Ahlman, Todd (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1997. A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF RESULTS FROM THE WATTS BAR RESERVOIR SURVEY. The University of Tennessee-Knoxville's Department of Anthropology has just completed a three year survey of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar Reservoir in East Tennessee resulting in the recording of over 300 new sites and the resurvey of numerous previously recorded sites. The survey involved the walkover of beach exposed during the reservoir drawdown and the shovel testing of larger tracts of land owned by TVA within the reservoir's boundaries. We were able to record many sites ranging from Archaic to late Historic and consisting of such diverse site types as rock art, an iron furnace, plantations, prehistoric mounds, and small prehistoric and historic scatters. This paper addresses some of the more interesting finds and gives a preliminary analysis of the survey results.
Ahlman, Todd M. (University of Tennessee Knoxville). 1999. PHASE II AND III ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE TIPTON/DIXON HOUSE SITE (40LD179), LOUDON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Tipton/Dixon House site in Loudon County, Tennessee is on an older alluvial terrace of the Bat Creek Peninsula that extends into the Tellico Reservoir. Phase II archaeological testing of the site by the University of Tennessee revealed prehistoric and historic period occupations. The prehistoric component appears to be a small Middle and Late Woodland upland campsite. The recovered artifacts consist of Middle and Late Woodland pottery and projectile points. A few prehistoric cultural features, primarily shallow pits, were encountered. The historic period occupation began around 1920 when William Dixon settled the property, and continued through the 1960s. During Dixon's tenure a house on the property served as the first Circuit Court for Monroe County. During the Antebellum period, John B. Tipton, a large landowner and politician who owned several slaves, occupied the property. During the 20th century the property was occupied by a series of tenants until it was purchased by TVA. Phase III archaeological excavations were recently undertaken to address questions relating to the prehito5ric component, the construction sequence of the house, the activities in the backyard and where the African-American slaves may have resided.
Ahlman, Todd M. and Brad Duplantis (The Louis Berger Group, Inc.). 2003. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE OCOEE NO. 1 RESERVOIR, POLK COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In early 2002, the Louis Berger Group, Inc., on behalf of the Tennessee Valley Authority, undertook an archaeological survey of shoreline of the Ocoee No. 1 Reservoir in Polk County. The survey identified 18 new sites and two previously recorded sites that ranged in age from the Middle Archaic to the early twentieth century. As a follow-up study to the survey, a Weights-of-Evidence analysis was applied to the survey results to test the survey assumptions regarding the potential for the occurrence of archaeological sites. Weights-of-Evidence is a Bayesian approach that uses an evidential theme of known points and environmental factors to derive a probability for the occurrence of the point theme elsewhere on the landscape. Factors used to test the assumption were slope, aspect, and soil type.
Albertson, Eric (Panamerican Consultants Inc.). 1999. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT FT. CAMPBELL, KENTUCKY-TENNESSEE. During the past calendar year, the Memphis office of Panamerican Consultants, Inc. has conducted three large-scale survey projects at Fort Campbell under a contract with the National Park Service. Approximately 9400 acres have been surveyed utilizing an intensive 20-meter interval site detection strategy. A large number of sites have been identified during the course of fieldwork, ranging from Paleoindian encampments to an upland Mississippian period farmstead, as well as late Historic rural residences. Significant findings are presented from a cultural-historical perspective.
Alexander, Lawrence S. (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 1995. ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE BATTLEFIELD OF LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. Civil War fighting around Chattanooga took place from September 22-November 25, 1863. The Battles of Wauhatchie and Lookout MOuntain resulted in clearing Confederate troops from Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga Valley. WHile the National Park Service owns approximately half of the battlefield, the remaining segments are located on private and public lands. These sites are not inventoried or protected from development. Archaeological survey in Lookout Valley, and a testing program on Moccasin Bend National Historic Landmark have indicated that significant battlefield features and encampments remain intact. This paper will present the results of this preliminary work.
Alexander, Lawrence S. (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 1996. THE POLITICS AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF BURIAL REMOVAL AT SITE 40HA407, HAMILTON COUNTY. In July 1995, site preparation of an apartment complex near Collegedale, Tennessee, uncovered a series of Native American graves, and the grave discovery was reported in the news media. The property owner applied for a Termination of Cemetery order from the Hamilton County Chancery Court. The legal process provided an opportunity for special interest groups to vigorously express opinions as well as petition the federal court to stop the construction. During the grave location process, approximately 127 features were cross-sectioned and 15 graves were subsequently removed. The occupation ranged from Early Archaic through Middle Woodland. The Late Archaic and Middle Woodland were the primary components present. One probably Late Archaic grave contained an adult female with multiple cranial fragments included as grave fill. The human remains are awaiting reinterment near the apartment complex.
Alexander, Lawrence (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2000. DATA RECOVERY AT SITE 40RH221. Site 40Rh221 is an early 19th century rural farmhouse that illustrates the historical archaeology of the Howertons who moved to Rhea County, Tennessee from North Carolina in 1807. Grief and Jane Howerton had three sons who married and farmed on Richland Creek. The structure was built in 1812 by Edmund or Jackson Howerton who both married and resided in the area until 1840. The youngest brother, Micajah Howerton, contined to reside in Rhea County. Edmund and Jackson Howerton and their families moved fromt he region in 1840. By 1823 the Howertons collectively owned 350 acres and a grist mill. They were also active in Rhea County politics. The Howerton School and district polling location was established in 1836, and by the Civil War the Howertons owned two or three slaves. The slaves were freed and continued to reside on the Howerton property. In 1876, the former slaves were given the last name of Howerton and the title to property was goven to "George Howerton." The archaeological investigation at the sit4e yielded five features filled with domestic household refuse. The data recovery provided information relevant to a model of 19th century southern rural, upland agricultural settlement.
Alexander, Lawrence (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2001. DATA RECOVERY AT SITE 40RH221. During July 1998, Alexander Archaeological Consultants conducted a Phase III archaeological investigation at site 40Rh221. This project was conducted for the TDOT in conjunction with the construction of State Route 29 in Rhea County. Site 40Rh221 was occupied during the early 19th century by the Grief Howerton family who moved to Tennessee from North Carolina. By 1820, the Howerton settlement included a private school-polling place, gristmill, cemetery, and homes of the three Howerton sons. The Howerton families were of middle-range economic status and owned approximately 600 acres on Little Richland Creek. Six small features associated with a residential structure were excavated. The artifact assemblage indicates and supports an early 19th century settlement. Site 40Rh221 contains a single component early 19th century house occupied by Edmund Howerton from 1812 through the late 1840s when part of the family moved to southern Missouri.
Alexander, Lawrence, Julie Coco, and Russell Campbell (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2002. HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS AT MOCCASIN BEND NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK. Moccasin Bend National Historic Landmark has been recommended for inclusion into the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. The Friends of Moccasin Bend and the National Park Service contracted with Alexander Archaeological Consultants to conduct an archaeological overview and assessment to provide baseline information for preservation, curation, and interpretation of cultural resources within Moccasin Bend. Civil War fortifications, and extensive Late Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian period components have been identified on Moccasin Bend. Early Spanish Contact Period trade artifacts recovered from Hampton Place contain evidence of Mississippian assimilation into the late sixteenth century cultural landscape.
Alexander, Lawrence, Elsa Heckman, and James Moore (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2002. ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE BATTLEFIELD AT LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN, TENNESSEE. Confederate forces occupied Lookout Mountain from September to November, 1863. Although considered impregnable, Federal troops attacked from the west, driving Confederate troops east across Chattanooga Valley. In 1998, Reflection Riding Arboretum, located at the foot of Lookout Mountain, received an American Battlefield Protection Grant and contracted Alexander Archaeological Consultants to conduct a survey of the battlefield, identify portions of the battlefield requiring protection, and recommend strategies for interpretation and preservation. The results of the historical research and electromagnetic survey of 700 acres yield new information on the locations of historical settlements, battlefield positions, pickets, and post?battle Union encampments.
Alexander, Lawrence and Mary Trudeau (Alexander Archaeological Consultants, Inc.). 2008. LATE MISSISSIPPIAN ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE DAVID DAVIS SITE, 40HA301. A cemetery relocation project on South Chickamauga Creek in Chattanooga resulted in the recovery and documentation of a Late Mississippian settlement of at least seven structures organized around two open courtyards. Multiple burials within single features and sequential multiple internments in mortuary features occurred in 35 percent of the population. The site 40HA301 assemblage is closely associated with the Barnett Phase in northwestern Georgia and the Mouse Creeks Phase in Southeastern Tennessee.
Allen, Dan (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1995. OVERVIEW OF 1994 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECTS IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Increased public awareness of and interest in historic sites has led to higher development demands on smaller historic properties in Middle Tennessee. The managers of these cultural resources recognize the value of archaeological resources in the context of accurate interpretation and representation of historic sites. This study presents an overview of a Phase III investigation of an early Middle Tennessee fortified agricultural complex and three Phase II reconnaissance level investigations of components of ante-bellum plantations within the context of site development and management.
Allen, Dan (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1996. PREHISTORIC BURIAL REMOVAL AT THE TRAVELLER'S REST, NASHVILLE. Historic period properties and archaeological sites of Middle Tennessee often occupy space on the landscape formerly utilized by prehistoric populations. Historic Euro-American and Mississippian period aboriginal subsistence strategies required the same natural resources in the form of water, timber, and agriculturally favorable soils. Many of these previously rural, domestic sites have been developed as nonprofit and self-supporting historic house museums. These museums are faced with limited developmental capacity due to greatly reduced landbases and increasing urban encroachment. Such is the case at Traveller's Rest (40Dv11), the home and plantation of Judge John Overton, one of Middle Tennessee's most illustrious and productive citizens. Plans for construction of a proposed educational facility were interrupted by discovery of stone box burials typical of Mississippian culture in the central Cumberland River Valley. This paper describes the removal of these prehistoric burials from this historic site.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1997. APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGY: THE REMOVAL AND RELOCATION OF THE EDGEFIELD BENEVOLENT CEMETERY (40DV514), DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. There remains significant gaps in our knowledge of the transition of African-American culture between emancipation and the Depression in urban areas of the Middle Cumberland Region. The majority of African-American individuals never reached the level of historic visibility required to appear as little more than numbers in the archival record. Records that do exist were often not provided by African-Americans themselves and the significance of data contained in such records remains a topic of debate. Historical archaeologists have recently suggested that a combination of historical, archaeological, and ethnographic approaches could contribute to the closing of gaps in our knowledge and enhancement of historic visibility. This paper presents primary mortuary data generated during on-going removal and relocation efforts at the Edgefield Benevolent Cemetery, an African-American burial ground located in central Davidson County. The cemetery was established circa 1872 by the Edgefield Benevolent Society, and interments continued at the site into the first half of the 20th century. It is hoped that data generated by this mortuary study may add to a more complete understanding of regional African-American history.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1998. THE BOWEN FARMSTEAD (40Su21): PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY OF AN 18TH-CENTURY FRONTIER PLANTATION. In Middle Tennessee, the frontier period of regional settlement was characterized by the emergence of fortified agricultural complexes called "stations" as a cultural response to the need for secure lifeways amidst the dangers of Native American hostility. The comparative safety of these stations provided the measure of security necessary for settlers to exercise claims to the land and develop large farms, often utilizing fields previously cultivated by aboriginal populations. The rapid expansion of these early farmsteads effectively stimulated regional economy by providing products destined for commercial trade in the lucrative markets of Natchez, Mississippi. This paper presents the results of three years of public historical archaeology at the Bowen farmstead (1784-1836), a transitional frontier agricultural complex on the Cumberland River of Middle Tennessee. The project has utilized volunteer labor directed by experienced field archaeologists and technicians. Analysis of contexts and artifacts associated with the excavation of several components of the site provide new insights into this important critical period of transition for pioneer farmers of Middle Tennessee.
Allen, Daniel S., IV. (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1999. HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE AMES PLANTATION: A 19TH CENTURY SLAVE AND EMERGENT TENANT COTTON PLANTATION IN SOUTHWEST TENNESSEE. Ames Plantation is an area of great significance in the study of culture change during the historic period of the American southeast. During the antebellum period, agricultural units ranging from large cotton-producing plantations to smaller farmsteads and subsistence farms occupied the region. Postbellum changes to the political, social and economic environments of the region are represented in a shift to tenant and sharecropper farming on smaller land bases. The study of Ames history and archaeology are especially critical to interpreting regional African-American history as the documentary records provides minimal insight into the lives of slaves and freemen. This lecture presents the results of three years of historical archaeology on the circa 18,000 acre land base of the Ames Plantation, an emergent tenant plantation located on the North Fork of the Wolf River of southwest Tennessee. Analysis of contexts and artifacts associated with historic occupation of the landscape provides new insights into highly critical periods of transition for pioneer farmers and African-Americans of West Tennessee.
Allen, Daniel S. IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2000. FORT NEGLEY: SYMBOL OF CONFEDERATE DEFEAT?. Early in the American Civil War, Nashville was occupied by the Federal Army and quickly transformed into a supply depot to support military operations in the Western Theatre. To defend the city against counter-offensives by the Confederacy a ring of state-of-the-art forts were constructed at strategic locations encircling and guarding the approaches into Nashville. Fort Negley was an integral part of this defensive line and represents the largest inland, masonry fortification ever constructed by the Federal Army. Built by the labor of impressed free and enslaved black men and women under the direction of army engineers, Negley was designed to withstand attack or siege from any direction. A formidable obstacle to any attacking force, Negley's guns were placed into action only twice during the war; once when Confederate forces under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest threatened East Nashville and Edgefield, and later in December of 1864, the guns of the fort traditionally fired the opening salvos of the Battle of Nashville. The fort was continuously garrisoned from 1862 until 1867. It was then abandoned and salvaged for materials before falling into ruin. During Reconstruction, the site became frequented by persons of dubious character and reportedly served as a secret meeting place for the Ku Klux Klan. As a project of the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s, Fort Negley was reconstructed and opened as Fort Negley Park. Locally, it was not a popular attraction and became abandoned once again by the end of the 1940s. During the 1990s, the restoration of Fort Negley experienced a resurgence in interest by local preservationists and the Metropolitan Government of Nashville. This presentation utilizes primary historical and archaeological data collected during the 1999 investigation of the site in association with stabilization and reconstruction of major elements of the stone and earth fortification by the Metropolitan Board of Parks and Recreation. The research is designed as an addition to a historical archaeological database used as a tool for a rigorous plan of cultural resource management and addresses questions concerning the dichotomy of original Civil War elements and deposits versus postwar elements and those associated with the WPA reconstruction. The research is critical to understanding the history and architecture of the fort, as well as the life ways of the soldiers stationed there and the enslaved and freed blacks who worked there.
