttman Scale II: Charismatic Constructed from 851-855
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=182; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
44    0     None of the following
72    1     Rooming together (853) only
26    2     Co-Wives same dwelling (852), plus above
25    3     Sororal (851), plus above
9     4     Polygynous hunters (855), plus above
6     5     Exclusive sororal polygyny (851), plus above
4     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Michael J. Winkelman and Douglas R. White. 1986. Cross Cultural Study of Magico-Religious Practitioners: Database. World Cultures 2(3).
 
Samples every 4th society in the Standard Sample (1, 5, 9, ...), but societies 9 and 185 have insufficient data to code; 2 added
 
v879. Shaman
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
34    0     Absent
13    1     Present
139   NA    NA
 
v880. Shaman/Healer
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
36    0     Absent
11    1     Present
139   NA    NA
 
v881. Healer
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
25    0     Absent
17    1     Present
5     2     Present - with characteristics of the Healer, but not
139   NA    NA
 
v882. Medium
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
30    0     Absent
17    1     Present
139   NA    NA
 
v883. Sorcerer/Witch
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=46; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
29    0     Absent
17    1     Present (Note: the Roman practitioner known as a
140   NA    NA
 
v884. Priest
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
19    0     Absent
28    1     Present
139   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Douglas R. White. Scales constructed from existing codes.
 
v885. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Ethnographic Atlas
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=152; Number of unique values=31
Stat  Value
nobs  152
mean  34.658
min   0
max   75
sd    17.318
 
v886. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Martin Whyte
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=72; Number of unique values=33
Stat  Value
nobs  72
mean  38.972
min   0
max   90
sd    16.074
 
v887. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Barry and Schlegel
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=63
Stat  Value
nobs  185
mean  32.757
min   0
max   79
sd    16.635
 
v888. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Maximal Difference of Three Scores
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=163; Number of unique values=39
Stat  Value
nobs  163
mean  14.607
min   0
max   52
sd    10.475
 
v889. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Average of Three Scores
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=57
Stat  Value
nobs  185
mean  34.497
min   0
max   80
sd    15.308
 
v890. Female Contribution to Subsistence: Average of Three Scores (Ordinated)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
5     0     0- 4 pct
13    1     5-14 pct
27    2     15-24 pct
45    3     25-34 pct
48    4     35-44 pct
34    5     45-54 pct
8     6     55-64 pct
4     7     65-74 pct
1     8     75-84 pct
1     NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Valerie Wheeler [Nammour], l974. Drums and Guns: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Nature of War. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Oregon.
 
References cited: Naroll, Raoul. 1966. Does military deterrence deter? Trans-Action 3(2): 14-20. and Otterbein, Keith F. 1970. The Evolution of War: A Cross-cultural study. HRAF Press.
 
v891. Frequency of Internal War Otterbein (1970: 3, 84, 143) Definition of Internal War { (Var Label Reversed) Otterbein's (1970: 3, 84, 143) definition of internal war excludes feuding: warfare between political communities within the cultural unit, i.e., continguous political communities that are culturally similar. p. 3: Warfare is defined as armed combat between political communities. Armed combat, which is fighting with weapons, is performed by military organizations. When political communities within the same cultural unit engage in warfare, this is considered to be internal war. p. 143: If there is more than one military organization within a political community, and these ... engage in armed combat, this is considered feuding or civil war, depending on the scope of the conflict. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Continual
54    2     Frequent
89    3     Infrequent
26    NA    NA
 
v892. Frequency of External War - Attacking [follows Otterbein 1970: 84, 143-144] { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=157; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
31    1     Continual
61    2     Frequent
65    3     Infrequent
29    NA    NA
 
v893. Frequency of External War - Being Attacked [follows Otterbein 1970: 84, 143-144] { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=153; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
26    1     Continual
67    2     Frequent
60    3     Infrequent
33    NA    NA
 
v894. Form of Military Mobilization [adapted from Otterbein 1970: 144] { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=160; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
60    1     Age-grades, military societies, standing armies
86    2     None of above: but men organized as friends, family, lineage,clan
14    3     Absence of military organization altogether
26    NA    NA
 
v895. Decision to Engage in War [follows Otterbein 1970: 28-29, 144]
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=137; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
102   1     Taken by official or council of the political community
35    2     Anyone
49    NA    NA
 
v896. Commencement of War [follows Otterbein 1970: 32, 144]
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
21    1     By announcement
8     2     By mutual agreement
104   3     By surprise attack
53    NA    NA
 
v897. Conclusion of War [follows Otterbein 1970: 35, 144]
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
61    1     By negotiation
52    2     By simply stopping
20    3     War is not ended but is continual
53    NA    NA
 
v898. Peace Ceremony { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=82; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
61    1     Present
21    2     Absent
104   NA    NA
 
v899. Military Expectations I-pre-state [follows Naroll L966, with Modifications by Otterbein 1970] { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=167; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
99    1     High, with any one of the following present: Subjugation of territory or people (909) Collection of tribute (910) Land - fields, hunting/fishing territory, pastures (911) Trophies and honors (including captives for sacrifice) (913)
68    2     Low, absence of any of the above
19    NA    NA
 
v900. Military Expectations II-state { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=166; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
76    1     High, with any one of the following present: Subjugation of territory or people (909) Collection of tribute (910) Land - fields, hunting/fishing territory, pastures (911)
90    2     Low, absence of any of the above
20    NA    NA
 
v901. Casualty Rate Poor Correlation with Ember 2005 Male Mortality in War [follows Otterbein 1970: 81, 146] { (Var Label Reversed) This has turned out to be a difficult variable to code; information does not exist in most cases. Wheeler l974:270 }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=79; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
35    1     High (1/3rd or more of combatants)
44    2     Low
107   NA    NA
 
v902. Leadership during Battle [modified from Otterbein 1970: 23-28, 144] { When I drew up this variable, I neglected to allow for those cases where a leader has an official position -- appointed war chief, hereditary war chief -- and is very aware of the honor and respect of this office but still has no means to force followers to obey. His formality may be hollow if people choose to disregard his direction. Wheeler l974:272 }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=142; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
62    1     An official who could back up his decision by force
67    2     An informal leader whom people obeyed because of respect, but who had no means to force warriors to obey
13    3     Everyone is on his own
44    NA    NA
 
v903. Prestige Associated with Being a Soldier or Warrior { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=151; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
61    1     A great deal; important for every male
64    2     some, not necessary to be a warrior to have influence in the community
26    3     No special consideration, respect, or distinctions for a man who fights
35    NA    NA
 
v904. Cowardice: Defined As { This variable is a failure, but for an interesting reason. With very few exceptions, even including professionally trained ethnographers, observers simply do not state what action brings down an accusation of cowardice. Cowardice is often mentioned, but not what it is seen to be. Wheeler 1974: 273. }
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=58; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
27    1     Refusing to fight
29    2     Leaving companions
2     3     Running away
128   NA    NA
 
