Exam 2 Study Questions
- What is socialization? Discuss the different types of socialization. Discuss the major agents of socialization. Given that the people of a society are socialized into a common culture, how do you account for individual differences? How does socialization relate to the social self?
- What is the nature versus nurture controversy? How does viewing the self as a social construction inform the nature versus nurture debate?
- Mead argued that the self is reflexive. What does this mean and what are its implications? How is Mead's notion of the reflexive self similar to and different from Cooley's looking-glass self?
- Compare and relate the "Iowa School" and the "Chicago School" approaches to the social self. How are they alike? How are they different? To which of these approaches is Goffman's dramaturgical approach most similar?
- What does Goffman mean by the "presentation of self?" What is the relationship between self, roles, and identities in Goffman's thought? How does Goffman's notion of the self differ from earlier approaches?
- Discuss the following as they relate to the presentation of self and the maintenance of identities/selves during interaction: (1) "face work," 2) accounts and disclaimers, (3) collective performances, and (4) interaction rituals?
- Is there a "true" or "core" self? Answer the question by discussing what Cooley, Mead, the "Iowa School," the "Chicago School," and Goffman have to say about the issue. Can the self be both situational and enduring? How is this possible?
- Discuss the following as they relate to the experience of the individual in contemporary mass culture: alienation, anomie, powerlessness, and the fragmentation and saturation of the self. How are the above related to social movements such as religious fundamentalism, the new age movement, the self-help movement, the voluntary simplicity movement, and to the increase use of psychotherapy.
- What is the role of narratives/stories, close relationships, and group memberships in the production, maintenance and transformation of selves/identities.