Allen, Daniel S. IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2001. THE LAST PLANTATION: ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE AT FAIRVUE PLANTATION, A NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK IN SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the 1820s, Isaac Franklin built one of the largest business empires of slave trading in the history of the southeastern United States with his business partner and nephew, John Armfield. Their firm dealt especially in the trade of naturalized African-Americans following legislation banning the further import of slaves from outside the US and its territories in 1808. Franklin invested his portion of the profits in land and slaves, and developed several contiguous plantations along the banks of the Mississippi River. Soon after the War of 1812 he began to accumulate miscellaneous parcels of land in Middle Tennessee, eventually constituting a considerable plantation in excess of 2000 acres named Fairvue. The agricultural production of Fairvue was used to supply grain and hogs to the plantations in the south. The plantation slave force consistently remained between 105 and 138 individuals during the antebellum period. Fairvue (Franklin Plantation) was listed as a National Historic Landmark in 1977 as one of the few surviving antebellum plantations in the upper south. The plantation, now along the shoreline of Old Hickory Lake, is currently under development as a residential community. This presentation is designed to summarize the distribution and nature of cultural resources identified within the plantation as a result of a Phase I survey conducted as part of the Section 106 compliance process.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2002. THE CONTINUING SAGA OF FAIRVUE AND THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ISAAC FRANKLIN, SLAVE TRADER OF THE OLD SOUTH. During the 1820s, Isaac Franklin and his nephew by marriage, John Armfield, built one of the largest business empires of interstate slave trading in the history of the southeastern United States. This business captured nearly half of the coastal slave trade from Virginia and Maryland, to New Orleans and the Deep South. Their firm dealt especially in the trade of naturalized African-Americans following legislation banning the further import of slaves from outside the U.S. and its territories in 1808. Franklin and Armfield employed agents in most major cities of the slave states, maintained a small fleet of commercial ships, and also had slave pens at Alexandria, Natchez, and New Orleans. During the last two decades, archaeological investigations have been conducted at the Alexandria slave pens, and also their Louisiana plantations. The most recent investigations have been at Fairvue, the home of Franklin and his young wife Adelicia Hayes, in Sumner County. Franklin's death in 1846 left Adelicia the richest widow in the region. Adelicia Hayes Franklin would later remarry and become the renowned Adelicia Acklen of Belmont in Nashville. This presentation is designed to provide summary information concerning ongoing archaeological investigations at Fairvue within the larger national context of the personal empire of Isaac Franklin.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2003. THE MASON COFFINS: METALLIC BURIAL CASES IN THE CENTRAL SOUTH. The first patent for a cast iron coffin was awarded in 1848 to Almond J. Fisk, who produced three models before 1854. Other companies (in particular the Crane, Breed, and Company of Cincinnati) obtained licences to produce Fisk coffins early in the 1850s and introduced several modified versions. DuVall & Associates conducted an archaeological relocation of the Mason Cemetery in Giles County, Tennessee during the summer of 2002. Thirty-nine human interments, including four adults and two children within cast iron or metallic burial cases, were studied in association with development of the surrounding tract as an industrial park. The metal coffins were of four differing styles and six sizes, and came from dated contexts ranging from 1858 and 1865. This presentation is designed to provide information regarding this particular type of coffin in the mortuary patterning of Civil War-era Euro-American planters in the Central South.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (Center for Historic Preservation, Middle Tennessee State University and Cumberland Research Group, Inc). 2004. THE GREENWOOD CEMETERY PROJECT: THE APPLICATION OF MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF HISTORIC PERIOD CEMETERIES. In the most recent volume of the Journal of the Society for Historical Archaeology 37(4):56, Johan Liebens demonstrates the research potential of accurate mapping and databases as fully interactive web sites for multi disciplinary types of research of historic cemeteries. This presentation focuses on a comparable regional research project that adds robotic total station mapping to its Geographic Information System (GIS), ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI), archaeological, and historical survey databases, gravemarker survey and conservation, and interpretation to raise public awareness of the historical significance of Greenwood Cemetery, the original nineteenth century public burial ground of Columbia, Tennessee. In active use from about 1809 until the latter 1800s, Greenwood is the resting place of many of Columbia's earliest settlers both free and enslaved, and is suspected to have been damaged by a portion of Union breastworks and skirmishing around Columbia during Confederate General John Bell Hood's ill fated Nashville campaign in November and December of 1864, a question being addressed through archaeology. Abandoned by local whites after the Civil War probably as a result of its close proximity to a Reconstruction era African American Church and the expansion of the "black" section on the northern periphery of Greenwood, burial in the cemetery became restricted during the Jim Crow years and Greenwood was allowed to fall into an advanced state of disrepair until identified as a historic property associated with the Civil War and Reconstruction in the Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area (TCWNHA) and the decision to integrate the cemetery into Columbia Riverwalk, a project requiring modification of the historic river front between the Maury County Courthouse and Greenwood cemetery. The multi disciplinary research project is a cooperative effort between staff and graduate students of the Center for Historic Preservation at Middle Tennessee State University and the Biosystems Engineering and Environmental Science Department of the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, and is funded by the City of Columbia with minor endowments by the Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area. To be completed in June of 2004, the research is designed to result in a technical publication useful as a tool of proactive management and interpretation of Greenwood Cemetery. In addition, maps and databases generated by the project are designed for interactive online use as a tool of multi disciplinary research.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (Cumberland Research Group, Inc). APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGY AT A MIDDLE HOLOCENE SHELL MIDDEN SITE WITHIN THE CUMBERLAND RIVER DRAINAGE OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE. 2005. In 2001, grading for a new residential development in northeastern Davidson County was interrupted when bulldozers disturbed a series of prehistoric human interments. The developer of the property retained Cumberland Research Group, Inc. after successfully acquiring an order for cemetery termination from the Davidson County Chancery Court. During the fall and winter of 2004-2005, Cumberland Research Group began the process of systematic burial relocation and archaeological data salvage at the one-acre site. In addition to a plethora of surface collected artifacts, numerous prehistoric archaeological features (including storage pits, human inhumations and cremations, and canine inhumations) have been identified, sampled, and documented within thick shell and midden deposits. The salvage project is designed around monitored backhoe stripping of soils over the site, manual feature excavation and matrix screening, and the systematic collection of whole or partial matrix samples for flotation from all archaeological features. To date, several burials have yielded tool kits (including biface caches, other bone or lithic tools) and personal items such as stone or copper beads. Preliminary analysis of these mortuary artifacts and the materials collected from non-mortuary contexts indicate the most intensive use of the site probably occurred during the Middle to Late Archaic periods (ca. 8000 to 3000 B.P.). The primary objective of this presentation is to highlight some of the archaeological features and artifacts recorded during this on-going field investigation.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (Cumberland Research Group, Inc). 2006. APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE HERMITAGE SPRINGS SITE (40DV551); A MIDDLE ARCHAIC THROUGH EARLY WOODLAND AGGREGATION SITE IN THE CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY. Toward the end of the Early Archaic cultural period in southeastern North America the climate became warmer and dryer than today. Termed the Altithermal, this climatic change marks the beginning of the Middle Archaic period (ca. 7500 5000 B.P.). It is currently believed that the changing climate of southeastern North America forced hunter/gatherers in the early stages of horticulture to adapt to the climate by shifting between upland hunting camps on the edges of river valleys and floodplain camps during drought and the heat of summer and fall. This type of settlement pattern is thought to have resulted in permanent aggregation sites, especially on upland formations overlooking the confluence of spring branches with productive river valleys, and carefully delineated group territories expressed archaeologically by prehistoric cultural sites including corporate cemeteries. The Hermitage Springs site (40DV551) is a prehistoric aggregation site discovered in 2001 during grading for residential development in northeastern Davidson County. Archaeological relocation of the human remains, sampling of the archaeological features, and salvage of archaeological data commenced in mid-October 2004 and continues to date. Archaic and Woodland period people intensively harvested fish, shellfish, gastropods, and turtles, and subsisted largely by hunting deer, turkey, bear and smaller mammals, also relying on acorns, nuts, and a variety of other plant resources. Preliminary analysis suggests the site represents an extensive corporate aggregation site and cemetery used from the Middle Archaic through Early Woodland periods. The project is on going in the field and this presentation is designed to provide up to date highlights of the project.
Allen, Daniel S., IV (Cumberland Research Group, Inc). 2007. “YEA, THOUGH I WALK THROUGH THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH”; EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY AFRICAN-AMERICAN MORTUARY AND MATERIAL CULTURE PATTERNING AT THE HERMITAGE SPRINGS SITE (40DV551), TENNESSEE. The Hermitage Springs site (40DV551) is a multi-prehistoric aggregation site and cemetery discovered in 2001 during grading for residential development in northeastern Davidson County, Tennessee. Located immediately west and adjacent to Andrew Jacksons’ plantation, The Hermitage, the site area was historically owned by the family of Jacksons’ wife, Rachel Donelson as part of John Donelson’s estate and farm, “Ingleside” (Scottish for fireside). In the late eighteenth century, Donelson’s father was a Virginian politician and a founding leader of both the Wautaga and Middle Cumberland Euro-American settlements. The Donelson family brought slaves with them on their flat boat voyage from Wautaga and held between fifty and one hundred slaves on the farm during the antebellum period. By the 21st century “Ingleside” and its agricultural acreage were developed into residential neighborhoods and a golf course. The last section of the plantation core was graded for development in 2001 when prehistoric deposits were disturbed on the site forcing the developer to retain archaeologists. Archaeological relocation of the prehistoric inhumations and sampling of the archaeological features commenced in the fall of 2004 by Cumberland Research Group, Inc. More than 300 prehistoric inhumations, some containing tool caches and evidence of traumatic injury, have been sampled from the site as well as over 400 non-mortuary features. It is currently thought that a significant community of enslaved African-Americans associated with Ingleside and the Donelson family began using the western edge of the prehistoric site as a burial ground during the early Historic Period. In addition to the prehistoric features excavated across the site, 50 historic burials of probable African-American ancestry were excavated in the summer of 2006 across the western edge of the site and others are known to exist. Although analysis of the data is ongoing, the objective of this presentation is to provide highlights of the patterning of mortuary data and material culture collected from the excavated slave burials.
Alvey, Rick and Amy Young (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1994. PHASE II INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SMYRNA COMMUNITY, PICKETT COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During November and December 1993 archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville conducted Phase II investigations at the Smyrna School House (40Pt39) and the Huddelston-Little Cabin (40Pt38) sites. Test excavations and archival research revealed that these two sites were part of the Smyrna community, a Highland Rim settlement that dates from the late nineteenth century to the present. At each site the excavation of auger tests, hand excavated and backhoe excavated test units, and features give a view of late nineteenth and early twentieth century lifeways in this area.
Alvey, Richard L. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1995. THE 1994 INVESTIGATIONS OF TWO SITES IN THE BRILEY PARKWAY EXTENSION, DAVIDSON COUNTY. During 1994 the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee conducted Phase II testing and Phase III data recovery projects on two sites within the proposed Briley Parkway (State Route 155) between Brick Churck Pike and Ellington Parkway in Davidson County. Site 40Dv466 was determined to be a Mississippian farmstead. Site 40Dv447 contained a Woodland cemetery and a historic component which may date from the early settlement of Davidson County to the present.
Alvey, Richard L. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1996. 1995 EXCAVATIONS ON THE HISTORIC COMPONENT AT THE DRENNON SITE: 40DV447. During the late summer and early fall of 1995, archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee conducted a Phase II data recovery project on the historic component of the Drennon site (40Dv447) in northern Davidson County, Tennessee. Excavations indicated that the historic component dates to as early as the 1790s and continued to the present. Five structures were defined during the excavation including a root cellar, smoke house, large domestic structure, and two other possible outbuildings. Other features included a cellar pit, possible trash pile, bone concentrations, and postholes.
Alvey, Rick (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. PHASE II TESTING ON US 25E IN CLAIBORNE AND GRAINGER COUNTIES DURING 1996. During 1996 personnel from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee conducted Phase II testing on seven sites in Claiborne and Grainger Counties. This work was in conjunction with the proposed widening of US 25E. Three of the sites were recommended for Phase III data recovery.
Alvey, Rick (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1999. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY ON THE CHEEK SITE (40CE28), CLAIBORNE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Phase III data recovery was conducted on the Cheek site (40Ce28) between November 8 1996 and February 20, 1997. This investigation was performed in conjunction with the improvement of SR-33 (US 25E) from 0.8 km north of Indian Creek to 1.6 km north of the Powell River in Claiborne and Grainger counties, Tennessee. The work was conducted by the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville for Neel-Schaeffer, Inc., and the Tennessee Department of Transportation. The site was located on the north bank of the Powell River. Ten block areas of varying sizes were investigated. A majority of the 119 cultural features excavated were of prehistoric origin. A major Early Woodland component was identified. Seven radiocarbon dates derived from features containing Early Woodland artifacts ranged between 770 and 1170 BC. Early Woodland diagnostics included Swannanoa ceramics and a number of projectile point/knives. A new PPK cluster, the Powell River cluster, was identified. In addition, minor Archaic, Middle Woodland, and historic components were identified.
Alvey, Rick (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 2000. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT THE DOUG YOUNG SITE (40CE56) IN CLAIBORNE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Not presented. Archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville conducted phase III data recovery on the Doug Young site in the fall and winter of 1998-1999. This work was conducted with the widening and realignment of US 25E (SR-34) at Tazewell in Claiborne County, Tennessee. The site had a complex stratigraphy, which included two sinkholes. Each sinkhole contained cultural material and features. The main site component was Middle Woodland. A Middle Woodland structure was present near the northern sinkhole and a middle Woodland midden was defined in the southern one. Other components included Early Archaic through Early Woodland, and Late Woodland. The ceramics were of local origin. However, the lithic artifacts showed a great deal of diversity. Lithic raw materials were mainly from the local Knox formations, but some midwestern Burlington and Flint Ridge cherts were also identified. Projectile point types showed influences from the northeast, midwest, and middle Tennessee.
Alvey, Rick (Center for Transportation Research, University of Tennessee). 2001. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT THE DOUG YOUNG SITE (40CE56), CLAIBORNE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Archaeologists from the Center for Transportation Research conducted Phase III data recovery on the Doug Young site in the fall and winter of 1998-1999. This work was conducted with the widening and realignment of US 25E (SR-34) at Tazewell in Claiborne County. The site had a complex stratigraphy, which included two sinkholes. Each sinkhole contained cultural material and features. The main site component was Middle Woodland. A Middle Woodland structure was present near the northern sinkhole and a Middle Woodland midden was defined in the southern one. Other components included Early Archaic through Early Woodland, and Late Woodland. The ceramics were of local origin. However, the lithic artifacts showed a great deal of diversity. Lithic raw materials were mainly from the local Knox formations, but some midwestern Burlington and Flint Ridge cherts were also identified. Projectile point types showed influences from the northeast, midwest, and middle Tennessee.
Anderson, David G. (Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service). 2000. SUMMER 1999 INVESTIGATIONS AT SHILOH INDIAN MOUNDS. In July 1999, an archaeological team from the Southeast Archeological Center under the direction of David G. Anderson and John Cornelison conducted limited and primarily noninvasive investigations at the Indian mound group located on the Shiloh National Military Park in western Tennessee. Ground penetrating radar was used to (1) relocate excavation units opened but not mapped by Frank Roberts in 1933 and 1934 during major New Deal era excavations at the Shiloh Indian Mound group; (2) explore the interior of Mound A, which is eroding into the Tennessee River; (3) examine the interiors of all of the other mounds, as well as the plaza area and a long linear dike-like feature. Over 100 GPR transects totaling almost 3 linear kilometers of output were produced. Transects were run over all seven of the major mounds, revealing a number of internal features in each, such as construction stages or past excavation units, or even, in one mound, Civil War period burial pits. Extensive GPR mapping was done at Mound A, using transects oriented north-south and east-west, and spaced two meters part. Well defined signatures of earlier construction stages located deep within the mound were found. Importantly, the GPR output also revealed where past excavation activity had occurred into these mounds, information important for management purposes. Mound C, which had been thought to have been completely dug away and then rebuilt, for example, was found to be intact at the south end. Major excavation trenches opened into this and other mounds left pronounced signatures. Union burial pits placed in Mound G after the battle were relocated, and the output indicates one soldier may have been left behind when the burials were relocated to the nearby national cemetery. GPR transects were run over the plaza area around the mounds, successfully locating signatures of literally dozens of excavation units opened by Frank Roberts New Deal era crews. Thirty one 1x1 m units were opened to depths of from 10 to 30 cm to ground truth the GPR signatures. These proved highly successful in locating trench edges, which were clearly delimited in many units.
Anderson, David G. and John E. Cornelison, Jr. (National Park Service). 2002. EXCAVATIONS AT SHILOH: THE 2001 SEASON. Remote sensing, coring, and excavation were conducted in and near Mound A at the Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark site during the summer of 2001. A multidisciplinary team of specialists led by archaeologists from SEAC found evidence for structures on and near the mound, as well as for internal construction stages. Science, consideration for Native American concerns, and public participation and outreach were integral aspects of the project. Numerous volunteers were used, and project results, with many illustrations, were posted daily to a public website. The work is revealing a great deal of information this little-known Mississippian ceremonial center.
Anderson, David G. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and John E. Cornelison, Jr. (National Park Service). 2004. EXCAVATIONS AT MOUND A, SHILOH: THE 1999 TO 2003 FIELDWORK. Large scale excavations have been underway since 2001 at the primary Mississippian mound at Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark, following initial remote sensing and testing investigations in 1999. From May through November 2003 a third major field season of investigations were conducted by archaeologists from the Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service. Almost 4000 person days have been spent to date in fieldwork documenting the mound's construction history. At least five major stages are evident in the seven meter high profile, several with well defined structures. Mound stage surfaces were not single episodes of building, use, and abandonment, but instead consisted of numerous successive stacked floors separated by thin layers of fill. Elaborate use of color characterizes many surfaces and filling episodes in the mound. Mississippian mounds, and mound stages, the work at Mound A indicates, can have highly complex histories, and also suggest that our traditional ideas about what these earthworks looked like are in need of considerable modification.
Anderson, David G. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), John E. Cornelison, Jr. (National Park Service), and Sarah C. Sherwood (UT Archaeological Research Laboratory). 2006. SHILOH INDIAN MOUNDS NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK: RESEARCH RESULTS OF THE 1999 2004 FIELD PROGRAM AT MOUND A. Multidisciplinary research associated with excavations into threatened portions of Mound A at Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark have revealed a wealth of information about the chronology, natural environment, associated material culture and architecture, and appearance of the mound when it was under construction and in use. Mound A was a complicated and symbolically charged structure, whose upper stages were built between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300. While the focus of local populations, occasional contact with societies at great distances occurred. The ongoing support of the Chickasaw Nation and the National Park Service proved critical to the success of the project.
Anderson, David G. (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), D. Shane Miller (University of Arizona), Tom Pertierra (Southeastern Paleo American Survey Inc.), Derek Anderson (University of Arizona), Thaddeus Bissett (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Stephen B. Carmody (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Tracy Hadlett (University of South Florida), Erik N. Johanson (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Ashley M. Smallwood (Texas A&M University), and Sarah Walters (University of Tennessee - Knoxville). 2011. THE 2010 CUMBERLAND RIVER/MIDSOUTH PALEOINDIAN SURVEY PROJECT: EXPLORING HUMAN OCCUPATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE LATE PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE ERAS. From July 8th -August 11th, 2010 a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional team conducted exploratory archaeological and paleoenvironmental survey and data collection along the Cumberland River immediately west of Nashville. With funding from the Tennessee Historical Commission and support from the Davidson County Metropolitan Parks and Recreation Department and the staff of the Bells Bend Outdoor Center, a team of 25 researchers and students, assisted by numerous local volunteers, recovered archaeological, paleosubsistence, paleoenvironmental, and radiometric samples, the analysis of which is currently underway. The research was directed to locating and documenting both deeply stratified sites as well as sites in upland areas away from the river, and included the inspection and cleaning of bank profiles, controlled surface collections, and systematic shovel testing. Occupations of all time periods were examined, including a historic farmstead, three Archaic shell middens, and a number of earlier Archaic and Paleoindian lithic sites. A major goal was finding sites that would allow us to explore climate and biota locally from the terminal Pleistocene through the later Holocene eras, from ca. 15,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP.
Angst, Mike. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee). 2003. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT THE ESSARY SITE, 40CE40. In the summer of 2002, the Archaeological Research Laboratory conducted archaeological excavations at 40CE40, a small upland site in upper east Tennessee. The project was conducted in order to mitigate damage from highway construction and was funded by the Tennessee Department of Transportation. Excavations identified a series of lithic clusters in a mostly filled sinkhole. The lithic clusters represent primary deposition of individual reduction episodes of locally available Knox chert. Because of the nature of the features, refitting of tools and debitage is anticipated. Although the site appears to have been occupied sporadically throughout prehistory, recovered diagnostic artifacts indicate that the site was primarily occupied during the Late Archaic period.