v905. Rewards (Special Gifts, Praises, or Ceremonies, Not including Ritual Purification for a Man Who Has Killed an Enemy in Battle or Otherwise Shown Skill in War) { (Var Label Reversed) This variable augments variable [903] Wheeler l974:273 }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=109; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
68    1     Yes, usually or always
16    2     Sometimes
25    3     Rarely or never
77    NA    NA
 
v906. Did Members of the Society Expect Violence to Solve Their Problems? { (Var Label Reversed) My operationalization of this variable breaks all the methodological rules and consequently is vulnerable to attack... the coder has used his assessment of the material overall.... I think the variable is enormously important, and eventually I hope to build some rigor ... into it. Wheeler l974:274-5. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=129; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
71    1     Yes
58    2     No
57    NA    NA
 
v907. Value of War: Violence/War against Non-members of the Group { (Var Label Reversed) This variable complements but does not duplicate, or resolve, variable [906].... Clumsy as this variable may seem, it was quite easy to code, largely due to clear observation by the ethnographer as to the value of war. The evidence may be comments by the observer, texts or poems and songs, or statements by the actors. Wheeler l974: 275 }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=146; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
72    1     Enjoyed and considered to have high value
51    2     Considered to be a necessary evil
23    3     Consistently avoided, denounced, not engaged in
40    NA    NA
 
v908. Military Success : Is Political Community/Cultural Unit Winning or Losing in the Long Run { (Var Label Reversed) [Modified from Otterbein 1970 to include population as well as territory] }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=172; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
42    1     Yes -- its boundaries/population are expanding
63    2     No change -- boundaries/population stationary (the population is able to replace those lost in war)
8     3     Breaking even -- what it loses in territory it takes from others
59    4     No -- its boundaries/population are shrinking
14    NA    NA
 
v909. Subjugation of Territory or People { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
35    1     Present
133   2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v910. Collection of Tribute { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Present
150   2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v911. Acquisition of Land : Fields, Hunting/Fishing Territories, Pastures { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
50    1     Present
118   2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v912. Plunder (including Captives for Slaves, Hostages, Adoption) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
104   1     Present
64    2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v913. Trophies and Honors (including Captives for Sacrifice) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
49    1     Present
119   2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v914. Revenge { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=169; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
111   1     Present
58    2     Absent or not mentioned
17    NA    NA
 
v915. Defense { (Var Label Reversed) The coding of defense was generally difficult because so few authors specifically mentioned it. Following the rule [of coding no mentions as absences], I marked it as absent, I simply do not know where it was truly absent and where the ethnographer assumed that any ninny would know that it [must] exist. Otterbein (1970) also had difficulty coding this attribute because of such an assumption. Therefore, I do not consider my quantitative results on defense to be reliable. Otterbein made one useful distinction that I could not implement satisfactorily. He coded the military expectations in order of importance -- first, second, third. There were too many cases where I could not make such a judgment, even if the data on expectations per se were good. Wheeler l974:270. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=168; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
97    1     Present
71    2     Absent or not mentioned
18    NA    NA
 
v916. Aggressive Defense (Pre-emptive Attack If Enemy Thought about to Attack) { (Var Label Reversed) }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=167; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Present
154   2     Absent or not mentioned
19    NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Orlando Patterson. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
 
Definitions: Patterson defines slaveholding as permanent dominant violation of natally alienated and generally dishonored persons. This excludes non-hereditary slavery, and thus does not include what Murdock (1967: 166) classifies as incipient slavery. His focus is on slaveholding societies, and excludes societies largely composed of former slaves.
 
v917. Historical Frame for Pinpointing Date Where Slaveholding Present
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=23
Freq  Value Description
119   -1    -1
1     0     0
1     1     No slaveholding
1     2     1750 BC
1     3     620 BC
1     4     Early 100s
1     5     1292
1     6     Early 1500s
1     7     Mid 1500s
1     8     1600-1650
1     9     Mid 1700s
2     10    Late 1700s
1     11    1780-1820
1     12    Early 1800s
2     13    1800-1910
4     14    1850-1950
15    15    1800s
7     16    Mid 1800s
1     18    Late 1800s - Early 1900s
10    19    Late 1800s - 1910
4     20    Late 1800s - 1930s
6     21    Early 1900s
3     22    1900 - 1920s
1     NA    NA
 
v918. Manumission of Slaves
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=185; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Infrequent
10    2     Not common
21    3     Frequent
17    4     No data on rates of manumission, but hereditary slaveholding is present by Pattersons definition
7     5     Hereditary slaveholding not present by Pattersons definition, although present by Murdocks definition
5     6     Hereditary slaveholding not present by Pattersons definition, although slavery present by Murdocks definition, unascertained as to whether hereditary
8     7     Hereditary slaveholding not present by Pattersons definition, although nonhereditary slavery present (e.g., slaves captured in warfare but not inherited) by Murdocks definition.
97    8     Slavery not present by either definition
2     9     Slavery not present by either definition, although the societies are largely composed of former slaves.
1     NA    NA
 
v919. Large Scale Slaveholding Systems: Recency
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
168   0     Not present
6     1     Present at or immediate prior to pinpointing date
6     2     Present within past fifty years
3     3     Present within past one hundred yesrs
2     4     Present within past two hundred years
1     5     Present within past three hundred years
 
v920. Large Scale Slaveholding Systems: Proportion of Slaves
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
168   0     Not present
5     1     1/6 to 1/3 of society, sometimes more
6     2     1/3 or more
5     3     more than 40 percent
1     4     more than 50 percent
1     5     more than 80 percent
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Frederic L. Pryor, 1986. The Adoption of Agriculture: Some Theoretical and Empirical Evidence. American Anthropologist 88:894-897.
 
v921. Agricultural Potential 1: Sum of Land Slope, Soils, Climate Scales
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=18
Freq  Value Description
1     4     Poorest potential
1     6     6
5     8     8
1     9     9
2     10    10
7     11    11
8     12    12
5     13    13
14    14    14
10    15    15
16    16    16
24    17    17
25    18    18
29    19    19
24    20    20
7     21    21
5     22    22
2     23    Richest potential
 
v922. Land Slope { Food and Agricultural Organization/Unesco. 1971-78. Soil Maps of the World. Unesco. [adjusted in Some Cases by Information Drawn from the Ethnographies] }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
29    4     Steeply dissected
15    5     5
36    6     Rolling to hilly (8 pct to 30 pct slope)
30    7     7
76    8     Level to gently undulating (0 to 8 pct slope)
 
v923. Data Quality: Inferences (Land Slope V922)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
169   0     Good data
17    1     Inferential
 