Angst, Michael (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2007. ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE BRUSHY MOUNTAIN CORRECTIONAL COMPLEX, MORGAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the summers of 2005 and 2006, the Archaeological Research Laboratory at UT-Knoxville conducted limited test excavations at 40MO161, the Prison Hill site. The work was conducted prior to the expansion of the old Brushy Mountain Honor Farm into a maximum-security prison facility. The testing identified nearly 200 features, including rock-filled pits, earth ovens, surface fires, pits of indeterminate function, sheet midden, postmolds and at least two apparent structures. Diagnostic artifacts from the plowzone ranged from Early Archaic through Mississippian time periods, but limited feature investigation suggested that the most intensive occupation occurred during the Early/Middle Woodland and Mississippian periods. The Mississippian occupation included at least two semi-subterranean structures as well as other probable structures. Although the presence of an open air Mississippian site on the Cumberland Plateau is not unexpected, a review of the extant literature indicates that it is uncommon. As a result of this investigation, the Prison Hill site was avoided during the construction process and will remain intact in a relatively undisturbed state.
Angst, Michael G. and Elizabeth Kellar DeCorse (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2010. CIVIL WAR ARCHAEOLOGY AT MORGAN HILL, KNOX COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the spring and summer of 2009, the Archaeological Research Laboratory at The University of Tennessee-Knoxville conducted archaeological excavations at the Morgan Hill site on the UT campus. The investigation unearthed infantry and artillery positions created and occupied by Confederate soldiers during the Siege of Knoxville in November 1863. Features included two sections of rifle trenches, two gun emplacements, numerous hearths and artifact concentrations. The entrenchments and associated features at the site were part of the primary Confederate siege lines surrounding Knoxville. The South Carolina infantry and Georgia artillerymen at Morgan Hill were involved in limited skirmishing and cannonading of Union positions, including the signal shots initiating the Confederate assault on Fort Sanders on the morning of November 29th. The Morgan Hill site was the only known surviving Confederate position associated with the Siege of Knoxville.
Armes, Roger (Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society). 1996. MCAS ACTIVITIES, 1995-1996. The Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society continues to provide opportunities for members of the general public to contribute to professional archaeology in Tennessee. This paper will report the preliminary results of the first two seasons of the Cordell Hull Lake archaeological survey, other volunteers activities for 1995, and planned activities for 1996.
Avery, Paul G. (MACTEC Engineering and Consulting). GOING DEEP: PHASE II ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING AT SITES 40GN228 AND 40GN229, GREENE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 2005. In 2003, archaeologists with MACTEC Engineering, in conjunction with the University of Tennessee Archaeological Research Laboratory, conducted Phase II testing on two sites along the Nolichucky River in Greene County, Tennessee. Site 40GN228, also known as the Birdwell site, is located on the west bank of the river. Site 40GN229 (Neas site) is located on the river's east bank. Both sites proved to be expansive and contain intact, deeply buried, cultural deposits. Each site is multi-component, with 40GN228 possessing Mississippian, Woodland and Archaic components. 40GN229 contains evidence of Woodland and Archaic, and Historic occupations. This presentation provides a brief overview of the field methodologies employed and materials recovered during the testing program.
Avery, Paul G. (MACTEC Engineering and Consulting). 2006. WOOD'S MINE: BARITE MINING IN MONROE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Barite is a dense white mineral with several industrial uses. Mining activities aimed at the extraction of barite ore began as early as the 1870s in east Tennessee, with the center of this industry located near Sweetwater in Monroe County, Tennessee. The remains of Wood's Mine (40MR700) were recorded during a survey for the Tennessee Department of Transportation. Historically known as the Ballard Mine, the site represents one of the earliest barite mines in the county. This paper examines the history of barite mining in Monroe County with particular emphasis on Wood's Mine and its role in the industry.
Avery, Paul G. and Daniel Marcel (MACTEC Engineering and Consulting). 2007. QUITE A COMMUNITY CENTER: ARCHAEOLOGY AT FANCHERS MILL, WHITE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the early 19th century, the Fancher family settled on Taylor Creek in what is now White County. By the latter part of the century, the community of Fanchers Mill included several commercial structures and at least two log homes. MACTEC archaeologists recorded the site, including the location of the main Fancher cabin, ahead of planned bridge construction by TDOT in 2006. The site was revisited this fall to assist with avoidance planning. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of the site and a discussion of the methods and results used to examine the cabin site.
Barker, Gary (Tennessee Department of Transportation). 1995. DIVISION OF ARCHAEOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS OF A MISSISSIPPIAN STRUCTURE (40SY488) AT MEEMAN-SHELBY STATE PARK, SHELBY COUNTY. Site 40Sy488, recorded in 1988 as an historic cemetery, is situated just west of the Poplar Tree Lake Dam in Meeman-Shelby State Park. In the spring of 1994, the dam was found to be structurally unsound and repairs were planned to correct the problem. Unfortunately, the proposed construction was expected to adversely impact site 40Sy488. As a result, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted Phase III investigations in late spring and early summer of 1994 to mitigate negative impacts to the site. Although no graves were encountered, a single Missisippian period structure was identified. Results of the investigations of this structure will be presented.
Barker, Gary (Tennessee Department of Transportation Environmental Planning Office). 1997. 1982 TDOT EXCAVATIONS AT 40RD77: A LATE MIDDLE ARCHAIC MORTUARY SITE IN TENNESSEE'S CENTRAL BASIN. This paper presents the results of excavations at the Ryan site, a late Middle Archaic cemetery that was unavoidably impacted by construction of the I-24 Connector, a four-lane facility that extends from I-24 to the Nissan Plant in Smyrna, Rutherford County. Excavations at the site, located on Stewarts Creek, revealed nineteen human burials, two dog burials and one cremation. Diagnostic Benton pp/ks and other artifacts were associated with some of the burials.
Barker, Gary and Gerald Kline (Tennessee Department of Transportation, EPO Archaeology Section). 2000. ARCHAEOLOGICAL IVNESTIGATIONS AT KELLYTOWN (40WM10): A FORTIFIED LATE MISSISSIPPIAN VILLAGE IN TENNESSEE'S CENTRAL BASIN. In October of 1998 archaeologists with the TDOT conducted a Phase I level archaeological evaluation of proposed right-of-way needed for the widening of the intersection of Old Hickory Blvd (SR-254) and Hillsboro Road (SR-106) in south Nashville. The initial investigations revealed that prehistoric archaeological deposits potentially eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places were present in the project area. Between January and July of 1999, Phase II and III level investigations carried out by TDOT revealed the presence of a fortified late Mississippian village. A minimum of ten structures (including one with an intact floor), two palisade lines with bastions, and six human burials were documented during the excavations. This presentation provides preliminary results of the TDOT excavations at 40Wm10.
Barrett, Jared (TRC, Inc.). 2011. RESULTS OF SURVEY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING OF ROCKSHELTERS AND MOONSHINE STILLS ON RACCOON MOUNTAIN IN MARION COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the winter and spring of 2010, TRC conducted an archaeological survey of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant located on Raccoon Mountain in Marion County, Tennessee. The survey recorded a total of 14 previously unrecorded archaeological sites including eight prehistoric rockshelters and six moonshine stills. Several of the prehistoric rockshelters proved to be expansive and contain intact, deeply buried, cultural deposits. These were selected for additional testing through excavation of 1x1 m test units. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the field methodologies employed, materials recovered, and results of radiocarbon testing of selected features.Barrett, Jared (TRC Environmental Corporation). 2013. THE WELLS CREEK SITE (40SW63): A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS EXCAVATIONS AND RESULTS OF TRC’S 2012 SURVEY. The Wells Creek site (40SW63) in north central Tennessee has been recently cited as a major Paleoindian site. During the spring and summer of 2012, TRC had the opportunity to conduct an archaeological assessment of Wells Creek during a survey conducted for the Tennessee Valley Authority. This presentation will discuss and review the methods and results of the TRC survey. Our conclusion, in agreement with another recent evaluation, is that Wells Creek includes major and important Late Archaic and Early Woodland components but only minimal Paleoindian materials.
Bartlett, Jennifer (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1997. 1996 EXCAVATION AT FORT SOUTHWEST POINT. In 1996, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology excavated a single structure at the Federal military site of Fort Southwest Point in Kingston, Tennessee. This particular structure is slated to be reconstructed as part of the City of Kingston's ongoing efforts to rebuild the fort for public presentation. Excavation provided new insights into the layout and function of the building. Thus far, the field portion of the project has been completed, and artifact analysis is currently underway.
Bartlett, Jennifer M. and Charles P. Stripling (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1995. THE NASHVILLE BICENTENNIAL MALL PROJECT: HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN 1994. The Tennessee Bicentennial Mall is currently under construction north of the Tennessee Capitol building. Throughout the growth of Nashville from a frontier settlement to an urban metropolis, both natural and cultural factors have shaped the use and popular conceptions of the site area. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology seeks to better understand this history through an examination of the documentary and archaeological records. Intensive archival research combined with archaeological sampling has yielded a rich data source than lends insight into Nashville's urban evolution.
Bartoy, Kevin M. and Marcy K. Welch (The Hermitage). 2008. A FUTURE FOR THE PAST AT THE HERMITAGE. Over the past 30 years, more than 800,000 artifacts have been excavated at The Hermitage. These artifacts represent one of the largest and most significant collections of African American archaeology in the United States. These finds have offered new insights concerning life in and out of slavery that have helped to define our understanding of the development of African American culture. The Department of Archaeology at The Hermitage is now forging a new future focused on three primary goals: 1) The analysis, cataloguing, and uploading of all archaeological data to the free, online Digital Archaeological Archive of Comparative Slavery (DAACS); 2) The creation of a GIS program to integrate all existing spatial data for research, management, and interpretive purposes; and, 3) The growth of Project Archaeology and other archaeology education programs. This presentation will highlight these current initiatives as we develop a future for the past at The Hermitage.
Bass, Quentin (Cherokee National Forest). 1998. NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE
Beahm, Emily L. (University of Georgia). 2012. EXPLORING THE EASTERN LIMITS OF THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND REGION: RECENT TESTING AT TWO MISSISSIPPIAN MOUND SITES IN SMITH COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Caney Fork River is the traditional eastern boundary of the Middle Cumberland region. However, little work had been done to document the exact nature of the region’s eastern limits. Over the past few years, archaeological testing at two Mississippian sites in Smith County have revealed some intriguing differences in ceramic assemblages from that of typical Middle Cumberland sites to the west. In this paper recent fieldwork at Beasley Mounds and Moss Mounds will be discussed and the significance of these ceramic differences will be explored.
Beahm, Emily L. and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2006. CASTALIAN SPRINGS (40SU14): A MISSISSIPPIAN CHIEFDOM IN THE NASHVILLE BASIN OF TENNESSEE. Artifacts from Castalian Springs (40SU14) have played a prominent role in discussions of the chronology of Mississippian shell gorgets and the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. This extensive mound site was investigated by Ralph Earl in 1820 and William Myer in 1891, 1893 and 1916 1917. While these investigations produced some of the most widely illustrated Mississippian artifacts from Tennessee, contextual information has generally been limited to two brief articles by Myer. Using Myer's unpublished fieldnotes and correspondence and the results of summer 2005 test excavations, the authors provide a more detailed interpretation and description of this chiefdom center.
Beahm, Emily L. (University of Georgia) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2007. NEW INSIGHTS FROM CASTALIAN SPRINGS: A MISSISSIPPIAN CHIEFDOM IN THE NASHVILLE BASIN OF TENNESSEE. The Castalian Springs Mound site has been recognized for over a century as one of the most significant Mississippian chiefdom centers in the Nashville Basin of Tennessee because of the shell gorgets recovered there during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2005, a multi?disciplinary research team began the first archaeological investigations of this site since 1918. This paper presents the results of the first two summer seasons of research at this site, including the discovery of a rectangular wall?trench public building, a large circular semi?subterranean building, and new insights into the chronology of the site.
Beahm, Emily L. (University of Georgia), Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University), and Erik S. Porth (University of Alabama). 2010. THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS CHIEFDOM 2008-2009: MORE INSIGHTS FROM A SUMNER COUNTY MOUND CENTER. Since 2005, an annual multidisciplinary summer field project has investigated portions of the Castalian Springs site (40SU14), a Mississippian era mound center in Sumner County, Tennessee. In this paper, we present the results of the 2008 and 2009 summer field projects, including the discovery of several structures in Mound 2 (the primary platform mound), a rich midden on the western portion of the site, several wall-trench structures on the southern portion of the site, and a possible earth-banked structure on the eastern edge of the plaza. Results from a series of radiocarbon dates, magnetometer survey, and ground-penetrating radar examinations completed in 2008 and 2009 provide a clearer sense of the chronological span of the site occupation and structure of the community.
Beck, Chase, Jay D. Franklin, and Michael S. Zavada (East Tennessee State University). 2009. THE ANALYSIS OF POLLEN AND CHARCOAL FROM ROCK SHELTER SITES IN THE TENNESSEE REGION OF THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU. Sediment samples were collected from three rock shelter sites and one natural lake on the Upper Cumberland Plateau. Samples were processed to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate pollen and charcoal abundance. The analysis was to determine when prehistoric Native Americans began controlled burns to enhance resources acquisition. Samples are also analyzed for the presence of pollen to determine vegetation changes that may accompany the use of controlled burns and to determine the onset of horticulture. The Upper Cumberland Plateau is often considered a marginal area used only seasonally by Native Americans, however, management practices may have been highly refined to maximize resources acquisition.
Bentz, Charles (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1995. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY TECHNIQUES IN TENNESSEE. Archaeologists supposedly employ the same methods in conducting archaeological reconnaissance surveys in Tennessee. In reality, these methods vary widely and, as a result, information about cultural resources is lost. This paper will review survey methods used in this state and offer some suggestions for standardizing techniques.
Bentz, Charles (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. MISCELLANEOUS SURVEY AND TESTING PROJECTS CONDUCTED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE TRANSPORTATION CENTER. Over the past year and one-half, the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee has conducted 12 survey, 7 testing, and 3 data recovery projects in East and Middle Tennessee. Projects were undertaken for the Tennessee Department of Transportation, the City of Knoxville, Knox County, engineering firms, the Nature Conservancy, and the Air Force.
Bentz, Charles (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1998. KNOXVILLE URBAN ARCHAEOLOGY. Over the past twelve years, I have been involved with a number of historic archaeological projects in downtown Knoxville. Often this has meant following heavy machinery and hoping to see the features before the next bucket of dirt is removed, having so little time and money to adequately investigate sites, dealing with the results of bottle hunters on the Monday or morning after, and having agencies "write off" ares because of existing development. Extensive earth-moving activities associated with the Knoxville waterfront redevelopment and nearby road projects have impacted numerous historic features. Archaeological investigations have been undertaken in only a few areas of the total development area even though multiple federal agencies are involved with the undertaking. Now Knox county is poised to develop two to three square city blocks of downtown Knoxville adjacent to the former location of James White's fort and probably little if any archaeology will be conducted in this area.
Bentz, Charles (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1999. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CIVIL WAR SITE IN LOUDON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Archaeologists from the Transportation center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville conducted an intensive Phase I survey and limited testing of site 40Ld211 within the right-of-way of a proposed access road in Sugarlimb Industrial Park in Loudon, Loudon County, Tennessee. The archaeological investigations resulted in the identification of 11 Civil War related features on "Button Hill" on 40Ld211. During the Civil War, the railroad and river crossings at Loudon were important in controlling the movement of troops and supplies in East Tennessee. This is evidenced by the complex of earthworks on both sides of the river near the railroad bridge, including site 40Ld211. The sampling of five features at 40Ld211 revealed the intact remains of Civil War "wintering huts" or other related structures on "Button Hill."
Bentz, Charles (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 2000. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ALONG STATE ROUTE 73 IN TOWNSEND, BLOUNT COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The UT Transportation Center has been conducting archaeological survey, testing, and data recovery for the Tennessee Department of Transportation in Townsend, Tennessee. The project area is located in Tuckaleechee Cove along the Little River at the edge of the Blue Ridge physiographic province. Middle Woodland and historic Cherokee occupations are represented by numerous features and structures. Early Woodland and Mississippian components also occur but are represented by fewer pits and houses.
Bentz, Charles (Center for Transportation Research, University of Tennessee). 2001. TOWNSEND ARCHAEOLOGY. Since October of 1999, the Center for Transportation Research at the University of Tennessee has been conducting data recovery of three sites in Townsend as part of the improvement of State Route 73 (US 321) in Blount County. The sites contain Late Archaic through historic Cherokee and Euroamerican components; and include fortified Mississippian village areas with associated outlying farmsteads, scattered Cherokee households, and evidence of substantial Middle Woodland occupations consisting of structures, midden rings, and over 1000 pit features. Early Euroamerican settlement of the area is indicated by pit cellars and postholes as well as other types of features.
Bentz, Chuck and Yong W. Kim (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1994. TEST EXCAVATIONS AT TWO ARCHAIC SITES IN JACKSON COUNTY. Archaeological testing at 40Jk129 (Austin Peay Bridge Site) and 40Jk145 (Moore Bottom site) was conducted by the U.T. Transportation Center for the Tennessee Department of Transportation in late 1991-early 1992. Deep testing procedures revealed a Middle Archaic occupation at 40Jk129 and Early-Late Archaic components on 40Jk145. Site 40Jk145 was originally to be impacted by a wetland mitigation basin associated with the bridge replacement, but the basin was ultimately moved to the north of the site. 40Jk129 was entirely in the R.O.W. of the bridge replacement but no further work was conducted.
Bergman, Christopher A. (BHE Environmental, Inc.), Richard D. Davis (Fort Campbell), Donald A. Miller (BHE Environmental, Inc.), and Richard V. Williamson (Fort Campbell). 2004. RECENT RESEARCH AT FORT CAMPBELL, KY TN. This paper will discuss recent results of Site Detection survey and Eligibility Evaluation testing conducted at Fort Campbell, KY TN. This research has used a number of methods and techniques new to Fort Campbell, including intensive close interval shovel testing, GPS recording at the shovel test and surface inspection levels, geomorphological investigations of alluvial settings, and a battery of analytical techniques including microwear and serological analyses. This paper will focus on the application of these techniques and resulting improvements in the cost efficiency and accuracy of data collection.
Bergstresser, Jack and Shari D. Moore (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 1994. FORT NEGLEY 130 YEARS LATER: AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT. Panamerican Consultants Inc. (PCI) conducted an archaeological and archival investigation of Nashville's Fort Negley to determine how much of the structure dated to the original Civil War construction and how much was a product of a Depression Era WPA reconstruction. The investigation revealed that the surface remains were WPA vintage, while most of the footings and lower courses of stone work have survived from the Civil War. The only major exception to this high archaeological integrity is the stockade which was altered first by the WPA restoration then by subsequent removal of the restored edifice during the 1940s.
Bissett, Thaddeus (University of Tennessee - Knoxville). 2011. DATING THE THREE MILE PHASE AT EVA: NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF DEPOSITIONAL HISTORY AND SITE USE. The Eva site (40BN12) has represented a major touchstone for the Midsouth Archaic, but despite its significance, until recently only a single absolute chronometric determination had ever been obtained. As a result, Eva has been largely neglected as a source of new data on Midsouthern Archaic adaptations and cultural patterning. However, two recently-obtained AMS dates on the upper and lower portions of the Three Mile component provide not only additional chronological data points for this important site, but also suggest new interpretations of Eva with respect to the site's occupational and depositional history during the Middle Archaic period.
Bissett, Thaddeus (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2013. RE-ASSESSING BIG SANDY, AN EARLY MIDDLE ARCHAIC SHELL MIDDEN IN HENRY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Big Sandy was one of several Archaic shell middens excavated in the lower Tennessee Valley during the Great Depression. In the decades since, it has been mostly relegated to footnote status, but recent work suggests that Big Sandy is unique among Middle Archaic shell-bearing sites in the Midsouth. New radiocarbon dates and analyses of artifacts and original field documentation indicate that intact strata at the site (previously thought to represent sequential occupations) were in fact contemporaneous, and that Big Sandy contains clear evidence for both residential occupation and an associated, but spatially segregated, cemetery during the early Middle Archaic period.
Blankenship, Sarah A. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Joseph C. Douglas (Volunteer State Community College), Sarah C. Sherwood, Nicholas P. Herrmann, and Jan F. Simek (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2004. CAGLE SALTPETRE CAVE, FALL CREEK FALLS STATE PARK, VAN BUREN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the nineteenth century, the increasing demand for nitre, a vital ingredient in gunpowder, led to both large and small-scale saltpeter-mining operations in caves throughout Tennessee. Although the general procedures in the historic processing of saltpeter are fairly well understood, very little research has been undertaken on specific saltpeter-mining sites. As part of the UTK Fall Creek Falls Archaeological Survey, research is underway at Cagle Saltpetre Cave in Van Buren County. The research design is focused on establishing specific temporal parameters, studying changes in technology, and outlining the social history of saltpeter mining. Sites such as Cagle Saltpetre Cave, situated within the broader regional, national, and sociopolitical contexts of historic industrial development, saltpeter mining, and gunpowder production, are integral to a greater understanding of extractive industries in early Tennessee. Since the site is fragile and vulnerable, a further aim of the research is to develop effective measures to preserve it.
Blankenship, Sarah A., Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, and Georgina Wight (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2006. THE DENDROARCHAEOLOGY OF A NINETEENTH CENTURY SALTPETER MINING SITE: CAGLE SALTPETRE CAVE, VAN BUREN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the historic mining episodes at Cagle Saltpetre Cave, wooden leaching vats needed for the lixiviation of saltpeter, or calcium nitrate, from mined sediment were constructed and used within the cave. When mining operations ceased, these artifacts were abandoned and preserved in situ, some remaining virtually intact. Their remarkable preservation enabled tree-ring dating of timbers associated with these artifacts. Tree rings from oak planks used in the construction of the leaching vats were measured to 0.001mm precision on a Velmex measuring system then entered into COFECHA software to evaluate cross-dating and measurement accuracy. The measurement series were then compared to both the Norris Dam State Park and Piney Creek Pocket Wilderness white oak reference chronologies, spanning from 1633 to 1982, contained in the International Tree-Ring Data Bank. The results of our analyses indicate that saltpeter was mined and processed at the site during separate episodes throughout the nineteenth century. Additionally, saltpeter-processing technology changed throughout the course of the mining operations.
Blatchley, Richard (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT A MISSISSIPPIAN VILLAGE (40BY111) IN CLEVELAND, BRADLEY COUNTY.
Bodkin, Thomas (Office of the Hamilton County Medical Examiner). 1999. DISTURBED PRIMARY BURIALS VERSUS DISTURBED SECONDARY DEPOSITS. On June 29, 1998, in Chattanooga, Tennessee, skeletal remains were found on top of a backfill pile at a construction site. The Medical Examiner Office responded to the scene and determined the remains were of cultural resource significance, and the State Archaeologist was then notified. The property owner claimed that the remains were already mixed in the previous fill dirt and not the result of disturbed primary burials. The difference in determining whether primary burials or secondary deposits have been disturbed could determine future land use for the property owner. How to determine primary versus secondary deposits after the deposits have been dug up will be discussed.
Bodkin, Thomas (Office of Hamilton County Medical Examiner). 2000. THE ROLE OF THE COUNTY MEDICAL EXAMINER IN THE TCA 11-6-107 PROCESS: TWO CASE REPORTS FROM HAMILTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Two cases are presented to illustrate the role of the County Medical Examiner in the TCA 11-6-107 process. This law states that whenever human skeletal remains are found, first all activity at the site must cease, and second, the County Medical Examiner and local law enforcement agency must be notified. The Medical Examiner (or with whomever she/he consults) then has five working days to determine whether the remains are of forensic significance or cultural resource significance. If the remains fall into the latter category, then the State Archaeologist must be notified, who then takes over the case. The first case involves the discovery of a Civil War battlefield burial from the Battle of Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863). The second case involves the discovery of two intact, fully-flexed Mississippian period (AD 900-1500) burials from Lookout Valley. The inclusion of the County Medical Examiner in the TCA 11-6-107 process can help prevent the loss of significant archaeological resources.
Bolte, Christina (East Tennessee State University). 2013. ANALYSIS OF LATE PREHISTORIC CERAMICS FROM THE AUSTIN SPRINGS SITE ON THE WATAUGA RIVER, WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The late prehistoric period (e. g., Mississippian) in Upper East Tennessee is not well documented. However, several recent archaeological investigations based largely on surface collections have revealed an interesting mix of ceramic types in the region during this time, such as Pisgah, Dallas, Qualla, Lamar, and Burke. Controlled surface collections were conducted on deflated portions of the Austin Springs site located on the Watauga River section of Boone Lake in Washington County, Tennessee. Luminescence dates obtained on several pottery samples indicate a late prehistoric occupation. However, seriation and analysis of ceramics collected at Austin Springs also indicate significant compositional differences when compared with known late prehistoric ceramic types represented in the region. Analysis also seems to indicate the contemporaneity of Pisgah, Dallas, Qualla, and Burke ceramic types in the region during the late prehistoric period. In this paper, I present the results of my seriation and analysis in an effort to contribute to the establishment of the regional late prehistoric culture history of Upper East Tennessee.
Boudreaux Lynn, Jennifer R. (Fort Campbell). 2004. FORT CAMPBELL ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE DATABASE. The Fort Campbell Cultural Resources Management Program has a more accurate and reliable inventory of its 1300+ archaeological sites than in the past due to the creation of an archaeological site database. The database is a comprehensive system with complete and up to date information on all the archaeological sites on the Fort Campbell Military Reservation. As a result, the archaeological site database has been valuable in making better management decisions. It is beneficial to the site monitoring and verification program. The database can also be an advantageous tool for researchers interested in the Fort Campbell region.
Boutwell, Joshua and Jaime Trotter (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2010. MCNABB MINES: DOCUMENTING A RARE NINETEENTH-CENTURY COAL TOWN IN TENNESSEE. McNabb Mines, site 40MI147, is a nineteenth-century coal town located on the northern bank of the Tennessee River in Marion County. Alexander Archaeological Consultants, Inc. (AAC) surveyed the 457-acre site and completed a National Register of Historic Places nomination between 2006 and 2008. The surface features discovered during this survey were primarily components of the company town and mining infrastructure that the McNabb Coal and Coke Company developed between circa 1882 and 1910. AAC mapped 81 above ground remnants at the site, including the structural remains of an elaborate system of railroad beds, roads and trails, mine entrances, coke ovens, surface water drainage ways, worker housing, a school, hotel, company store, and industrial buildings and structures.
Bow, Sierra M. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2012. A TALE OF TWO ROCK SHELTER SITES IN FRANKLIN COUNTY, TENNESSEE: ASSESSING COMPOSITIONAL VARIABILITY OF POTTERY THROUGH pXRF ANALYSIS. High precision portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is an analytical technique which can be successfully used to determine the elemental composition of a wide variety of archaeological materials. pXRF is proving a valuable scientific approach to the investigation of pottery provenance, and this presentation discusses the use of pXRF with regards to the paste configuration of pottery assemblages from two rockshelter sites along South Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee. Rather than determining the geographic origins of the pastes themselves, this methodology will inform on how pottery paste composition varies with respect to chronology and site function.
Bow, Sierra M., and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2008. THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU ARCHAEOLOGICAL THERMOLUMINESCENCE DATING PROJECT. This presentation will discuss a new and comprehensive methodology aimed at defining the prehistoric culture history of the Upper Cumberland Plateau. Our focus is on the Woodland ceramic sequence for the region. We highlight recent excavation and survey projects used to evaluate our approach. We suggest that this approach is applicable for both scholars and cultural resource managers and is especially useful for obtaining meaningful historical and chronological information from survey level projects.
Bow, Sierra M. and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2009. LUMINESCENCE DATING AND THE POGUE CREEK ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY. The major focus of our research is aimed at properly defining the prehistoric culture history of the Upper Cumberland Plateau. In this presentation, we discuss and evaluate a new and comprehensive methodology for building a regional culture chronology. The key to our research is the inclusion of a luminescence dating program of archaeological sites on the Upper Cumberland Plateau. We highlight recent excavation and survey data to evaluate our approach and use the excavation data to evaluate our survey data from Pogue Creek State Natural Area. We conclude that this approach is applicable for both scholars and cultural resource managers and is especially useful for obtaining meaningful historical and chronological information from survey level projects.
Bradbury, Andrew (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1994. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A BURIED EARLY ARCHAIC SITE ON THE HARPETH RIVER. Phase III archaeological investigations conducted at site 40Ch162 revealed the presence of prehistoric cultural deposits to a depth of approximately 2 m below the current plowzone. The most extensive of the deposits were associated with Early Archaic (Kirk) and Transitional Paleo-Indian/Early Archaic (Quad, Big Sandy I) components. The paper will present a preliminary assessment of the archaeological importance of the site and research questions that are currently being addressed based on the material recovered from excavation.
Bradbury, Andrew P. (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.). 1995. THE EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION OF 40CH162. Archaeological investigations at 40Ch162, Cheatham County, Tennessee revealed the presence of buried prehistoric cultural material within early Holocene aged alluvial deposits. Diagnostic artifacts from these deposits included Kirk, Early Side-Notched (Big Sandy I), and Quad forms in addition to unifacial tool forms. A sample of charcoal associated with a hearth situated below the Early Side-Notched forms was AMS dated to 10,350 +/- 60 B.P. This paper will present a summary of the results of these excavations.
Bradbury, Andrew (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.). 1996. EXAMINING PREHISTORIC LITHIC TECHNOLOGIES IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY. Phase II excavations were conducted by Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., on twelve sites in Adair, Cumberland, and Metcalfe Counties, Kentucky. Temporal components examined spanned the Early Archaic through Late Prehistoric periods. This paper will present a summary of the lithic analysis. This analysis focused on determining the technological origin of flake debris, the differential usage of the various raw material types, and a technological analysis of the modified implements. Locally available Fort Payne cherts were the predominate raw material used for chipped stone tool manufacture. A raw material survey conducted in conjunction with the excavations provided information concerning the quality and distribution of these cherts within the study area. The differential use of these cherts by prehistoric groups is examined and hypotheses generated to account for these differences.
Bradbury, Andrew P. (Cultural Resources Analysts, Inc.). 1999. PHASE II EXCAVATIONS AT FORT CAMPBELL, STEWART COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In March 1998, Cultural Resources Analysts, Inc. Conducted phase II excavations at Fort Campbell. A summary of two of the prehistoric sites excavated in the Stewart County portion of the base is presented. Excavations at 40Sw357 revealed a single component of an undetermined temporal period. Analysis of the recovered materials suggests a limited activity loci used on a short-term basis. Investigations of 40Sw346 revealed a single component Mississippian occupation (ca. A.D. 960). Artifact analysis indicate that the site likely served as a short-term occupation, limited activity loci during the fall/winter months. Activities represented at the site indicate a focus on the procurement of animal resources.
Bradbury, Andrew P., Jonathan P. Kerr, Henry S. McKelway, and Derek M. Wingfield (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.). 1997. CULTURAL RESOURCE ANALYSTS, INC. TENNESSEE INVESTIGATIONS: 1996. During the past year, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. conducted Phase II investigations at one site and two archaeological surveys in Tennessee. The paper provides an overview and summary of these investigations. Phase II test excavations at 40UN92, a multi-component prehistoric site and historic cemetery, identified a scaled Archaic component and well preserved mid-19th century human remains in one grave of the cemetery. The buried Archaic component and the historic cemetery were determined to be eligible for inclusion on the National Register. A survey of 120 acres in conjunction with the proposed Cordell Hull Waterfowl Management Area resulted in the recording of eight sites. All eight of these sites contained prehistoric components and one also contained a historic component. Three of these sites (40JK81, 40JK153, and 40JK154) were determined to be potentially eligible for inclusion on the National Register. A survey of 5000 acres of portions of the Fort Campbell military base resulted in the identification of 47 field sites, seven isolated finds and four cemeteries. Of the field sites, 12 contained both historic and prehistoric components, 22 contained only prehistoric components and 13 contained only historic components. Analysis of the Fort Campbell material is still ongoing.
Braly, Bobby R., Shannon D. Koerner, Henri D. Grissino-Mayer (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Edward R. Cook (Columbia University). 2008. RECENT DENDROARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT LATE PERIOD SITES IN EASTERN TENNESSEE. Dendrochronology, the science that utilizes tree-ring dating, is well suited to archaeological investigations. While this approach is often employed in the Southwest, the Southeast has seen relatively less work until recently. The primary focus in the Southeast has been on documenting and dating historic structures and artifacts. Poor wood preservation and sample size have previously inhibited prehistoric applications. Extant collections made by Florence Hawley and other WPA/TVA archaeologists in Tennessee during the 1930s and 1940s have been retrieved from collections at the Universities of Arizona and Tennessee. Samples from prehistoric sites in the Norris and Chickamauga Reservoirs were analyzed by the authors to construct a floating chronology, and acquire dates for samples from prehistoric sites. A master chronology dating back to the fourteenth century developed at Columbia University has enabled us to begin assigning calendar dates to many samples. This paper discusses preliminary results and provides an overview of the historical context of these samples.
Braly, Bobby R., Lynne P. Sullivan, and Shannon D. Koerner (Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2010. APPLICATIONS OF AN UPDATED EAST TENNESSEE MISSISSIPPIAN SITE CHRONOLOGY. A great deal of Mississippian archaeology in East Tennessee was conducted in the 1930s, prior to modern absolute dating techniques. Based on these early Tennessee excavations, numerous models of sociopolitical organization have been proposed that lack precise chronological control. A renewed focus on AMS dating and dendrochronology has clarified the chronological placement of significant site occupations. These data highlight the need for future refinement and revision of previously proposed models. We present a compilation of Mississippian dates that relate the contexts to relevant interpretations of culture change. We also evaluate the revised Tennessee Valley chronology to synchronic developments in adjacent regions.
Brock, Daniel (Middle Tennessee State University). 2003. INTERPRETATION OF FEATURE 14 AT WYNNEWOOD STATE HISTORIC SITE. The Wynnewood State Historic Site (40SU75) in Sumner County is one of Tennessee's many valuable cultural resources. Since prehistoric times, people have ventured to the area, drawn to its mineral springs and aesthetic beauty. Besides the springs, located in the area known historically as Bledsoe's Lick, the main feature of the property is a large log inn that was built over 170 years ago. In 2001 monitoring of the digging of a septic drain line by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology led to the discovery of a previously unknown stone-filled feature in the east portion of the site. This feature was excavated during the spring of 2002, and the artifacts recovered suggest a construction episode that occurred during the early nineteenth-century. The feature contained a high percentage of window glass, and this artifact category became the main focus for interpreting the feature. This paper discusses the analysis of this feature through the means of window glass dating, and further discusses the technique's relevance to Tennessee historic sites.
Brock, Daniel (The Hermitage). 2006. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE HERMITAGE. The Hermitage, Home of President Andrew Jackson, celebrates its 36th year of archaeological investigations. Over the years the archaeology program, with the support of the Ladies' Hermitage Association, has helped to interpret the history of the property for research and educational purposes. Continuing with that tradition, investigations were resumed at the South Cabin site located adjacent to the newly restored First Hermitage Cabins. This slave dwelling lacks any historical reference and many questions remain unanswered about the structure, it's construction, and the inhabitants. The paper presented reports on the 2004 2005 field seasons of archaeological investigations at the site as well as some interesting finds.
Brock, Daniel (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2009. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE TIPTON-HAYNES HISTORIC SITE. The Tipton-Haynes State-Owned Historic Site in Johnson City, Tennessee is a late eighteenth through twentieth-century Upland South farmstead. Historically, the site was the home and farm of three prominent Tennesseans and is also well known for the “Battle of the Lost State of Franklin.” Recent investigations at the site have focused on the use of multiple techniques for understanding the changing historic landscape as part of the Tipton-Haynes Landscape Archaeology Project. This includes the incorporation of historical background research, architectural survey, geophysical survey, dendrochronology, and archaeology to supply a rich cultural historical context to understanding one of Tennessee’s most historic sites. This presentation provides an overview of the project and the results of using multiple investigatory methods.