v924. Suitability of Soils for Agriculture { Food and Agricultural Organization/Unesco. 1971-78. Soil Maps of the World. Unesco. [qualitative Estimates from Soil Type Discussions] }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     0     Very Poor
30    2     Poor
3     3     3
99    4     Fair
11    5     5
30    6     Good
1     7     7
8     8     Very good
 
v925. Data Quality: Inferences (Soils V924)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
180   0     Good data
6     1     Inferential
 
v926. Climate Potential for Most Suitable Types of Crops { Papadakis, J. 1966. Climates of the World and their Agricultural Potential. Buenos Aires. [used to determine one of 73 climate types for each society] and Papadakis, J. 1970. Agricultural Potentialities of World Climates. Buenos Aires. [used to classify potentiality of climate type for different types of crops. Crops were divided into five classes: winter cereals, mid-season crops (sugar, beets, potatoes), other summer crops (cotton, peanuts, cassava), tree crops (bananas, coconuts), and summer cereals. For each a numerical climate rating was taken; the ratings for the two most favorable crop classes were averaged. Since some of these climate ratings assumed the presence of irrigation the ratings were adjusted as follows: (a) if rain index is 2 or less, subtract 5; (b) if rain index 3 or 4, subtract 3; (c) if rain index is above 4 but both leading crops require irrigation, subtract 3; (d) if rain index above 4 but one leading crop requires irrigation, subtract 1 ] }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
13    0     Non applicable, too cold for agriculture
14    3     Poor-Fair
8     4     Fair
21    5     Fair-Good
4     6     Good
47    7     Good-Very Good
79    8     Very good
 
v927. Data Quality: Inferences (Climate V926)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
182   0     Good data
4     1     Inferential
 
v928. Agricultural Potential 2: Lowest of Land Slope, Soils, Climate Scales
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
13    0     Lowest
27    2     Low
14    3     Medium-Low
92    4     Medium
16    5     Medium-High
17    6     High
3     7     High-Very High
4     8     Very High
 
v929. Average Annual Rainfall { World Meteorological Organization. 1971. Climatological Norms (CLINO) for Climate and Climate Ship Stations for the period 1931-1960. Geneva. [corresponding to the weather station closed to the village or society] }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=171; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     0     0mm < rainfall < 20 mm
2     1     20mm < rainfall < 50 mm
14    2     50mm < rainfall < 100 mm
17    3     100mm < rainfall < 200 mm
1     4     200mm < rainfall < 400 mm
25    5     400mm < rainfall < 600 mm
13    7     800mm < rainfall < 1000 mm
95    8     1000mm < rainfall
15    NA    NA
 
v930. Data Quality: Inferences (Rainfall V929)
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=186; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
184   0     Good data
2     1     Inferential
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Suzanne G. Frayser. 1985. Varieties of Sexual Experience. HRAF Press.
 
Note: In this dataset, 0's for some information, but insufficient to code are not as yet distinguished from .'s for no information or not coded. For several of the codes [931, 932, 941, 951, 958, 969, 975, 978, 979] the original source should be consulted as these are originally rankings of multiple factors and only the highest ranked item is coded here.
 
v931. Female Physical Appearance during the Daily Routine (Not Temporary Occasions Such as Ceremonial Gatherings) { Ranked According to the Severity of Physical Modification Involved }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=61; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
15    1     The amount, style, color, or material of the garment worn
5     2     Paraphernalia, e.g., belts, footwear, headgear and other accessories to the main garment, exclusive of jewelry
18    3     The amount, style, or placement of jewelry
7     4     The style, length, or color of head hair
5     6     The use of cosmetics, i.e., preparations applied to specific parts of the body to enhance their attractiveness, e.g., facial makeup, body scents, body oils, body paints, tooth blackeners
1     7     The removal of body hair, exclusive of head hair coded under 4, e.g., the removal of facial, axillary, or pubic hair
10    8     The deformation or mutilization of the body, exclusive of the genitals, i.e., a change in the form or the removal of a material part of the body, e.g., tattooing, cicatrization, cranial deformation, ear piercing
125   NA    NA
 
v932. Male Physical Appearance during the Daily Routine (Not Temporary Occasions Such as Ceremonial Gatherings) { Ranked According to the Severity of Physical Modification Involved }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=59; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
18    1     The amount, style, color, or material of the garment worn
7     2     Paraphernalia, e.g., belts, footwear, headgear and other accessories to the main garment, exclusive of jewelry
2     3     The amount, style, or placement of jewelry
9     4     The style, length, or color of head hair
8     5     The growth of facial hair, e.g., moustaches and beards
3     6     The use of cosmetics, i.e., preparations applied to specific parts of the body to enhance their attractiveness, e.g., facial makeup, body scents, body oils, body paints, tooth blackeners
3     7     The removal of body hair, exclusive of head hair coded under 4, e.g., the removal of facial, axillary, or pubic hair
8     8     The deformation or mutilization of the body, exclusive of the genitals, i.e., a change in the form or the removal of a material part of the body, e.g., tattooing, cicatrization, cranial deformation, ear piercing
1     9     The deformation or mutiliation of the genitals, e.g., clitoridectomy, circumcision, sewing the labia together
127   NA    NA
 
v933. Sleeping Arrangements of Adolescent Females: Where Unmarried but Sexually Mature Females Sleep in Relation to Sexually Mature Males in the Living Quarters { Ranked According to the Degree of Segregation of Female from Male Adolescents }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Girls marry before or very soon after puberty and live in the dwelling of their prospective husband
15    2     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents and sibs No special section reported for them
5     3     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents but in a particular section or partitioned area for them and/or their female siblings
2     4     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents but in a particular section for their mothers and female children Males sleep in a separate section
5     5     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents with no partition reported, but the adolescent males sleep in a separate section
12    6     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents with no partition reported, but the adolescent males sleep in a mens house or somewhere other than the natal dwelling
5     7     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their parents. There is a special or partitioned area for them. The adolescent males sleep elsewhere
4     8     Girls sleep in the same dwelling as their mother, but adolescent and other mature males sleep elsewhere
7     9     Girls sleep in their own hut or separate dwelling for adolescent girls. Adolescent boys sleep in a mens house or some dwelling other than the one in which their parents reside
129   NA    NA
 
v934. Married Women: Where Spouses Sleep in the Living Quarters { Ranked According to the Degree of Spatial Separation between the Spouses during Sleep }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=60; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
17    1     W (wife) sleeps with her H (husband) in their own dwelling No rooms or partitions between them are specified
11    2     W sleeps with her H in a dwelling that contains more than one conjugal family. No partitioned area reported for them
13    3     W sleeps with her H in a partitioned area in dwelling that contains more than one conjugal family
3     4     W sleeps with her H in her dwelling, but he has a dwelling of his own or spends most of his time in the mens house or elsewhere, e.g., with another wife
5     5     W sleeps with her H in her own room or section of the dwelling, separate from the section of her H
11    6     W sleeps in her dwelling, and her H sleeps in his dwelling or in a mens house except for the times when intercourse is desired
126   NA    NA
 