Brock, Daniel and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2002. MIDDLE CUMBERLAND MISSISSIPPIAN: WHAT CAN WE LEARN ABOUT BIG SITES FROM SMALL COLLECTIONS? Periodic surface collection and limited investigations at several Mississippian sites in the Nashville Basin has yielded small but significant collections of diagnostic ceramics. This presentation presents an overview of collections from the Logan/Westgate (40Dv8) and Widemeier (40Dv9) sites. Examination of these small collections in comparison with other assemblages suggests several tentative but intriguing avenues for research on settlement patterning and chronology.
Brock, Daniel (Middle Tennessee State University), Tom Des Jean (BISO, National Park Service), and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2004. THE 2003 CLIFFLINE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROJECT AT BIG SOUTH FORK NRRA. Since 1996, the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (National Park Service) and the Department of Sociology and Anthropology (Middle Tennessee State University) have collaboratively sponsored a summer archaeological survey project. This summer internship program is specifically designed to identify and record rockshelter sites along the approximately 750 miles of clifflines in the NRRA. This paper reports the results of the 2003 survey project conducted by Daniel Brock, Paige Silcox, and Colby Parrott, which brings the number of sites recorded during the project to 251 along more than 70 miles of cliffline.
Broster, John B. and Emanuel Breitburg (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1995. PRELIMINARY ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40WM31: A POSSIBLE PALEOINDIAN/MASTODON ASSOCIATION IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Test excavations at site 40Wm31 have revealed the presence of at least two mastodons, one of which shows possible associations with human acitivity. Numerous chert flakes and two lithic tools have been found within the bone bed.
Broster, John and Emanuel Breitburg (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1996. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS AT THE COATS/HINES MASTODON SITE, WILLIAMSON COUNTY. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology has spent over a year excavating and analyzing bones and artifacts from the Coats/Hines site. Results of excavations indicate that the partial remains of a bull mastodon were associated with Paleoindian artifacts. Cut marks appearing on long bones provide strong evidence for the first record of human/mastodon contact during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene periods for the State of Tennessee.
Broster, John B., Emanuel Breitburg, and Mark R. Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. PALEOINDIAN SITE, PROJECTILE POINT, AND MASTODON DISTRIBUTIONS IN TENNESSEE. This study summarizes Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Paleoindian site, projectile point density, and mastodon distribution by physiographic occurence in Tennessee. Results specify a model of primary and secondary corridors of human activity and movement in pursuit of proboscidian prey.
Broster, John. B and Mark R. Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2001. UPDATE ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT SITE 40BN190: A STUDY OF CLOVIS LITHIC TECHNOLOGY. Over the past eight years, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology has conducted controlled surface collections and test excavations at the Carson-Conn-Short site (40Bn190). This paper will concentrate on the analysis of the 3000+ Clovis blade tools, blade cores, and projectile point preforms recovered from this site to date.
Broster, John B., Mark. R. Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Bobby Hulan, and Ellis Durham (Cumberland Research Group, Inc.) 2007. CLOVIS AND EARLY ARCHAIC COMPONENTS AT THE WIDEMEIER SITE (40DV9), DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Recent work by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology at the Widemeier site (40DV9) has uncovered an extensive amount of evidence for Paleoindian and Early Archaic occupations. Paleoindian specimens recovered from the site area include Clovis and Cumberland projectile points along with blade tools, blades, and blade cores. Early Archaic projectile points include Harpeth River, Big Sandy I, Kirk Corner-Notched, and Lost Lake. These artifacts likely derived from a series of small extractive camps placed around small streams and springs overlooking an earlier oxbow of the Cumberland River.
Brown, Andrew D. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2013. SHAKING THINGS UP IN TENNESSEE: TURTLE SHELL RATTLES IN THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD. This presentation discusses research into Mississippian period turtle shell rattles from Tennessee. A total of eighty-five rattles have been identified through lab analysis and background studies. As an experimental exercise, rattles were constructed using modern box turtle shells, and data from the drilling process was compared to archaeological examples in the collection of the Frank H. McClung Museum at the University of Tennessee. Specific goals of this analysis included to determine rattle design and to define trends for the archaeological context of turtle shell rattles, including age and sex of associated human burials.
Brown, Teresa L. (Fort Campbell Military Installation, Colorado State University). 2009. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE EXCAVATION OF A RURAL BRICK CLAMP IN FORT CAMPBELL, KENTUCKY-TENNESSEE. In the fall of 2008, the Fort Campbell Cultural Resources Office conducted excavations of a rural brick clamp located near the extinct community of Jordan Springs. Historic brick clamps or kilns are an unusual feature in the archaeological record because few kilns have been discovered or excavated. This paper will discuss the excavations of the Jordan Springs brick clamp, and compare the site to similar brick clamps previously investigated in Kentucky and Tennessee.
Brown, Teresa L., E. Nicole Mills, and Jennifer R. Boudreaux (Fort Campbell). 2006. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE FORT CAMPBELL ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES VERIFICATION PROJECT. In 2004, the Fort Campbell Cultural Resources Management Program implemented a site verification project to rectify discrepancies discovered within the program's archaeological site data files. Unlike most archaeological investigations, this project focused on relocating and documenting previously identified sites, and in the process, exposed a need to improve the overall methodology of recording sites for preservation and future research. This paper will give a brief overview of the project, and discuss: (1) the discrepancies encountered which initiated the project; (2) the observed problems associated with conducting traditional pedestrian surveys; (3) how the site detection survey and/or eligibility evaluation methods can be modified to eliminate most of these problems, and (4) how land managing agencies may identify and resolve these problems with minimal staff and resources.
Bryce, William and Merrill Dicks (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). LIMITED ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT INGLEHAME (40WM342), A MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD VILLAGE, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 2005. Limited investigations at the Inglehame site (40WM342) in Williamson County, Tennessee revealed the presence of a previously unrecorded Mississippian period village. In compliance with the state cemetery law, the investigation was conducted to ascertain the extent, potential number, and cultural affiliation of human graves found during initial residential construction activities on the property. With the consent of the developer, however, archaeological investigations were undertaken and funded by DuVall & Associates to recover additional information on the site. While limited in scope, this additional work resulted in the detailed documentation of extremely well preserved prehistoric deposits.
Buchner, C. Andrew (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 1999. THE RIDLEY GRAVEYARD (40WM209) RELOCATION PROJECT. Multi-disciplinary investigations at Ridley Graveyard (40Wm208), located on the TDOT proposed I-840 loop south of Franklin, are discussed. The Ridley Graveyard is an unmarked Afro-American burial site that was used from ca. 1880 to 1940. A total of 47 burials was excavated, examined in a field lab, and reburied during July 1998. Detailed analysis of coffin hardware was conducted and will be a focus of this paper. Other significant project results, such as oral, archival, and biocultural data (recovered by Dr. E. Breitburg, TDOA), as well as the experimental use of OCR dating, are also mentioned.
Buchner, C. Andrew (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2005. RECENT DATA RECOVERY INVESTIGATIONS AT THE PARKER'S PASTURE AND JOHNSON MAY SITES IN GILES COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Under contract with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, the Memphis office of Panamerican Consultants, Inc. recently conducted data recovery investigations at two multi component sites in Giles County, Parker's Pasture (40GL25) and Johnson May (40GL85). Johnson May produced evidence of a primary Late Middle Woodland occupation and revealed a number of intact features including a well defined structure pattern. A primary Early Mississippian occupation is indicated at Parker's Pasture, which also produced numerous intact features including several burials. An impressive artifact cache accompanied one of the latter. A brief summary of preliminary findings from both sites will be presented. [Scheduled but not presented].
Bundy, Paul D. (University of Memphis) and J.W. Gray (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2000. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY IN THE ARESA IMPACTED BY 1999 RENOVATIONS AT CHUCALISSA STATE PARK (40SY1), SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Data recoveyr excavations were conducted in conjunction with erosion-cntrol efforts for two separate areas within the boundaries of Chucalissa State Park (40Sy1). Area 1, located north and west of the primary mound, consisted of a steep slope with a failed concrete drainage structure. Excavations associated with the construction of a new structure (twice the size of the original) yielded an intact midden along with pit features, hearths, superimposed structures, and a human burial. Area 2 was located east of the "entrance trench" previously excavated by C.H. Nash in the late 1950s. The proposed drainage renovations in Area 2 required the ecavation of a trench 0.5 meters wide, nearly 24 meters long, and about 0.5 meters deep. Undisturbed midden deposits were exposed, along with a structure and a human infant burial. Artifactual material recovered from Area 2 included a complete effigy vessel and one effigy bead. This paper is intended to address the work in progress and the direction/goals of the research associated with Areas 1 and 2 as a result of these recent renovations.
Cagle, Kenneth, Gabrielle Purcell, Matthew Gage (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Tom Des Jean (National Park Service). 2012.HISTORIC FINDINGS WITHIN THE OBED RIVER BLUFFLINES. The Obed Wild and Scenic River is rich in history, both in the historic and prehistoric realms. The facets presented here are the historic findings that were recorded during a Phase I survey at the convergence of Clear Creek and the Obed River. The historic findings were located along Clear Creek and included two possible still sites, the Howard Mill site and an isolated mill stone. Historic documentation of this area is limited and lends itself as a great opportunity for further research.
Carlson, Steve (University of Arkansas) and William L. Lawrence (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1999. GEOARCHAEOLOGY AND THE NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE: RADIOCARBON ASSAYS FROM THE LINDAMOOD SITE, LAKE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Recent geomorphology investigations in the Reelfoot Basin suggest that surface deformation along the Reelfoot scarp intersects both limbs of a single abandoned meander and its former oxbow lake. Surface collections of temporally diagnostic ceramics from sites both inside and outside the meander have been used to constrain the age of the meanders terminal position. The Lindamood site (40Lk5) is a large Late Woodland/Emergent Mississippian village situated along the western edge of the Reelfoot scarp. Recent small-scale excavations at this site were conducted to obtain suitable samples for radiocarbon dating.
Carmody, Stephen B., Thaddeus Bissett (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), D. Shane Miller (University of Arizona), and David G. Anderson (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2013. A SUMMARY OF 2010 AND 2012 FIELDWORK AT 40DV307, AN ARCHAIC / WOODLAND MULTICOMPONENT OCCUPATION AT BELLS BEND. This paper presents data from 2010 and 2012 excavations at 40DV307, a multicomponent site located on the west side of Bells Bend. In 2010, our investigation of the site comprised two standard flotation columns, excavated through a pair of deep pits exposed along the riverbank following the May floods. A deeper shell midden was also identified, but was not sampled at that time. In 2012, the Bells Bend Archaeological Project returned to 40DV307 to excavate three additional columns along the riverbank, and to determine the site’s uneroded extent using auger testing and unit excavation in the adjacent field.
Carty, Thomas J. and Guy G. Weaver (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2003. THE NEW MEMPHIS ARENA PROJECT. In the summer of 2002, archaeological investigations were conducted in conjunction with the construction of the New Memphis Arena, located south of the Beale Street Historic District in downtown Memphis. The investigations covered portions of a six-block area, and included demographic reconstructions, testing, and excavation of over 90 features, including more than 60 wells, privies, and cisterns. This paper examines the historical significance of the project area, the methods employed, and preliminary results.
Chapman, Shawn (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2000. PHASE II INVESTIGATIONS AT THE HENDRIXSON SITE (40BD47), AT THE NORMANY FISH HATCHERY. Panamerican Consultants, Inc. at the request of the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, conducted Phase II excavations at the multi-component Hendrixson site (40Bd47) for proposed expansion of the Normandy Fish Hatchery. Nine areas totaling 3.75 acres were stripped of plowzone uncovering 36 aboriginal features and 107 possible postmolds. Components present at the site range from transitional Paleoindian to Early Mississippian.
Chapman, Shawn (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2003. RECENT PHASE II INVESTIGATIONS IN WEST AND CENTRAL TENNESSEE. Panamerican Consultants Inc. has recently conducted Phase II testing at a number of sites in Carroll, Giles, Hardin, and Obion Counties for various TDOT projects. Six sites will be discussed with components present ranging from early Late Archaic through Mississippian.
Childress, Mitchell R. (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1994. SITE TESTING ON THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER, RHEA AND MEIGS COUNTIES, TENNESSEE. The Tennessee Department of Transportation is planning to construct a new bridge over Chickamauga Reservoir along State Route 30 in Rhea and Meigs Counties, Tennessee. The bridge will replace the Washington Ferry, which has been in operation on the Tennessee River since 1807. Site testing was conducted at two shoreline sites (40Rh198 and 40Mg7) within the right-of-way during the winter of 1993-94. Although both sites have been partially destroyed by cutbank erosion since impoundment of the reservoir, substantial intact deposits remain. Preliminary results of testing are presented.
Childress, Mitchell R. (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1995. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS NEAR MEMPHIS. Two projects were conducted in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley within 10 km of downtown Memphis during 1994. Survey of nearly 4,000 acres in Ensley Bottom west of the bluff-top Chucalissa site provided information on the distribution of small Mississippian components in the Walls phase region. The potential importance of the sites in Ensley Bottom is illuminated by findings at the old Mound City Plantation, located just north of Chucalissa in Crittenden County, Arkansas. Survey and testing on a 200-acre tract near Mound City revealed a well prserved, early 14th century farmstead. Excavations produced a representative sample of the domestic artifact assemblage and a wealth of information from the charred structural elements of a single house.
Childress, Mitchell R. (Tennessee Council for Professional Archaeology). 1996. ARCHAEOLOGY NEAR MEMPHIS, 1994-1995. Several projects were conducted in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley within 10 kilometers of downtown Memphis during 1994-1995. Survey of nearly 4000 acres of the ENsley Bottom west of the bluff-top Chucalissa site provided information on the distribution of small Mississippian components in the Walls Phase region. The potential importance of the sites in Ensley Bottom is illuminated by findings at the old Mound City Plantation, located just north of Chucalissa in Crittenden County, Arkansas. Survey and testing on a 200 acre tract near Mound City revealed a well preserved, early 14th century farmstead. Excavations produced a representative sample of the domestic artifact assemblage and a wealth of information from the charred structural elements of a single house. Additional work was conducted by University of Memphis field school students near the remaining mound (3CT6) during the summer of 1995. Survey of Riverside Park, along the bluff edge just south of 40Sy5, revealed the former presence of a multicomponent occupation area. Ceramics and Mill Creek hoe flakes indicate a possible Early Mississippian village.
Corgan, James X (Austin Peay State University), Emanuel Breitburg (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and John B. Broster (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1998. TENNESSEE'S PLEISTOCENE FAUNA. In an on-going effort begun in the 1820s, investigators of Tennessee's fossil record have documented the presence of 245 vertebrate species at 161 sites, ranging in age from Devonian period to late Pleistocene epoch or 380,000,000 to about 10,000 years before the present. A brief overview of the abundance and distribution of species that resided in the state is presented.
Cornelison, John E. (Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service). 2000. CIVIL WAR PERIOD RESEARCH AT SHILOH NATIONAL MILITARY PARK. In July and November an archaeological team from the Southeast Archeological Center under the direction of John Cornelison conducted research directed to locating Civil War period features in several areas of the Shiloh National Military Park in western Tennessee, and Corinth, Mississippi. A variety of investigative techniques were used, including ground penetrating radar, metal detecting, GPS and total station mapping, and limited test excavations. Major research goals, which were met, included (1) locating the earthworks for Battery Robinett at Corinth, Mississippi, the location of a major battle in 1862, and (2) documenting events during the battle at Shiloh through systematic metal detecting in several areas of the park, coupled with total station and GPS mapping. Two areas were also examined using systematic shovel testing. The shovel testing failed to locate a single Civil War era artifact, while systematic metal detecting in the same areas located hundreds of Civil War era artifacts. The example provides an important lesson about the kind of field procedures that should be used on historic sites. In one area, a Union camp occupied for a month prior to the battle, predominantly utilitarian items and unfired rounds were found, while in a second area, where extensive fighting occurred, large numbers of fired rounds were located. Ground penetrating radar was used to great effect at Shiloh to delimit Confederate mass graves, as well as Union burial pits that had been placed in one of the Indian mounds located on the battlefield. At Corinth, Mississippi, the GPR was used to successfully locate the earthworks for Battery Robinett, the location of a major engagement fought in late 1862. The earthworks had been leveled after the battle, and the area had been converted into a municipal park. The outline of the earthworks was known from historic maps, but no surface traces remained. A systematic program of metal detection, shovel testing, and limited test pitting in May 1999 had delimited appreciable Civil War activity, and eliminated most areas from consideration, but had not encountered the earthwork itself. The first GPR transect laid out during the July 1999 fieldwork, in contrast, ran right over the top of the earthwork, the outline of which was then traced using additional transects. Four 1x1 m units were opened in three areas to ground truth the signatures, confirming the presence of the earthwork foundation.
Crawford, Mark M. III (Middle Tennessee State University). 2013. ICONOGRAPHIC, SPATIAL, AND TEMPORAL PATTERNING IN "RATTLESNAKE" GORGETS FROM THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS . Jon Muller's dissertation on herpetomorphic or 'rattlesnake' marine shell gorgets suggests that by examining the individual motifs used to create the design, one can learn the grammar or generative rules used to create them. Additionally, Muller recommends further research can be conducted to address questions of trade and temporal relationships by the recognition of these motifs spatial distribution patterns. I have used Muller's methods of separating the gorgets into fields to identify the individual motifs employed to create this style of Late Mississippian/Protohistoric Period shell art. My analysis identified several motif combination patterns commonly displayed on the 'body' of these gorgets. Results from the initial study of this motif combination on the aforementioned field suggest that new data can be generated through this method. This presentation discusses the motifs identified, common combinations discovered, and spatial patterning exhibited. I also make suggestions of core areas of usage, and share the results of merging this data with the chronological associations of sites containing herpetomorphic gorgets. Merging the spatial patterning of common motif combinations with chronological site information helps refine our understanding of iconographic ‘style’ differences temporally and spatially.