v935. Eating Arrangements: the Spatial Arrangement of the Sexes during the Main Meal of the Day { Exclusive of Arrangements Operative during Ceremonies or When Guests Are Present. Ranked According to the Degree of Segregation between Males and Females during the Meal. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
14    1     Men and women eat together. No particular arrangement is specified for the sexes
4     2     Men and women eat together. There is a strict positioning of them in the eating area, e.g., positioning according to kinship
12    3     Men and women do not eat together in public but certain kin may eat together in private, e.g., husband and wife
12    4     Men and women do not eat together and eat in different areas
5     5     Men and women do not eat together; the separation is accomplished by their eating at different times
139   NA    NA
 
v936. Individual Ordeal Involved at the Onset of the Menses. the Categories Are Arranged According to the Severity of the Ordeal
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
14    1     There is no ordeal reported although there may be a change in physical appearance, living arrangements, or name
14    2     Three is a slight ordeal involved, e.g., a very short or relaxed period of seclusion, a few minor eating taboos, etc
7     3     There is a moderate ordeal involved, e.g., a strict period of seclusion, restaints on movement, numerous eating taboos, etc
12    4     There is a severe ordeal involved, e.g., a painful physical operation such as clitoridectomy, a lengthy seclusion with numerous taboos on movement, eating and social contacts, etc
139   NA    NA
 
v937. Social Celebration Involved at the Onset of the Menses { Arranged According to the Amount of Celebration and the Extent of Participation in It. If There Are Differences According to Class Level, Code According to the Celebrations for the Average Individual }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=46; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
26    1     There is no celebration of any kind
5     2     There is a small celebration, e.g., the family group has a party
11    3     There is a moderate celebration, e.g., family, friends, and/or small kin group have a feast, dance, give gifts
4     4     There is an elaborate celebration, e.g., the community, a large kin group, or other large social grouping celebrate or a smaller group has a celebration for an extended period of time
140   NA    NA
 
v938. The Social Signficance of Change in a Woman's Position with the Onset of Menstruation. the Categories Are { Ranked According to the Degree of Emphasis Placed on Her Ability to Bear Children }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
3     1     It is not thought to be especially significant beyond a change in dress, name, etc
7     2     Its main significance is that she is an adult who has more social responsibilities
6     3     The main significance is that she is now capable of having intercourse, wehther or not she actually engages in it
4     4     Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and can engage in intercourse
11    5     Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage
4     6     Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and is an adult
3     7     Its main significance is that she is eligible for marriage and is capable of bearing children
3     8     Its main significance is that she is capable of bearing children
145   NA    NA
 
v939. Personal Restrictions or Regular Menstruation { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Woman Is Socially Isolated during Her Menses }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     1     There is no restriction placed on her during this period, and she carries on her activities as usual
5     2     There are restrictions placed on her personal activities but not on her social contacts, e.g., cooking taboos, eating taboos, taboos on what she may touch
4     3     There are restrictions placed on her personal movements and social contacts, e.g., she must remain in her dwelling or in a certain area of the settlements, she should avoid certain people
10    4     There are few restrictions placed on her personal activities and social contacts
10    5     There are moderate restrictions placed on her movements and her personal activities, e.g., she is in a partitioned area of the dwelling, she may not cook, she may see only certain people, she cannot engage in her usual economic activities, relaxed seclusion
8     6     There are severe restrictions imposed on her movements and personal activities, e.g., she is isolated in a menstrual hut, she may see few if any people, she may not cook, she may not feed herself
147   NA    NA
 
v940. Social Danger: Which Person (S) Would Be Most Harmed If the Woman Did Not Adhere to Her Menstrual Restrictions { Ranked According to How Large a Group Is Thought to Be Endangered by the Woman's Actions. If More than One Category Is Involved, Code the Most Important Danger First, the Second Most Important One, Second }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=30; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
4     1     No one is thought to be endangered during this period
5     2     Only the menstruating woman is endangered
4     4     The woman endangers men. If both 3 & 4, code as 4
1     5     The woman endangers other women and/or children, e.g., the fertility of other women, newborn children
6     6     The woman endangers anyone with whom she comes in contact
10    7     The woman endangers her social group, e.g., the fertility of the crops, the response of the supernatural to them, harm to an important social functionary
156   NA    NA
 
v941. Personal Restrictions on Pregnancy { Ranked According to the Degree of Segregation from Social Contacts That Is Involved }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=52; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
7     0     Some information, but insufficient to code
3     1     No modification is reported
2     2     She modifies the usual garments she wears and/or the usual care of her body, e.g., she wears more loosefitting garments, wears amulets to ward off evil spirits, pays special attention to cleanliness, etc
11    3     She modifies the use of her sensory apparatus, e.g., she avoids hearing, seeing, or touching certain things
17    4     She modifies her diet, e.g., she avoids eating certain foods
5     5     She modifies her usual domestic or economic duties, e.g., she does not cook she has someone else care for the children
4     6     She modifies her suaul mobility, e.g., she should not leave the settlement, she avoids certain places
2     7     Her usual social relations and/or living arrangements are modifies, e.g., she may not sleep where she usually does, she cannot be near certain people, she must not behave in the usual manner
1     8     She modifies her participation in social groups and activities, e.g., religious events
134   NA    NA
 
v942. Purpose of Pregnancy Restrictions: { Ranked According to the Extensiveness of the Social Harm That May Result from a Woman Not Modifying Her Behavior along the Expected Lines. the Code Should Indicate Which Person (S) the Restrictions Are Most Concerned with Protecting }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=40; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     They are to prevent harm to the baby
4     2     They are to prevent harm to the mother, e.g, illness, difficult delivery
21    3     They are to prevent harm to the baby and the mother, e.g., miscarriage, attacks from the spirits, etc
2     4     They are to prevent harm to anyone with whom she comes in contact and/or the social group of which she is a part, e.g., to prevent failure of the crops, to prevent an epidemic
146   NA    NA
 
v943. Special Segregation at Birth: Location of the Woman When She Gives Birth: Where the Birth of the First Child Takes Place { Ranked According to the Degree of Segregation in or from Her Ordinary Dwelling When the Woman Gives Birth }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
1     1     No special place is prepared for the birth of the child; the woman gives birth wherever she happens to be
10    2     The woman gives birth in the dwelling where she usually resides, but no special partitions are set up
11    3     The woman gives birth in the dwelling where she usually resides but in a partitioned or otherwise demarcated area or room
2     4     The woman gives birth in an area near the dwelling where she usually resides, e.g., under the dwelling, in a lean-to near the dwelling
4     5     The woman does not give birth in a special dwelling but in a place outside of the area where most social activity occurs, e.g., on the fringes or outside of the dwelling area
11    6     The woman gives birth in a structure explicitly constructed for the purpose, e.g., a birth hut
1     7     The woman does not give birth in her usual residence but in the dwelling of an affinal relative
7     8     The woman does not give birth in her usual residence but in the dwelling of a consanguineal relative
139   NA    NA
 
v944. Residence of the New Parents at the Birth of Their First Child
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=56; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
15    1     Temporary matrilocality
11    2     Permanent matrilocality
2     3     Ambilocality
4     4     Neolocality
24    5     Patrilocality
130   NA    NA
 
v945. Purpose of Personal Birth Restrictions. Each Category Indicates Why the Taboos and Restrictions on a Woman's Personal Behavior Are Imposed after She Bears a Child { Ranked According to the Degree That the Restrictions Affect Other People }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=38; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
13    1     Restrictions are imposed on her to promote the well-being of her child, e.g., she is cared for so that she can produce milk for the baby
4     2     Restrictions are imposed on her to prevent harm to her and/or to promote her well-being, e.g., other people prepare and bring her food, she does not work, she is indulged
14    3     Restrictions are imposed to prevent harm to her and her baby
7     4     Restrictions are imposed on her to prevent harm to those with whom she comes in contact and/or to prevent harm to her social group
148   NA    NA
 
v946. Duration of Personal Birth Restrictions. Each Category Specifies a Period of Time after Birth before the Woman Resumes Her Usual Domestic and Economic Activities
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=55; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     0     Some information, but insufficient to code
21    1     0-7 days
14    2     8-14 days
6     3     15-30 days
6     4     31-60 days
3     5     more than two months
131   NA    NA
 
Celebration of birth: The degree of social concern with the birth of a child as indicated by the amount of celebration after the birth and the extent of social participation in it. The codes apply to the largest social class and exclude such particular occasions as the celebratino of multiple births or the birth of an heir to a king. Coded for the first born if there is a difference in treatment for different births. Coded for the desired sex if there is a difference for males and females
 
v947. Type of Birth Celebration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=54; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     There is no celebratin for the mother or child after birth
5     2     There is no celebration after birth, but people do come to visit, offer congratulations, etc
21    3     There is a minor celebration after the birth, e.g, a small meal, a few drinks, etc
9     4     There is a moderate amount of celebration after the birth, e.g., a feast, dancing
15    5     There is an elaborate celebration after the birth, e.g., elaborate feasting, dancing, many rites performed
132   NA    NA
 
v948. When the Birth Celebration Occurs
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
4     0     Some information, but insufficient to code
20    1     Immediately or a few days after delivery
1     2     After the mother comes out of confinement
14    3     When the baby is named or baptized
5     4     When the baby and mother come out of confinement
3     5     Other
139   NA    NA
 
v949. Participants in the Birth Celebration. the Code Indicates the Most Extensive Group Which Participates in the Celebration of Birth { Ranked According to the Extensiveness of the Group }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=36; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
5     1     No one is involved in a celebration
1     2     The husbands family
7     3     Friends and neighbors
1     4     The wifes kin unit
8     5     Friends of the H and W and relatives
6     6     The wifes and husbands kin units or relatives of a group more extensive than the family
8     7     The community or large social, group to which the H and W belong
150   NA    NA
 
Children. This section deals with the ways in which childbearing is socially encouraged or curtailed
 
v950. Preferred Sex and Number of Children
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     They want very few children, regardless of sex
19    2     They prefer to have males rather than females, regardless of sex
7     3     They prefer to have females rather than males, regardless of number
7     4     Either sex is acceptable, e.g., the father wants a boy, the mother wants a girl, or they dont care as long as the child is healthy
13    5     They prefer a large number of children, regardless of their sex
139   NA    NA
 
v951. Explanation of Barrenness { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Woman Is Blamed for Her Barrenness }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=30; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
6     2     Barrenness is regarded as an unfortunate physical condition that has befallen a woman through no fault of her own
7     3     Barrenness is regarded as the fault of others who bear malice towards the woman, e.g., witches
7     4     Barrenness is regarded as the fault of others who break taboos that have ramifications for her fertility
7     5     Barrenness is regarded as the fault of supernatural forces or supernatural beings who are generally malevolent
1     6     Barrenness is regarded as the fault of the woman who is being punished for committing some offense which is not sexual in nature
2     7     Barrenness is regarded as punishment to a woman who has committed some sexual offense, e.g., adultery, incest
156   NA    NA
 
v952. Penalties for Barrenness { Ranked According to the Severity of the Penalty the Woman Incurs If She Is Barren }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=52; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     1     No penalties are reported
13    2     Remedies are actively sought to correct the condition, e.g., amulets, potions, ceremonies
12    3     Provision is made for a child by adoption for fosterage
7     4     Provision is made for a child by the husband taking an additional wife to bear children or by the wife getting another woman to bear children for her husband
15    5     The womans husband can or does divorce her
4     6     The woman is ostracized because she has no children, e.g., jokes are made about her. She is given a subsidiary role in domestic tasks
134   NA    NA
 
v953. Contraception: Knowledge and Use of Means to Prevent the Conception of Children { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Responsibility for Contraception Devolves upon the Woman }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
9     1     No contraception is known about or used
3     2     Contraception is present, but there is no information on the method
1     3     There is a rudimentary form of contraception, e.g., abstention when the woman is thought most likely to conceive, coitus interruptus
12    4     Contraception is present by implication, e.g., a long post-partum sex taboos or abstention while nursing
4     5     There is a long post-partum sex taboos and rudimentary contraception
3     6     There is a long post-partum sex taboos and the woman practices some intentional form of contraception
9     7     The woman is primarily responsible for contraception, e.g., she has knowledge of rites she can perform to prevent offspring or she has knowledge of rites she can perform to prevent offspring or she swallows a drug
145   NA    NA
 
v954. Social Approval for Abortion: Approval of and Rationale for Action Taken to Prevent the Birth of a Child by Expelling the Fetus before It Is Viable { Ranked According to the Amount of Social Disapproval towards Abortion }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=47; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Abortions occur, but there is no information on frequency
12    2     Abortions are permitted and occur frequently
9     4     Abortions are disapproved of but do occur. If they are infrequent and there is no information on approval, code in this category
9     5     Abortions are strongly disapproved of and occur rarely or never
139   NA    NA
 
v955. Rationale for Abortions { Ranked According to the Degree to Which Social Rather than Personal Considerations Lead to the Abortion. If There Is More than One Reason, Indicate the Most Frequent Reason First on the Code Sheet, Second, etc. up to Four Important Reasons. }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=34; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
8     1     No abortions
6     2     Concern for the psychological or pgysical state of the mother, e.g., she does not want more children, she is concerned about her beauty, or she does not want to lose her husband
3     3     Revenge, e.g., the woman is angry with her husband
3     4     Concern for the childs welfare, e.g., the mother is nursing another which would leave no milk for another, or the couple cannot afford more children
9     5     The child was conceived out of wedlock
4     6     The child was conceived in an illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adulterous, incestuous, or with a man of the wrong social class or ethnic group
1     7     Other
152   NA    NA
 