Crensman, Steven D. (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.). 1995. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE MAIN SITE ON THE UPPER CUMBERLAND RIVER, BELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY. The Main Site (15BL35) is one of two sites ecavated by Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. in response to the construction of two new bridges across the Cumberland for the widening of U.S. Highway 23E. The investigations at the Main Site documented six distinct occupation horizons that dated from as early as ca. 6500 B.C. to a little after 300 B.C. (uncorrected ages). The occupation horizons represented: an Early Archaic horizon characterized by bifurcate base points dating ca. 6500-6000 B.C.; two Late Archaic horizons dominated by points similar to Iddens Undifferentiated Stemmed dating ca. 3900-1900 B.C>; two Early Woodland horizons characterized by a variety of stemmed and lanceolate point forms and dominated by a new pottery series (Pine MOuntain) dated from ca. 1000-300 B.C.; and a Middle Woodland horizon characterized by Nolichucky and Greenville points and a new pottery series (Mills) which dates sometime after 300 B.C. The occupation sequence at the Main site shares strong similarities with the cultural/temporal patterns of the Ridge and Valley to the south.
Crowe, Nancy (Chattanooga Intertribal Association). 1994. NATIVE AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF MOCCASIN BEND. In This paper, I will address the problem of shoreline erosion on the banks of Moccasin Bend and how artifacts and bones are being washed into the Tennessee River as a result. I will also propose solutions to this problem. A Native American Security Team has been formed to patrol and protect burial sites on Moccasin Bend and deter further looting of graves. We are also in the process of covering the 1,100 opened burials on the Bend. I will explain how the significance of our Native American beliefs has contributed to this undertaking and made it successful.
Dacus, Brandy A. (University of Memphis), Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University), and Emily L. Beahm (University of Georgia). 2011. MISSISSIPPIAN EARTHLODGE, COUNCIL HOUSE, OR TEMPLE? INVESTIGATIONS OF A LARGE CIRCULAR STRUCTURE ON THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS PLAZA. Magnetometer and ground penetrating radar surveys in 2006 and 2009 indicated a 22-m diameter circular signature on the northeastern corner of the plaza at the Castalian Springs site in Middle Tennessee. In 2010, the Middle Tennessee State University Field School explored 100 sq m coinciding with the geophysical signatures, confirming the presence of an out-sized circular wall-trench structure. The non-quotidian nature of the structure is evidenced by the virtual absence of artifacts, along with a thorough dismantling prior to burial beneath a small mound. Later, the former structure was reopened and a tableau of pits and human skulls was created at the circle's center.
Dalton-Carriger, Jessica (University of Tennessee – Knoxville). 2011. A DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH CONDUCTED ON THE UPPER HAMPTON FARM SITE (40RH41), RHEA COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The multi-component Upper Hampton Farm site (40RH41), located on the Watts Bar Reservoir, was excavated in 1940-1941 by WPA crews. This paper provides a history of these excavations and a background of occupational history based on a reanalysis of extant collections. During the Late Prehistoric Period, a complex modification of previous landscapes took place. This paper examines the way in which new occupants severed the collective memory of past populations to the built environment using a social memory model. In addition, this paper will cover aspect of the ceramic assemblage and dating methods employed to date the late prehistoric occupation.
Davis, Richard D. (Fort Campbell), Richard V. Williamson (Fort Campbell), Christopher A. Bergman (BHE Environmental), Philip C. LaPorta (LaPorta and Associates), Scott Minchak (LaPorta and Associates), and Margaret C. Brewer (LaPorta and Associates). 2006. UNIDENTIFIED RESOURCES: PREHISTORIC QUARRIES IN FORT CAMPBELL (KY-TN) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS. Over many years and through many different projects, no prehistoric quarries were identified at Fort Campbell. On reflection, this is a puzzling situation since the area is rife with high-gage cherts. Once attention was focused on the topic, quarries were found at many locations where the chert resources were accessible. Implications for the practice of archaeology in Tennessee are twofold: (1) Surveys using usual and customary methods have missed these important sites. There is a high probability that a majority of prehistoric quarry sites were unrecognized in previous survey work throughout FTC and the surrounding area. (2) Surveys in chert-rich areas throughout middle Tennessee should incorporate examination of likely areas for the characteristic quarries, factories, workshops, and their associated tailings. Aside from the much-needed investigation and treatment of prehistoric quarries, the resource also has the potential of linking problematic lithic scatters to quarries, providing researchers with the "cradle to grave" data as well as providing investigators the ability to make confident anthropological interpretations and hypotheses.
DeCorse, Elizabeth Kellar, Michael G. Angst (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Erik S. Kreusch (National Park Service). 2012. IN PURSUIT OF THEIR OWN PAST: THE GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS FIELD PROGRAM EXCAVATIONS AT 31SW393, SWAIN COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA. Since 2007, ARL and the GRSM National Park have been conducting an in-depth field program for Cherokee high school students. Students have been involved in all aspects of excavation, readings/homework, discussion with experts on a variety of topics in archaeology, and public education. For the past few years this program has taken place at site 31SW393 near Smokemont, North Carolina with excavation of a historic Cherokee winter structure (Structure 1) and a Mississippian (Pisgah) structure (Structure 2). Archaeological remains of Structure 1 consisted of an outer wall post pattern, hearth, and midden remnant in the central portion of the structure. The midden contained hundreds of beads, frog bones, and Cherokee ceramics. Based on artifact analysis, the structure appears to date to the first half of the eighteenth century. Archaeological remains of Structure 2 included a well-defined post pattern, parallel entry trenches, and remnants of a central hearth. Very few artifacts were associated with the Pisgah structure. The success of this program is more than just the excavation of the structures. As one student put it: “This experience has meant more to me than just digging in the dirt. I gained a better sense of my own personal cultural awareness.”
Dennison, Meagan E. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2012. THE EFFECTS OF SAMPLING AND PRESERVATION BIASES: A CASE FROM SACHSEN CAVE SHELTER ON THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU OF TENNESSEE. It has been well documented that faunal assemblages are sensitive to sampling and preservation biases. The use of 1/4” mesh tends toward the overrepresentation of larger artifacts while poor preservation tends toward the overrepresentation of burned and/or dense elements. To explore these biases on the Upper Cumberland Plateau, two test units were excavated at Sachsen Cave Shelter in 5cm levels. All sediment was screened through nested 1/4” and 1/8” mesh. For each level, 10L flotation samples were taken and sediment pH was measured. The results of these analyses are presented here.
Dennison, Megan and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2009. FAUNAL ANALYSIS OF LINVILLE CAVE (40SL24), SULLIVAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Linville Cave is located in upper East Tennessee and is commonly referred to as Appalachian Caverns. Excavations in 1991 revealed deposits indicative of the Woodland period. A previous paper by Franklin and Dean revealed that the site was used as an intermittent hunting camp by prehistoric Native Americans during the late Middle Woodland. A preliminary faunal analysis was conducted by the late Paul Parmalee; however, no quantitative analysis was conducted. The purpose of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of the faunal assemblage of the Linville Cave Site in an effort to reinforce conclusions drawn by Franklin and Dean that the site was used for butchering and cooking of game animals.
Des Jean, Tom (Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, National Park Service). 2000. GROUP ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROJECT AT BIG SOUTH FORK NRRA. The National Park Service at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area entered into a Cooperative Agreement with Middle Tennessee State University to do a five year archeological survey. After three years this project has produced impressive and unexpected results. Almost 96 new archeological rockshelter sites have been recorded and, contrary to expected assumptions, only 25% of these sites exhibited looting disturbance. This survey project has been successful because of the enthusiasm of 14 MTSU student interns who developed competent field techniques by actually performing this archeological survey.
Des Jean, Tom (BSFNRRA, National Park Service). 2002. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN THE BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA. Abstract not available.
Des Jean, Tom (BISO, National Park Service) 2006. ARPA ALERT VERSUS ARPA LITE: SITE PROTECTION AT BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA. On Sunday August 22, 2004, National Park Service Rangers at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BSF) arrested two individuals caught digging for prehistoric Native American artifacts from one of the many rockshelters located on the National Area. This presentation describes the process that National Park Service staff and the United States Attorney's Office followed to bring about a successful prosecution of these individuals under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA).
Des Jean, Tom (National Park Service) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2005. TWO "SHIPS" THAT DON'T PASS IN THE NIGHT: ARCHAEOLOGICAL STEWARDSHIP THROUGH INTERNSHIPS AT BIG SOUTH FORK NRRA. Begun in 1996, the Cliffline Archeological Survey Project has developed into a long term cooperative summer internship program between Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) and the National Park Service at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO). Over the last nine years, twenty six student interns from MTSU have located and recorded baseline information on over 300 archaeological sites along almost 100 miles of cliffline in Tennessee and Kentucky. The project provides BISO managers with information critical to protect these fragile rockshelter sites from persistent looting and undergraduate archaeology students with "real world" training and experience in archaeological survey.
Des Jean, Tom (National Park Service, BISO) and Timothy J. Smith II (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2007. The geography of illegal distillery sites in the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. The ongoing archaeological site condition assessment project (CAP) in the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (NRRA) has provided an abundance of information concerning illegal distillery sites within the NRRA. These sites are of special interest as little archaeological investigation has been completed with regard to this type of historic site. Some of these sites remain undisturbed, and surprisingly, some sites have produced a rare glimpse into the tools and manufacturing techniques used by 20th century moonshiners on the Upper Cumberland Plateau. While investigations (circa 1978) provided early documentation of the sites, recent condition assessments have shown that illegal distillery sites are geographically constrained by several factors. These factors include site access, site location (i.e. proximity to former coal and timber extraction sites), access to water, and seclusion of sites. A brief examination of these factors is discussed.
Deter-Wolf, Aaron (TRC). ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING AT SITE 40DR12, DECATUR COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In June 2002, TRC conducted Phase II archaeological testing at prehistoric site 40DR12, located along the Tennessee River in Decatur County. The archaeological investigations were performed in conjunction with plans to develop the surrounding property as a recreational vehicle campground/park. Testing of the site was accomplished through a program of intensive backhoe trenching and hand excavations. In addition to a previously recorded 1.5 m high conical mound and dense surface scatter, the site was determined to feature two deeply buried stratified deposits. In addition to discussing archaeological investigations at 40DR12, this paper will propose a chronology of prehistoric occupations at the site spanning a 5400-year-period from about 7000-16,0000 BP.
Deter-Wolf, Aaron (TRC). 2004. THE ENSWORTH SCHOOL PROJECT: ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND BURIAL REMOVAL AT SITE 40DV184, DAVIDSON COUNTY. In July of 2003, a bulldozer uncovered prehistoric human remains on the grounds of the new Ensworth High School, which is being constructed along Hwy 100 south of Bellevue. These burials, which were associated with previously recorded site 40Dv184, were situated on land slated for use as construction fill during creation of the school's athletic facilities. Throughout the late summer and fall, TRC conducted excavations designed to identify and remove all human remains from the site. These investigations resulted in the identification of 335 prehistoric archaeological features, sixty-four of which were found to contain human burials. The largest portion of the burials date to the Middle Archaic, and a number of these yielded oversized Benton style cache blades. However, the site exhibits artifacts from nearly the full range of prehistoric human occupation. This paper will discuss the investigations at the site.
Deter-Wolf, Aaron (TRC, Inc.). 2007. THE STONE CAIRNS OF INDIAN MOUNTAIN: SITE 40RD278. In February of 2006, TRC recorded a site consisting of 36 limestone features arrayed across the crest of Indian Mountain west of Murfreesboro. The stone features are constructed out of locally available, unshaped limestone, and include both carefully stacked circular columns and low, rough piles. No additional artifacts or features were recovered from the site. This paper will include a description of the Indian Mountain site, comparisons with similar stone mounds recorded in Rutherford County and throughout the Southeast, and a discussion of the possible cultural affiliations of these sites.
Deter-Wolf, Aaron (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Shannon Hodge, and Tiffany Saul (Middle Tennessee State University). 2012. THE HENRY COUNTY SKULL: SKELETAL, CROSS-CULTURAL, AND ICONOGRAPHIC EXAMINATIONS OF A UNIQUE TENNESSEE ARTIFACT. The Thompson Village site (40HY5) in Henry County, TN was excavated in 1939 prior to its inundation by Kentucky Lake. Those investigations resulted in the recovery of one of Tennessee’s most unusual artifacts: the skull of an adult male embellished with a deliberately-carved pattern across the forehead. The skull has long enjoyed notoriety in the collection of the McClung Museum, and was published in Tennessee Archaeologist in 1974. This presentation discusses new examinations of the Henry County skull, beginning with the results of a fresh skeletal assessment. We then use cross-cultural data to identify evidence and motivations for cranial carving. Finally, we present iconographic and historic evidence that may inform our understanding of this unique artifact.
Deter-Wolf, Aaron (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Tanya M. Peres (Middle Tennessee State University), and Shannon C. Hodge (Middle Tennessee State University). 2011. THE CUMBERLAND RIVER EMERGENCY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Catastrophic flooding throughout Middle Tennessee in May of 2010 resulted in substantial damage to the numerous prehistoric sites situated along the Cumberland River. The force of the flood waters eroded large sections of bank line, severely truncating and in some cases completely destroying many riverbank sites. Immediately after the floodwaters receded, a number of sites began to suffer from widespread and systematic looting activity targeting newly-exposed midden deposits. In June, MTSU and the Tennessee Division of Archaeology were awarded a Rapid Response Research Grant from the National Science Foundation to fund a survey and assessment of natural and anthropogenic damage to more than 120 previously recorded prehistoric sites located between Cheatham and Old Hickory Dams. In addition to documenting site disturbances and collecting critical and endangered site data, the survey and ongoing site monitoring have provided an opportunity to integrate undergraduates into an active research program.Deter-Wolf, Aaron (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Jesse Tune (Middle Tennessee State University). 2008. REINTRODUCING FERNVALE, A MULTICOMPONENT PREHISTORIC SITE ALONG THE SOUTH HARPETH RIVER IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY. In 1985, staff from the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted data recovery excavations at the Fernvale site, situated along the South Harpeth River west of Nashville. The project resulted in the identification and examination of numerous prehistoric features including Late Archaic human and dog burials and several Mississippian structure footprints. Although a partial draft manuscript was prepared, artifact analysis was not completed and a final report on the site was never published. This presentation will reintroduce the Fernvale site, and describe new analysis being conducted by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and Middle Tennessee State University.
Dicks, A. Merrill, Christopher Hazel, and Shane A. McCorkle (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1999. 1998 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE FEWKES SITE (40WM1), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. On behalf of the Tennessee Department of Transportation, DuVall & Associates conducted detailed data recovery on portions of the Fewkes site (40Wm1) which is located near Brentwood in Williamson County, Tennessee. Major occupation of the Fewkes site dates to the Mississippian period. Archaeological remains associated with this period include four earthen mounds surrounding a large plaza, a formal stone-box cemetery, and extensive residential areas. Recent investigations were focused in the residential portion of the site where the well-preserved remains of numerous domestic structures and associated activity areas were carefully documented and excavated. Also discovered were the remains of a defensive palisade and several structures of as yet undetermined function. Extensive deposits of midden and numerous pit-like features were excavated that resulted in the recovery of a massive amount of material data from controlled contexts. The course of proposed analysis will focus upon the elucidation of material patterning associated with the reconstruction and documentation of change and consistency at the household level.
Dicks, Merrill and Catherine Dietz (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2005. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN MIDDLE CUMBERLAND MISSISSIPPIAN. Smith and Moore (Smith 1992; Smith and Moore 1996; Moore and Smith 2001) have presented a model of region-wide social and political change and development for the Middle Cumberland Mississippian period archaeological record that they broadly correlate with two distinct, phase-level constructs. They proposed an initial interval of region-wide political centralization and the development of ranked, chiefdom-like society, between approximately A.D. 1000 and 1250. After A.D. 1250 political decentralization is believed to have ensued with formerly dispersed populations becoming reorganized into compact, fortified, and politically autonomous village communities where leadership positions were primarily achieved rather than ascribed. In contrast to the existing model, an alternative interpretation is presented here that stresses the role of political agency and social interactions as primary mechanisms in precipitating both regional and more local changes. Each Middle Cumberland polity is envisioned to have followed a unique historical trajectory that unfolded within a more general regional milieu where the nature of elite power shifted through time from a fundamental emphasis upon sacred to more secular means of empowerment.
Douglas, Joseph C. (Volunteer State Community College), Marion O. Smith (National Speleological Society), Jan F. Simek (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Alan Cressler (U. S. Geological Survey). 2013. INVESTIGATING CULTURAL RESOURCES IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE CAVES: AN INTRODUCTION TO FOUR UNDERGROUND SITES. This report details preliminary investigations undertaken during 2012 at four caves in middle Tennessee. Barr Saltpeter Cave in Putnam County is a recently located historic site with evidence of intensive mining for niter for gunpowder production in the 19th century, including tally marks and a saltpeter mining tool. Whiteoak Saltpeter Cave in Macon County is a saltpeter mining site which was also used as a dance hall. We introduce a map and note the presence of a Mississippian component, as the main upper passage is a Native American deep cave exploration site. A single radiocarbon assay on cane torch fragments places the activity in the fourteenth century. Skeleton Cave in Smith County was examined for historic resources with limited results, but the site also has evidence of deep cave exploration by Native Americans in the form of cane torch remains. A single radiocarbon date places the activity around cal BP 3690 to 3630, adding to our inventory of deep cave sites from the late Archaic period. An unnamed cave in Maury County is a complex maze cave with significant nineteenth century graffiti. In January 2012, cave surveyors led by Ken Oeser reported two pictographs; a cross-in-circle and an axe. Subsequent evaluation revealed three pictograph panels and one petroglyph panel, with another possible pictograph removed a short distance. Although we suspect the cave art has a Mississippian affiliation, the chronology of the site and chemical composition of the pictographs have yet to be determined.