Infanticide. This part deals with the approval of and rationale for killing an infant after he is born
 
v956. Social Approval for Infanticide { Ranked According to the Amount of Social Disapproval Incurred If Infanticide Occurs }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
19    1     Infanticide occurs, but there is no information on frequency
3     2     Infanticide is permitted and occurs frequently
4     3     Infanticide is permitted and occurs infrequently
5     4     Infanticide is disapproved of but does occur. If it occurs, and there is no information on approval, code here
10    5     Infanticide is disapproved and does not occur
145   NA    NA
 
v957. Rationale for Infanticide. Each Category Indicates a Reason for Which an Infant Might Be Killed { Ranked According to the Degree to Which Social Rather than Personal Reasons Lead to the Infanticide }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=39; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
8     1     No infanticide
4     2     The mothers welfare, e.g., she does not want more children, she is afraid of losing her charms, etc
1     3     Revenge, e.g., due to argument with husband
2     4     Concern for the childs welfare, e.g., the couple cannot support more children or there is ni one to suckle the child
7     5     The child was born in an unusual position, exhibited some unusual behavior or physical trait at birth, or was deformed, e.g., hair was already present on the child, or the child was born feet first
8     6     The child was one of a multiple birth
2     7     The child was a female
6     8     The child was born of an illicit sexual relationship, i.e., premarital, adulterous, or incestuous
1     9     Other
147   NA    NA
 
III. Sexual Relations and their Social Context. This section deals with sexual relations from two perspectives. The first focuses on intercourse and the restrictions that are placed on it. The second focuses on marriage as the most common context within which intercourse and childbearing occur
 
v958. Restrictions on the Occasion of Intercourse. Each Category Specifies an Occasion When Intercourse Is Proscribed or Strongly Preferred Not to Take Place { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Occasion for Intercourse Is Tied to a Social Rather than N Individual State or Activity }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=56; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
2     1     It cannot occur during menstruation
16    2     It cannot occur for some period after childbirth whether because of nursing or a postpartum sex taboo and/or during pregnancy
12    3     It cannot occur during mensturation and after childbirth and/or during pregnancy
3     4     It cannot occur before, during, or after life cycle events, e.g., after the death of a spouse or at initiation
3     6     It cannot occur before, during, and/or after a military expedition
11    7     It cannot occur before, during and/or after a major economic activity and/or a manufacturing operation
6     8     It cannot occur before, during and/or after a ritual program of some sort, e.g., days of abstinence of power seeking
3     9     It cannot occur before, during and/or after non-life cycle ceremonial events, e.g., harvest festivals
130   NA    NA
 
v959. Extensions of the Incest Taboo. Each Category Specifies an Extension of the Incest Taboo beyond the Nuclear Family { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Emphasis Is on Nonkinship Considerations. the Coding Should Indicate the Focus of the Strongest Extension of the Incest Taboo }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
5     1     No extension beyond the nuclear family is reported. Note in the comments if the strongest prohibition in the family is Br-Si, Mo-So, or Fa-Dau
2     2     Bilateral extensions by cross or parallel cousins
17    3     Bilateral extension by degree of cousinage from ego
1     4     Other
9     5     Matrilineal extensions, with or without other bilateral extensions
7     6     Patrilineal extensions, with or without other bilateral extensions
1     7     Extensions based on nonkinship considerations, e.g., ritual bonds, household composition, locality, or social class
144   NA    NA
 
v960. Violation of the Incest Taboo { Ranked According to the Extent of the Consequences of Violating the Incest Taboo }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=29; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
8     1     None or mild punishment, e.g., ostracism or a fine
3     2     Moderate punishment, e.g., offenders meet with misfortune such as sickness or bad luck
9     3     Severe punishment, e.g., death, barrenness, or expulsion from the community
5     4     Punishment to others than the offenders, e.g., their family or kin group
1     5     Punishment to the total social group, e.g., an epidemic or crop failure in the community
3     6     Punishment that affects the offenders as well as their social group, i.e., category `2` or `3` in combination with `5` category
157   NA    NA
 
v961. Restrictions on Premarital Sex { Ranked According to the Degree of Prohibition against Premarital Sex }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=61; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
17    1     It is permitted for both sexes
1     2     It is permitted for both but in limited contexts, e.g., with prostitutes or as part of a ceremony
9     3     It is permitted and not punished unless pregnancy results
12    4     It is permitted for males but no females
9     5     Premarital relations are disapproved but no infrequent in fact
4     6     Insistence on virginity for the woman. There is no information on restrictions on the male
9     7     Premarital relations are strongly disapproved and rare
125   NA    NA
 
v962. Violation of Restrictions on Premarital Sex. Each Category Specifies the Consequences a Woman Faces If She Violates a Premarital Sex Prohibition
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=51; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
19    1     Neither she nor her partner face punishment
13    2     Her partner is punished, but she is not
4     3     Mild punishment for the women, e.g., temporary ostracism
8     4     Moderate punishment for the woman, e.g., marriage is more difficult or physical punishment
2     5     Severe punishment, e.g., banishment from her social group, or she is killed
5     6     [Kenuzi, Gheg, Kurd, Manus, Mbau] - Severe or killed ?
135   NA    NA
 
v963. Restrictions and Extramarital Sex { Ranked According to the Strength of the Prohibition against Extramarital Sex }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=58; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
3     1     Permitted for both H and W
11    2     Permitted for both but only in limited contexts, e.g., with particular relatives of the spouse, ceremonial license
1     3     Permitted and not punished unless pregnancy results
15    4     Permitted for the husband but not for the wife
15    5     Weakly prohibited, e.g., frequent violations or weak punishment
13    6     Strongly prohibited, e.g., occurs rarely or severe punishment
128   NA    NA
 
v964. Punishment for Extramarital Sex { Ranked According to the Severity of Punishment That a Woman Receives If She Commits Adultery }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=54; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
5     1     No punishment or mild punishment, e.g., a warning or a fine
3     2     Generally mild punishment, but she can be killed for it
6     3     Moderate punishment, e.g., a beating or incarceration
14    4     Generally moderate punishment, but she can be killed or divorced for it
8     5     The woman is divorced
5     6     She is generally divorced, but she can be killed for it
8     7     Severe punishment, e.g., permanent physical damage, but she can be killed or divorced for it
5     8     The woman is killed or commits suicide
132   NA    NA
 
v965. Violation: Who Is Punished for Adultery { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Woman Is Punished }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=48; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Only the lover is punished
15    3     Both the woman and her lover are punished, but the lover is punished more severely than the woman
19    4     Both the woman and her lover are punished by almost equally severe punishment
6     5     Both the woman and her lover are punished, but the woman is punished more severely than her lover
6     6     Only the woman is punished
138   NA    NA
 
v966. Violation: Who Punishes Adultery { Ranked According to the Degree to Which Responsibility for Punishment of the Woman Resides with the Social Group }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=55; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     0     Some information, but insufficient to code
2     1     No punishment for the women
39    2     The husband punishes his wife and/or her lover, if the wife is not punished
3     4     A representative of the family or kin group of the wife punishes her
8     5     The community as a whole or its representative punishes her
2     6     Supernatural consequences fall upon the woman, e.g., mystical retribution or punishment by the ancestral gods
131   NA    NA
 
Marriage. This part focuses on the establishment, characteristics, and dissolution of marriage, the most prominent form of legitimate sexual relationship and context for the birth of children
 
v967. Age of Woman at Establishment of Marriage: First Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Under 12 years
18    2     12-15 years (if the source says that boys or girls marry at puberty, code it here)
11    3     16-17 years
10    4     18-21 years
3     5     22-25 years
1     6     26 years and older
141   NA    NA
 
v968. Age of Man at Establishment of Marriage: First Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=42; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     2     12-15 years (if the source says that boys or girls marry at puberty, code it here)
7     3     16-17 years
15    4     18-21 years
6     5     22-25 years
10    6     26 years and older
144   NA    NA
 
v969. Choice of Spouse: Social Restrictions Which Limit an Individual's Choice of Whom He Can Marry { Ranked According to the Degree That Nonkinship Considerations Play an Important Role }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=59; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
18    1     Bilateral considerations, including not marrying a relative
7     2     Bilateral considerations, specifically cross and parallel cousins
10    3     Kinship of a matrilineal or matrilateral nature
16    4     Kinship of a patrilineal or patrilateral nature
2     5     Locality where the potential spouse lives
1     7     The age or generation of the potential spouse
5     8     The status of the potential spouse
127   NA    NA
 
Agreement to marry. This deals with the extent to which marriage is a transaction between social groups rather than the couple
 
v970. Marriage Proposal: besides the Groom, Whose Proposal Is Regarded as Most Necessary in Initiating Marriage { Ranked According to How Extensive a Group Is Involved in Initiating Marriage }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=58; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
6     1     The brides family or a relative of the bride
30    2     The brides and grooms families
2     3     The grooms kin group and the brides family
20    5     The kin groups of the bride and groom
128   NA    NA
 
v971. Consent to Marry: How Necessary Is the Consent of the Prospective Wife for Marriage Arrangements to Proceed
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
19    1     Propective spouses consent is necessary, i.e., the marriage cannot take place without it
22    2     The prospective spouse is consulted
16    3     The prospective spouse is not consulted
129   NA    NA
 
v972. Consent to Marry: How Necessary Is the Consent of the Prospective Husband for Marriage Arrangements to Proceed
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=54; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
23    1     Propective spouses consent is necessary, i.e., the marriage cannot take place without it
22    2     The prospective spouse is consulted
9     3     The prospective spouse is not consulted
132   NA    NA
 
v973. Degree of Marriage Celebration
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
4     1     There is no celebration
16    2     There is a small celebration, e.g., a minor acknowledgement or exchange of gifts
15    3     There is a moderate celebration, e.g., a feast, dancing, dramatic performances, or extensive gift exchange
22    4     There is an elaborate celebration, e.g., it lasts a long period of time, is characterized by lavish dress, has elaborate performances, etc
129   NA    NA
 
v974. Type of Participants in the Wedding { Ranked According to How Extensive the Group Is }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=50; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     1     Friends of the couple
4     2     The family of the bride or the groom
4     3     The kin group of the bride or groom
9     4     The families of the bride and groom
19    5     The kin groups or relatives of the bride and groom
12    7     The community
136   NA    NA
 
v975. The Rights Transferred by Women at Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=50; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
9     1     Rights concerning priority of sexual access
10    2     Rights concerning offspring
6     3     Rights concerning choice of residence
8     4     Rights concerning domestic services
12    5     Rights concerning economic labor
5     6     Rights concerning choice of residence and economic labor
136   NA    NA
 
v976. The Rights Transferred by Men at Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=37; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Rights concerning priority of sexual access
2     2     Rights concerning offspring
1     3     Rights concerning choice of residence
22    5     Rights concerning economic labor
11    6     Rights concerning choice of residence and economic labor
149   NA    NA
 
v977. Finality: Factors That Are Important for the Firm Establishment of a Marriage { Ranked According to the Degree to Which Its Establishment Depends on the Groom. the Code Reflects the Most Important Obligation That Must Be Met before the Marriage Is Considered Final }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
18    1     After children or children of the appropriate sex are born
2     2     After cohabitation and the birth of children
4     3     After cohabitation
6     4     After children are born and after bride price is paid
5     5     After a marriage ceremony
10    6     After bride-price has been paid
141   NA    NA
 
v978. Grounds for Divorce: Wife's Reasons given for Dissolving a Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=48; Number of unique values=9
Freq  Value Description
5     1     There is no divorce
3     2     Reproductive problems, e.g., barrenness or impotence
5     3     Illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adultery
7     4     Physical violence, e.g., beatings
11    5     Incompatibility
1     6     Desertion or extreme neglect
2     7     Incompatibility with affines
9     8     Failure in economic or domestic duties, e.g., laziness, poor provider or nonpayment of marriage payments
5     9     None or trivial grounds, e.g., another woman or man is more desirable or he or she does not like his or her current spouse
138   NA    NA
 
v979. Grounds for Divorce: Husband's Reasons given for Dissolving a Marriage
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=56; Number of unique values=8
Freq  Value Description
4     1     There is no divorce
16    2     Reproductive problems, e.g., barrenness or impotence
9     3     Illicit sexual relationship, e.g., adultery
12    5     Incompatibility
3     6     Desertion or extreme neglect
1     7     Incompatibility with affines
8     8     Failure in economic or domestic duties, e.g., laziness, poor provider or nonpayment of marriage payments
3     9     None or trivial grounds, e.g., another woman or man is more desirable or he or she does not like his or her current spouse
130   NA    NA
 
v980. Restrictions on Divorce { Ranked According to the Difficulty a Woman Has in Obtaining a Divorce }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
17    1     Divorce is allowed for both the H and W
6     2     Divorce is more difficult for a man to obtain. There is a prohibition against his obtaining one or a low frequency of men who obtain a divorce
8     3     Divorce is difficult and/or has a low frequency for both men and women
14    4     Divorce is more difficult for the wife to obtain. There is a prohibition against her obtaining one or a low frequency of wives obtaining a divorce
141   NA    NA
 