Driskell, Boyce (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee). 2013. AN OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSEND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT, 1999-2012. During the period between February 10, 1999, and December 31, 2001, archaeologists from The University of Tennessee conducted archaeological investigations on several sites (primarily 40BT89, 40BT90, 40BT91, and 540BT94) in association with the widening of State Routes 73 (U.S. 321) and 337 from the four-lane section at Kinzel Springs to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Townsend, Tennessee. The fieldwork was performed for the Tennessee Department of Transportation (Project No. 05006-1238-04) through a contract with the general engineer, TRC (Project No. 98537). The project area is located in Tuckaleechee Cove in eastern Blount County within the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. The total project length is 7.9 km (4.9 miles), encompassing 71.1 ha (175.7 ac). Approximately 1.45 million artifacts were recovered from the sites and analyzed. Reports of the project, its analyses, and conclusions are now available in draft form and have been submitted for review. The analyses and development of an innovative and flexible project data base are described in this presentation.
Duggan, Betty J. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1995. "LIVING, LEARNING, AND PRAYING:" REFLECTIONS ON THE USE OF ETHNOHISTORIC AND ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SITE HISTORIES FOR A FARMSTEAD, RURAL SCHOOL, AND RELIGIOUS CAMPGROUND IN TENNESSEE. Contract reports for historic sites call for archival research -- a term which is interpreted quite differently by various researchers. This paper explores adaptations in archival research strategies employed in the reconstruction of site histories for three strikingly different 19th and/or 20th century sites. Use of various types of evidence, including documentary sources, ethnographic and oral history interviewing, and photographic records, are discussed in the context of time constraints, preservation and cultural biases, and the analysis and interpretation of multiple sources. Finally, suggestions are raised about the possibilities for archival research on historic sites as a soure for archaeological fieldwork strategies and as a means to expand knowledge about community patterning as well as regional history and folk culture.
Duncan, Stan (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 1995. THE FUTURE OF TENNESSEE'S SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCES: PRESERVATION OR PLUNDER. This paper addresses the proposed changes to Chapter 6 involving submerged cultural resource management and offers alternatives involving the public.
Dye, Andrew D. (East Tennessee State University), Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University), and Maureen A. Hays (College of Charleston). 2011. LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND SITE FUNCTION AT EARLY TIMES ROCK SHELTER, UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU, TENNESSEE. We examine lithic technology and site function at a small upland rock shelter in a region dominated by these features. Lithic analyses at several nearby shelters indicate they functioned as residential base camps or long term repeated use camps during the Archaic period. However, analyses from Early Times Rock Shelter indicate that it served as a temporary camp. Using lithic analyses, we attempt to place the Early Times Rock Shelter assemblage into a regional chaîne opératoire.
Dye, Andrew, Jeff Navel, Meagan Dennison, and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2010. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING OF HEMLOCK FALLS ROCK HOUSE (40FN239), POGUE CREEK STATE NATURAL AREA. As part of archaeological investigations in Pogue Creek State Natural Area, we conducted archaeological testing at Hemlock Falls Rock House. The site was recorded during the first year of survey (January 2007), and based on a luminescence measure, we dated the site to the late Middle Woodland. Though the shelter has been significantly looted, we recovered Late Archaic through Mississippian period artifacts. Varyingly intact deposits range from the Early Woodland through the Mississippian. We report on the results of test excavations, including new radiocarbon and luminescence dates.
Dye, David (University of Memphis). THE LINK FARM SITE (40HS6) IN REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE. Excavations at the Link Farm site (40HS6) in 1936 remain the only archaeological research to date conducted at this regional Mississippian center. In this paper I place the Link Farm site in regional perspective and discuss the possible role of the site as a fourteenth century ritual center.
Dye, David (University of Memphis). 2004. BUFFER ZONES, WARFARE, AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNING: MISSISSIPPIAN POLITY SPACING IN THE TENNESSEE VALLEY. A survey of Mississippian settlement patterns along the Tennessee Valley reveals a distinct arrangement in settlement choices. The location of civic-ceremonial centers and their subsidiary towns suggests that chiefly polities were spatially arranged, in part, to create buffer zones against hostile neighboring chiefdoms. In this paper I use a model formulated by Hally to assess the regularity over time in polity arrangement in the Tennessee Valley during the Mississippian period.
Dye, David H. (University of Memphis). 2007. THE DUCK RIVER CACHE AND THE EVOLUTION OF MISSISSIPPIAN SYMBOLIC WEAPONRY. The Duck River Cache, found at the Link Farm site in Humphreys County, is one of Tennessee's most significant archaeological discoveries. In this paper I place the ritual cache in temporal context based on analysis of symbolic Mississippian combat weaponry and recent radiocarbon dates from the Link Farm site. Symbolic combat weaponry, such as that found in the Duck River cache, has a long tradition in the Southeast and Midwest. The evolution of Mississippian symbolic weaponry is presented here in order to evaluate the varied forms found in the famous cache.
Dye, David H. (University of Memphis). 2009. THE GREAT SERPENT CULT IN THE MIDSOUTH. An early manifestation of the Great Serpent Cult in the Midsouth is materialized in the thirteenth century in the form of a unique set of ceramic vessels and other ritual items. Although the Great Serpent Cult has iconographic roots in the Middle Woodland Period in the Midwest, it spread into the Midsouth in the mid to late thirteenth century. The Mississippian expression of the Great Serpent is clearly seen in the American Bottom area in the tenth century and by the thirteenth century figural statuary emerges at Cahokia that may have resulted in Great Serpent ceramic forms found in the Midsouth.
Dye, David H. (University of Memphis). 2012. THE DUCK RIVER CACHE AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPIAN RITUAL. The Duck River Cache is a unique Tennessee treasure that has virtually no parallels in the archaeological record of the eastern North America. Unfortunately, interpretation of the cache’s function has been noticeably absent in discussions of Mississippian religion and ritual. In this paper I propose that elements of the cache functioned as components of a temporary altar and that other elements were associated with ritual performance. Together, the altar arrangement and religious drama were central to the basic Mississippian belief system that stressed the recreation of sacred space, the reenactment of mythic dramas, and the solicitation of divine aid.
Dye, David H. (University of Memphis) and Ronald C. Brister (Memphis Pink Palace Museum). 2006. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT CHUCALISSA (40SY1): 1940-1955. Four phases of archaeological field investigations were conducted at Chucalissa during the fifteen-year period between 1940 and 1955. In the spring of 1940 George Lidberg and Charles Nash, under the supervision of T.M.N. Lewis, began initial exploratory excavations to determine the depth, extent, and nature of the site. A year later, members of the Lower Mississippi Survey briefly visited Chucalissa to obtain a ceramic sample. In 1952 members of the Memphis Geological and Archaeological Society resumed excavations under the leadership of Kenneth Beaudoin. In 1955 Charles Nash was hired as the director of Chucalissa and began extensive excavations that resumed the investigation program he and Lidberg initiated fifteen years earlier. In this paper we discuss the various field projects at Chucalissa and their relevance to current research at the site.
Dye, David H. and George H. Swihart (University of Memphis). 2009. NONDESTRUCTIVE CHERT SOURCING USING INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. Chert samples from geological outcrops and archaeological contexts in the Midsouth have been examined through infrared spectroscopy. A principle objective of the project is to investigate whether nondestructive infrared analysis can provide a chemical signature for bedrock sources of chert artifacts. The technique utilizes a Bio-Rad Digilab FTS-40 Infrared Spectroscope and microscope attachment to reflect the infrared beam off a chert specimen. The preliminary investigation indicates that the spectral signal for silica, the main chemical constituent in chert, may provide a useful chemical fingerprint. Examples based on several cherts, including Buffalo River, Burlington, Dover, and Horse Creek, 7777are discussed.
Ellerbusch, Elijah C. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2004. PALEOINDIAN PRISMATIC BLADE MANUFACTURE AND FUNCTION AT THE NUCKOLLS SITE (40HS60): A PILOT STUDY. A lithic technological analysis of 319 Paleoindian prismatic blades and blade fragments from the Nuckolls Habitation Site suggests that blades were organized as complex economic systems that complemented bifacial technologies during the Paleoindian period in western Tennessee. Prismatic blade manufacture primarily occurred at habitation sites situated near high-quality lithic raw material sources. Concurrently, prismatic blades were manufactured most often from these local high-quality cherts and less often from "exotic" cherts found in other environmental regions. The high-power microscopic use-wear analysis of a 5% sample of suggests that prismatic blade utilization also occurred most often at habitation sites, while light, durable, and flexible blades could have been transported to extraction localities within mobile toolkits. Prismatic blades were used at the Nuckolls Site primarily to fabricate tools and secondarily to butcher game and process hide, demonstrating that they were multifunctional. This empirical observation challenges the assumption that Paleoindian blades were specialized butchery implements in the Southeast. Based upon these initial findings, it is argued that prismatic blade research is essential for understanding the complete lithic economic organization of Southeastern Paleoindian foragers.
Ezell, Ray (Michael Baker Jr., Inc.). 2002. ARCHAEOLOGY OF A CIVIL WAR FORTIFICATION IN CLARKSVILLE, TENNESSEE. Fort Defiance is a rather large, well?preserved earthwork overlooking the confluence of the Red and Cumberland Rivers. This fort was initially constructed and occupied by Confederate forces in early 1861 before the fall of Forts Donelson and Henry. Archaeological investigations at Fort Defiance/Bruce (40Mt287) in Clarksville consisted of the excavation of a series of five meter auger tests to determine concentrations of cultural deposits and one by one meter units in apparent surface features within the fortification. Investigations at the site also attempted to isolate discrete Confederate and Federal construction episodes in the main defensive parapet by way of the examination of backhoe trench and hand excavated slot trench profiles.
Faulkner, Charles H. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1994. HOUSE LOT ARCHAEOLOGY AT BLOUNT MANSION. The 1993 Field School at Blount Mansion, the 18th century home of Governor William Blount, succeeded in determining the dimensions of a deeply buried building foundation that was discovered in the 1992 field season. Other features also provide information on the late 18th century house lot, and moving of the slave quarters, and subsequent changes in the lot in the later 19th century.
Faulkner, Charles (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1995. TESTING THE REAR HOUSE YARD OF BLOUNT MANSION, SEASON 3. The third UTK Department of Anthropology historical field school was conducted at Blount Mansion in June-July 1994, directed by Charles H. Faulkner, Susan Andrews, and Amy Young. Testing focused on finding additional evidence of a late 18th century fence around the Mansion compound, determining activity areas between the slave quarters and the kitchen, and continuing to test the possible cellar beneath the slave quarters. Evidence for a defensive fence was equivocal, but a previously recorded building foundation was discovered between the slave quarters and the kitchen, and the cellar is probably a large crawl space.
Faulkner, Charles H. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1996. RETURN TO RAMSEY HOUSE: 1995 SUMMER EXCAVATIONS. The University of Tennessee, Department of Anthropology historical archaeology field school was held at the historic late 18th century Ramsey House in Knox County, Tennessee from June 1 to July 5, 1995. A Tennessee Historical Commission grant extended the project until August 3 with a crew of students and volunteers. The excavation was in the east side yard where testing in 1994 revealed several features believed to be associated with early outbuildings. The opening of 23 3'x3' units revealed 33 features including the foundations of three structures, an early fence line, an a large brick-lined cistern. One of these structures containing two heavily fired hearths is believed to be a late 18th century smokehouse. Superimposed over this structure was a later 19th century building supported by large limestone footers. Arfiacts associated with this later building suggest it might have been a stable. The function of the third building set in shallow builder's trenches is problematical.
Faulkner, Charles H. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1997. 1996 EXCAVATION AT BLOUNT MANSION. The University of Tennessee, Department of Anthropology's 1996 historical archaeology field school returned to Blount Mansion, the fourth field season at the late 18th century home of Governor William Blount in Knoxville. This summer project was conducted to define the dimensions and function of a small outbuilding found during the 1994 field school. The foundation, buried under 2 1/2 feet of fill and midden, supported a small timber frame structure with a doorway in the gable end. Associated artifacts suggest kitchen related activities. In addition to the remains of this structure, several postholes were found including at least one from the early defensive fence around the governor's compound. The field school was under the direction of Dr. Charles H. Faulkner.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. A SURVEY OF UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES AT JOHNSONVILLE, TENNESSEE RIVER. The objective of the underwater archaeological survey was to locate, investigate, and determine the condition of at least one of four U.S. Navy gunboats (U.S.S. Elfin, U.S.S. Key West, U.S.S. Tawah, and U.S.S. Undine) sunk in the Battle of Johnsonville, November 1864. Johnsonville was a Federal supply depot and railhead on the Tennessee River. The work was carried out by Goodwin and Associates under the direction of Dr. Jack Irion. The team spent 10 days on the river and located two boats, believed to be the U.S.S. Key West and U.S.S. Tawah. Additional work is planned.
Fielder, George "Nick" (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1996. CEMETERY RELOCATION: IS IT ARCHAEOLOGY? The state cemetery laws give no consideration for archaeological values. The laws provide a means by which a land owner can, with approval of chancery court and at his expense, remove an encumbrance (the cemetery) from his or her property by relocating the graves (and their descendant's visitation rights) to another piece of real estate. Since 1985 these laws have been applied to prehistoric Native American graves with varying degrees of success. Since the law specifies that disinterment must be done by a "licensed funeral director of person acting as such," and since funeral directors have shown no interest in moving prehistoric graves, archaeologists have been hired to do identification and removal of prehistoric graves. The state archaeologist can be named to oversee the removal and receive the remains and artifacts but this is not required by law. He can, by law, analyze the remains (historic and prehistoric) for up to 12 months. This is grave removal using archaeological techniques at the property owner's expense, not research oriented archaeology.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1999. CANNONS, CANNONBALLS, AND THE BOMB SQUAD: A RECENT DISCOVERY IN DOWNTOWN NASHVILLE. Blasters working on a subsurface parking garage for a new building in downtown Nashville uncovered an interesting assemblage of metal artifacts, including 30 black powder-filled cannonballs, an unfinished cannon, pig iron, foundry sand, and other materials. The results of archival result will be presented to determine any associations and possible explanations of why there were there.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2000. THE LEGAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF THE KELLYTOWN CASE -- TDOT VS. MEDICINE BIRD ET AL.. The discovery of intact Mississippian period burials in the right-of-way on a TDOT intersection improvement on the border between Davidson and Williamson counties proceeded to court under the normal process. The Williamson County judge ruled that the relocation of the burial violated the constitutional rights of modern Native Americans who were morally opposed to the disinterment. The State has appealed the ruling to the Court of Appeals. The court will hear oral arguments on February 1. If the Native american defendants prevail, prehistoric burials must be preserved in place and developers will not have a legal remedy if graves are encountered during construction.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2001. DISCOVERY OF THE GRAY SITE, WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Highway construction in Washington County, Tennessee uncovered a deposit of bedded clays containing fossil plants and vertebrate animal remains. Identified animals include tapirs, elephant, turkey, alligator, turtle, frog and rhinoceros. The rhinoceros has been identified as genus Teleoceras that dates to the Miocene to Pliocene periods. Preservation and long term research is planned.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2002. TOWNSEND ARCHAEOLOGY PROJECT: POST MOLDS, POLITICS AND PAVEMENT. University of Tennessee Transportation Center archaeologists completed fieldwork in December 2001 on a highway project in Townsend, Blount County. The sites excavated are multi-component Late Archaic, Middle Woodland, Mississippian, and early historic Cherokee. In total, over 100 structures and 104 burials were identified. The Middle Woodland component contained burials, cremations, circular and rectangular structures, and three possible burial mound remnants. By agreement with the Cherokee and Chickasaw tribes, the burial treatment for this project was different from previous projects. No burial excavation was allowed. Instead, all human remains were left in place and covered with concrete slabs so that the roadway could be constructed over them.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2003. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF CEMETERIES ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECTS. How archaeologists treat prehistoric and historic cemeteries is in a constant state of evolution and change. Recent cases in various local courts have redefined the application of cemetery laws and regulations to prehistoric period human remains. Modern Native Americans are not recognized as defendants in suits to relocate prehistoric cemeteries. Recent policy statements by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians place limitations on excavation, recording, and analysis of burials. The archaeological ramifications of these changes will be discussed.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2004. DIGGING IN A LOOPHOLE: ARTIFACT MINING IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. State law allows a person to dig or collect artifacts on private land with the owner's permission. However, it a felony to knowingly disturb human burials. In Robertson County, relic collectors took this legal privilege to a new level when they leased a large Archaic site to mine for artifacts. In a bizarre twist, apparently other relic collectors planted a human skeleton in the backdirt, just prior to an unannounced visit by the Division staff. Tennessee's archaeology laws are compared to the state's hunting laws.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2005. RECENT LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS AFFECTING ARCHAEOLOGY IN TENNESSEE. The Department of Environment and Conservation has requested an Attorney General opinion regarding the use of human Native American skeletal materials in teaching and research and the photography of such remains by news media. There is also a pending case on the treatment of human remains using site burial techniques and whether the process is considered to be desecration under Tennessee law.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2006. WHAT'S LEGAL AND WHAT'S NOT: THESE ARTIFACTS ARE MINE, I CAN DO WHAT I WANT WITH THEM. This presentation is an illustrated review of the legal aspects of artifact auctions, buying, selling and owning human remains, and grave desecration in Tennessee.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2007. HIGHLIGHTS FROM MY ARCHAEOLOGICAL CAREER 1969 – 2007. Starting with the Tellico project as a field assistant/photographer (1969?70), then as UT staff archaeologist (1974?76), SHPO archaeologist (1976?83), and State Archaeologist (1983 ? 2007), I have had the pleasure of working with many archaeologists, politicians, developers, lawyers and the public. I will present some of the highlights of my work including stories from Chota, Watts Bar nuclear plant excavations, Normandy Dam, Foothills Parkway, Oak Ridge survey, Soddy Daisy, Averbuch, DeSoto Route Commission, Trail of Tears survey, Mocassin Bend, Kellytown site, Gray Fossil site, Townsend, and Pinson Mounds.