v981. Rights over Offspring after Divorce { Ranked According to the Degree to Which the Husband Retains Custody over the Children after a Divorce }
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=45; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
4     1     No divorce
8     2     The wife keeps all of the children
11    3     Who has custody of the children depends on the age and/or wishes of the children, e.g., the mother may take the infants
6     4     Each spouse has custody of some of the children, e.g., the wife keeps the girls and the husband the boys
7     5     Custody of the children depends on the circumstances of the divorce
9     6     The husband has custody of all of the children
141   NA    NA
 
v982. Remarriage after Divorce { Ranked According to How Difficult It Is to Remarry after a Divorce }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=41; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
29    1     Both the H and W may remarry
7     2     Both the H and W may remarry, but it is easier for the H
1     3     It is difficult for both the H and W to remarry after divorce
4     4     No divorce
145   NA    NA
 
v983. Property Exchanges after Divorce. Ranked in Order of the Amount of Financial Loss Incurred by the Wife When a Divorce Occurs
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=43; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
4     1     There is no divorce
8     2     No financial transactions occur after a divorce, or there is an equal division of property
6     3     The H or his kin pay compensation
16    4     The transactions that occur depend on the circumstances of the divorce
9     6     The wife and/or her kin group pay compensation, e.g., return brideprice
143   NA    NA
 
v984. Remarriage of Widows { The Categories Are Ranked in Order of the Degree of Restriction a Woman Faces to Remarry after Her Husband's Death }
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=57; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
14    1     She may marry anyone she chooses
7     2     She may remarry but often chooses not to, e.g., she would suffer financial loss or her children can care for her
20    4     She may remarry, but first priority is given to marrying a specific relative of her husbands or someone chosen by her husbands kin group, e.g., levirate
13    5     She must marry a specific relative of the husbands or someone chosen by her husbands kin group or not remarry
3     6     She may not remarry
129   NA    NA
 
v985. Length of Time before a Widow Remarries
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=35; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
5     0     Some information, but insufficient to code
9     1     0-6 months
5     2     6 months to less than a year
10    3     1 year to less than 2 years
4     4     More than two years
1     5     No remarriage
1     6     Undefined [coded for Mbau Fijians]
151   NA    NA
 
-----------------------------------------------------------
SOURCE: Ronald P. Rohner and Evelyn C. Rohner, 1982, Behavior Science Research
 
v986. Importance of Mothers for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=13; Number of unique values=2
Freq  Value Description
4     6     Frequently the major caretaker
9     8     Almost always the major caretaker
173   NA    NA
 
v987. Importance of Mothers for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=26; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     6     Frequently the major caretaker
1     7     Very Frequent ?
23    8     Almost always the major caretaker
160   NA    NA
 
v988. Importance of Mothers for Both Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=124; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
5     2     Rarely the major caretaker
2     4     Sometimes the major caretaker
3     5     Often ?
18    6     Frequently the major caretaker
8     7     Very Frequent ?
88    8     Almost always the major caretaker
62    NA    NA
 
v989. Importance of Fathers for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=20; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely the major caretaker
1     4     Sometimes the major caretaker
5     6     Frequently the major caretaker
13    8     Almost always the major caretaker
166   NA    NA
 
v990. Importance of Fathers for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=9; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
3     2     Rarely the major caretaker
1     3     Occasional ?
5     6     Frequently the major caretaker
177   NA    NA
 
v991. Importance of Fathers for Both Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=67; Number of unique values=7
Freq  Value Description
19    2     Rarely the major caretaker
2     3     Occasional ?
13    4     Sometimes the major caretaker
7     5     Often ?
17    6     Frequently the major caretaker
2     7     Very Frequent ?
7     8     Almost always the major caretaker
119   NA    NA
 
v992. Importance of Others for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=7; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
3     4     Sometimes the major caretaker
2     6     Frequently the major caretaker
2     8     Almost always the major caretaker
179   NA    NA
 
v993. Identification of Others for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=7; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls)
3     3     Grandparents, usually grandmother
2     4     Mothers brother or mothers sister
179   NA    NA
 
v994. Importance of Others for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=3
Freq  Value Description
1     5     Often ?
2     6     Frequently the major caretaker
2     8     Almost always the major caretaker
181   NA    NA
 
v995. Identification of Others for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=5; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
1     1     Adults in household or community (other than parents)
1     2     Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls)
2     3     Grandparents, usually grandmother
1     6     Siblings (usually older sisters)
181   NA    NA
 
v996. Importance of Siblings (Usually Older Sisters) for Both Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=49; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Rarely the major caretaker
13    4     Sometimes the major caretaker
6     5     Often ?
11    6     Frequently the major caretaker
7     7     Very Frequent ?
11    8     Almost always the major caretaker
137   NA    NA
 
v997. Importance of Grandparents (Usually Grandmothers) for Both Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=23; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
3     4     Sometimes the major caretaker
1     5     Often ?
11    6     Frequently the major caretaker
2     7     Very Frequent ?
6     8     Almost always the major caretaker
163   NA    NA
 
v998. Importance of Others for Both Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=26; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     2     Rarely the major caretaker
1     3     Occasional ?
8     4     Sometimes the major caretaker
9     6     Frequently the major caretaker
2     7     Very Frequent ?
4     8     Almost always the major caretaker
160   NA    NA
 
v999. Identification of Others for Boys and Girls, without Regard to Gender
Class=numeric; Type=categorical; Number non-missing=26; Number of unique values=4
Freq  Value Description
10    1     Adults in household or community (other than parents)
4     2     Elders in community (often elder males for boys, elder females for girls)
8     4     Mothers brother or mothers sister
4     5     Peers, age-mates, older youths, but not siblings
160   NA    NA
 
v1000. Enculturative Continuity for Boys
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=110; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Discontinuity, fundamental
18    4     Discontinuity, significant
6     5     both elements ?
43    6     Significant continuity (Minor elements only of discontinuity)
14    7     Very Significant ?
28    8     Fundamental continuity
76    NA    NA
 
v1001. Incomplete Continuity for Boys: Age
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=11; Number of unique values=5
Freq  Value Description
2     2     around age six
2     3     around age seven
3     4     around age eight
1     5     around age nine
3     6     around age ten
175   NA    NA
 
v1002. Enculturative Continuity for Girls
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=109; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
1     2     Fundamental discontinuity
11    4     Significant discontinuity
5     5     both elements ?
38    6     Significant continuity (Minor elements only of discontinuity)
9     7     Very Significant ?
45    8     Fundamental continuity
77    NA    NA
 
v1003. Incomplete Continuity for Girls: Age
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=12; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Value Description
2     1     around age five (or slightly younger)
1     2     around age six
4     3     around age seven
1     4     around age eight
1     5     around age nine
3     6     around age ten
174   NA    NA
 
v1004. Enculturative Continuity for Both Boys and Girls without Regard for Gender
Class=numeric; Type=ordinal; Number non-missing=133; Number of unique values=6
Freq  Va