Fielder, Nick (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Bill Jones (Trail of Tears Association, Tennessee Chapter). 1998. RELOCATING THE TRAIL OF TEARS. Using 19th and 20th century historical maps, deed recods and field surveys, the original route of Higginbotham's Trace and Rainey's Turnpike has been mapped across the Cumberland Plateau from Pikeville to McMinnville. Eleven detachments of Cherokee, about 1100 persons, are known to have taken this route in the fall of 1838. The survey methods and results are presented.
Fleming, Lacey (Middle Tennessee State University). 2007. THE ROLE OF THE DOMESTICATED DOG (CANIS FAMILIARIS) IN PREHISTORIC MIDDLE TENNESSEE. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, was one of two animals independently domesticated on the North American continent before the widespread arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century. This paper explores the archaeological correlates for the varied uses of dog noted throughout prehistory in southeastern North America, specifically as a load?bearing animal. In the spring and summer of 2006, prehistoric dog skeletal remains from four archaeological sites in middle Tennessee were analyzed to determine the physical attributes (including age, sex, and size) of each individual, as well as record the incidences of vertebral pathologies consistent with weight?bearing activities.
Fleming, Lacey S., Jennifer M. Clinton (Middle Tennessee State University), and Tom Des Jean (Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, National Park Service). 2009. RESULTS OF THE CONDITION ASSESSMENT PROJECT AT BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA. The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (NRRA) was Created by Congress in 1974 and was authorized to include 125,000 acres of the Upper Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee and Kentucky. This area boasts an exceptional number of well-preserved prehistoric and historic archaeological sites. Currently there are over 1,400 known archaeological sites here, with a vast majority of these sites located along the precipitous cliff lines common to the sandstone of this elevated, erodible tableland. Since the fall of 2005, resource management personnel, park rangers, and university contractors and cooperators have been engaged in relocating and documenting the condition of the previously recorded archaeological sites. This project, known as the archaeological site condition assessment project (CAP), has provided an abundance of information concerning archaeological sites within the Big South Fork NRRA.
Franklin, Jay (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1995. TESTING OF TWO HISTORIC SITES IN ROANE AND RHEA COUNTIES. This paper discusses two historic period sites located in East Tennessee. Both were part of Phase II testing conducted by archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The project area is State Route 29 from State ROute 68 in Spring City to north of State Route 1 in Rockwood, Rhea and Roane Counties, Tennessee. Sites 40Re192 and 40Rh165 are historic/prehistoric sites. However, their more significant components are historic. Artifacts from pit cellars and other associated features date from the 1820s through the early 20th century. These artifacts and associated faunal remains may yield information on early frontier settlements as well as later occupations in East Tennessee.
Franklin, Jay (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1997. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING OF THE TWIN HEARTHS SITE (40RE179). The Twin Hearths site (40RE179) is a potentially important site for understanding early Middle Woodland adaptations in East Tennessee. This paper summarizes recent archaeological testing and suggests avenues for future work at this location.
Franklin, Jay D. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2000. A RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY FOR 3RD UNNAMED CAVE, TENNESSEE. The Cave Archaeology Research Team from the University of Tennessee has conducted intensive archaeological investigations of 3rd Unnamed Cave, Tennessee over the last three years. It is now apparent that prehistoric peoples used and explored this cave for over 4000 years. This paper discusses the changing prehistoric exploitations of 3rd Unnamed Cave, and puts them in chronological and spatial context.
Franklin, Jay D. (University of Memphis). 2004. A SUMMARY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY ON THE WESTERN ESCARPMENT OF THE NORTHERN CUMBERLAND PLATEAU OF TENNESSEE. This presentation gives a preliminary synthesis of recent and ongoing archaeological research of the caves, rock shelters, and open air sites of the northern Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. In short, nearly 200 sites were surveyed or revisited. Together, these represent more than 200 prehistoric cultural components in the project area. These components span the entire range of prehistory from at least Clovis through the Late Mississippian.
Franklin, Jay D (East Tennessee State University). 2008. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF POGUE CREEK GORGE STATE NATURAL AREA. This presentation will highlight the first two winter field seasons of the archaeological reconnaissance survey of Pogue Creek Gorge State Natural Area, in Fentress County, Tennessee. More than 60 prehistoric archaeological sites have been identified and recorded. Most are rock shelter sites, and several are pristine. This presentation discusses the long-term research goals for the project including an effective chronological methodology for scholars and cultural resource managers.
Franklin, Jay D. and Todd M. Ahlman (University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 1998. SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS AT THE RED VELVET SPIDER ROCKSHELTER (40RE243). We present results of salvage excavations at the Red Velvet Spider Rockshelter (40Re243), which has been repeatedly looted over the past few years. Diagnostic ceramics and an associated radiocarbon date indicate intensive occupations spanning the Woodland period. However, other recovered artifacts suggest that occupational episodes at this rockshelter may actually range from the Paleo-Indian through the Mississippian periods.
Franklin, Jay D. (East Tennessee State University) and S. D. Dean (Kingsport, Tennessee). 2006. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF LINVILLE CAVE (40SL24), SULLIVAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Linville Cave is more popularly known in Upper East Tennessee as Appalachian Caverns. As part of a commercial venture, S. D. Dean conducted salvage excavations at Linville Cave in the spring of 1991. While these excavations were performed in a scientific and controlled manner, funds were not available for complete analyses or radiocarbon dates. In this paper, we present a detailed overview of the archaeological record of Linville Cave and a new radiocarbon date.
Franklin, Jay D. (East Tennessee State University), Maureen A. Hays (College of Charleston), Sarah C. Sherwood (Dickinson College), and Lucinda M. Langston (East Tennessee State University). 2010. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH: LITHIC ANALYSES AND SITE FUNCTION, EAGLE DRINK BLUFF SHELTER, UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU, TENNESSEE. Rock shelters tend to be viewed as special purpose sites. Here we integrate technological and use-wear methods to investigate site function at Eagle Drink Bluff Shelter, a small sandstone rock shelter in the highlands of the Upper Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. Four seasons of excavations have revealed components ranging from the Middle Archaic through the Late Woodland. Here, analyses of the Late Archaic Period materials support the interpretation of Eagle Drink as one such special purpose site; a short term hunting and butchering locale. While each method alone contributes to the site interpretation, the strength lies in their integration.
Franklin, Jay D. (East Tennessee State University) and Todd D. McCurdy (University of Memphis). 2005. A RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY FOR THE PLATFORM MOUND (UNIT 5), CHUCALISSA, TENNESSEE. The University of Tennessee conducted the initial archaeological investigations at Chucalissa in 1940. This was before the advent of radiometric dating, and virtually all of the field notes were lost. The construction of the platform mound is presumed to have been restricted to the Walls Phase based largely on ceramic chronology. Recent excavations by the University of Memphis aimed to refine the chronology through the recovery and radiometric dating of charcoal samples from the various construction and destruction episodes revealed within the profile of the mound. In this presentation, we suggest that the periodicity of both mound construction and use was relatively brief.
Franklin, Jay D. (East Tennessee State University), Steven M. Sharp (University of Memphis), and Todd D. McCurdy (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.). 2007. A REVISED RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY FOR CHUCALISSA: A MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD COMMUNITY IN MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. Archaeological investigations at Chucalissa have been ongoing more or less since 1940. During this time, much has been learned about lifeways in this Mississippian Period community. While there are two previous suites of radiometric dates obtained for the site, there are still legitimate questions regarding periodicity of occupation and mound construction. Many of the existing radiocarbon assays have error margins far too large to be of great use in refining late prehistoric chronology. We present a new, much larger suite of radiometric age assays, a significantly revised chronology, and evidence for socio-political change for the Mississippian occupation of Chucalissa.
Franklin, Jay D. (University of Memphis), Jan F. Simek, Charles H. Faulkner (University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and Alan Cressler (National Speleological Society). 2003. BEDROCK MORTAR HOLE SITES IN TENNESSEE: DISTRIBUTION AND VARIABILITY. Until recently, reports of bedrock mortar hole sites in Tennessee were virtually nonexistent, excepting antiquarian literature and unpublished manuscripts. These site types have a wide distribution and are myriad in Kentucky, and they are also common in northern Alabama. That relatively few exist in Tennessee seemed implausible. This paper reports on recent survey efforts aimed at locating and recording such sites in Tennessee. We focus on their distribution, temporal span, and especially their variability, as we currently understand these characteristics. Finally, we suggest some ideas regarding their function(s).
Franklin, Jay D., Jan F. Simek, Charles H. Faulkner and Alan Cressler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2001. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF GERNT SHELTER CAVE, TENNESSEE. Gernt Shelter Cave was occupied by prehistoric Native Americans from the Middle Archaic Period through the Late Mississippian Period, a span of perhaps more than 7000 years. While site function likely varied over time, the spatial association of petroglyphs and bedrock mortars make Gernt Shelter Cave particularly interesting. These associations have been documented elsewhere and assigned a Terminal Archaic temporal affiliation. The evidence from Gernt Shelter Cave suggests the bedrock mortars are Mississippian in age.
Franklin, Jay D. and Todd D. McCurdy (University of Memphis). 2004. RENEWED ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE CHIEF'S MOUND AT CHUCALISSA, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. The University of Tennessee conducted the initial archaeological investigations at Chucalissa in 1940. This was before the advent of radiometric dating, and virtually all of the field notes were lost. The dating of the Chief's Mound has been presumed to have been restricted to the Walls Phase based on ceramic chronology. Recent excavations aim to refine the chronology through the recovery and radiometric dating of charcoal samples from the various construction and destruction episodes revealed within the profile of the mound. In this presentation, we report our preliminary findings.
Gage, Matthew D. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2010. ONGOING ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE BIRDWELL AND NEAS SITES: TWO MULTICOMPONENT SITES ON THE NOLICHUCKY RIVER. Since August, the University of Tennessee Archaeological Research Laboratory has been conducting investigations at the Birdwell and Neas Sites in Greene County. The mitigation project is being undertaken through a contract with the Tennessee Department of Transportation for the replacement of West Allen Bridge. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary findings and observations of the Late Paleoindian through Mississippian occupations of the Nolichucky River Valley.
Gage, Matthew D. and Nicholas P. Herrmann (UT Archaeological Research Laboratory). 2006. JOHN BOATS AND RAINCOATS: ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM. In 2004, the Archaeological Research Laboratory (ARL) at the University of Tennessee Department of Anthropology began the Reservoir Operation Compliance (ROC) Study of eleven reservoirs for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The five-year project is designed to not only identify undocumented cultural resources and reinvestigate significant archaeological sites, but also to monitor shoreline erosion at these resources. To date, ARL has documented more than 600 individual sites, incorporating them into a relational geodatabase that includes coordinate, photographic, soil, artifact, environmental, and mapping information. This presentation will highlight some significant finds and outline the structure and utility of ARL's database.
Gage, Matthew D. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Nicholas P. Herrmann (Mississippi State University), and Stephen J. Yerka (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2010. FIVE WINTERS OF THE TVA RESERVOIR OPERATIONS COMPLIANCE PROJECT. During the past five winter draw-down periods, TVA has contracted the University of Tennessee’s Archaeological Research Laboratory to conduct shoreline survey of eleven reservoirs in six states. This study was undertaken to examine erosion on historic properties. As a result, 1,690 sites were documented and the effects of reservoir operations on these sites were recorded. This paper examines various environmental, geomorphological, physiographic, and cultural factors contributing to the erosion of historic properties within the Tennessee Valley watershed.
Galle, Jillian (The Hermitage). 2000. THE 1999 EXCAVATION SEASON AT THE FIRST HERMITAGE SITE, HERMITAGE, TENNESSEE. For the past three summers, archaeological investigations at Andrew Jackson's plantation have focused on activities at the First Hermitage, an area of the property that served as the Jackson's main residence between 1804 and 1821. In 1821, when the Jacksons moved into the newly constructed brick mansion, the buildings at the First Hermitage were converted into homes for several families of enslaved Africans. During the 1999 field season, archaeologists continued to ask questions about architectural change and use of space over time during the two different occupation periods. Archaeologists excavated three separate areas of the First Hermitage. In this presentation, I will discuss the archaeological and architectural work conducted inside of the West Cabin, Jackson's house that was physically restructured into a slave dwelling during the 1820s. The discovery of rich artifact deposits associated with the remains of another log dwelling deepens our understanding of how the area was used. Finally, I'll discuss several intriguing yard features that paint an evocative picture of the types of activities that were occurring in the yard space surrounding the dwellings at the First Hermitage.
Galle, Jillian and Larry McKee (The Hermitage). 1999. RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT THE FIRST HERMITAGE. The Hermitage Archaeology Program continued excavation at the First Hermitage in 1998. The site was home to Andrew Jackson and his family from 1804 until 1821, after which it became a quartering area for Hermitage slaves. Work in the past year went on within the interior of one standing cabin at the site, around the exterior of a second cabin, and in outlying areas in a search for remnants of other related structures. The presentation will also discuss a week-long magnetometer survey recently conducted at the Hermitage, the impact of the April tornado on the site, and the results of a short study of a standing log cabin located at Cleveland Hall, a neighboring plantation.
Gardner, Jeffrey (Brockington and Associates, Inc.). 1998. TESTING AND DATA RECOVERY AT 40WM153: EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY SETTLEMENTS IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Phase II and III archaeological and historical investigations were conducted for the Tennessee Department of Transportation at 40WM153 during the spring and summer of 1997. This site consists of a surface artifact scatter and a small number of features representing a possible MIddle to Late Archaic component and an early nineteenth century domestic occupation. Historic deposits include a midden, cellar, and a shallow firepit. Recovered artifacts suggest a middle class historic occupation during the first and second quarters of the nineteenth century. Supporting historical records indicate second generation settlement by members of the Patton family.
Garrow, Patrick H. (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1994. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING OF A BLOCK IN DOWNTOWN KNOXVILLE. This paper presents the results of Phase II testing on a block in downtown Knoxville that is the planned site of a federal courthouse. The Phase II investigations consisted of background historical research and excavation of seven backhoe trenches placed in areas of the block believed to contain intact archaeological remains. Intact archaeological remains dating to the founding of Knoxville were found, and a Phase III data recovery investigation has been recommended for a block prior to the planned construction.
Garrow, Patrick H. (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1995. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COURTHOUSE BLOCK, KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE. This paper reports the preliminary results of archaeological data recovery conducted on a block in downtown Knoxville, Tennessee that was conducted in March and April 1994. Archaeological features dating from the 1790s to ca. 1915 were excavated, and an extremely large artifact collection was assembled. The majority of the features postdated the Civil War and had been generated by businesses that had fronted Gay Street. Much of the excavation effort was expended on a single backyard space that contained a variety of feature types that spanned the nineteenth century.
Giliberti, Joseph A. (Brockington And Associates, Inc.). 1998. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT THE CHANDLER SITE (40CH74), CHEATHAM COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the late summer, 1997, Brockington and Associates, Inc. conducted Phase III data recovery of a small portion of the Chandler site (40Ch74). This site is a multi-component occupation area located adjacent to Sycamore Creek, a tributary of the Cumberland River in Cheatham County, Tennessee. The site contains several reported mounds and stone box graves. Excavations, however, did not include impacting any of the reported mounds. The Phase III investigations included digging six 2-meter by 1-meter-square units and then stripping of the area of direct impact of a proposed water intake structure and parking lot. Results of the excavation indicated that most of the area tested was heavily disturbed. Site stripping revealed two large pit features dating to the Middle and Late Woodland periods. The most intriguing data from the study concerns these two features and includes analysis of the recovered ceramics and associated radiocarbon dates.
Greene, Lance (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1998. A REPORT OF PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT THE WATERFRONT SITE, 40KN149. From November 1996 through January 1997 archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted Phase III excavations at 40Kn149, near the Knoxville downtown area. Excavations revealed minor occupations during the early 19th century through the mid-20th century. Cultural debris more than three meters thick attest to the massive changes in landscape use throughout the industrial period. Interpretation of the archaeological record is enhanced through use of the Core Periphery Model, designed to explain the changes in land use within the core area of cities during the industrial period.
Gregory, Danny (The Louis Berger Group, Inc.). 2008. PROPOSED SR 52 CORRIDOR STUDIES, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND EVALUATION, OVERTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE, LITHIC ANALYSIS. The Louis Berger Group, Inc. completed an archaeological survey of two sites and the archaeological evaluation of eight sites in September 2007 for the Tennessee Department of Transportation. In addition to the general artifact analysis, an in-depth lithic analysis was performed on a sample of the assemblages of each site. The goal of the analysis was to determine if there were differences among the rock shelter sites and the open sites in terms of site function and lithic reduction activities. A study of the platform remnant morphology was used to identify variation in the reduction stage among larger debitage samples and microdebitage samples. The similarity between the rock shelters and open sites in nearly all aspects of the analysis suggests that there are minimal, if any, differences in the lithic technology employed each site type through time (Early Archaic to Late Woodland). Though all sites may vary in functional organization or resource procurement, the lithic technology represented at each site is remarkably similar. This paper will focus on the behavioral and methodological implications of the study for future lithic research in the region.
Gregory, Danny (New South Associates). 2011. A RARE GLIMPSE AT LATE ARCHAIC LITHIC TECHNOLOGY: DEBITAGE ANALYSIS AT 40MI70 IN EASTERN TENNESSEE. Lithic attribute analysis was conducted on debitage samples from a data recovery excavation at 40MI70 along the Tennessee River in Marion County. Samples were collected from three stratified Late Archaic components dating to the beginning, middle, and end of the period (ca. 2500, 4000, and 5500 years BP). The components were clearly segregated by depositional episodes and dated through radiocarbon analysis. Lithic attribute analysis results were used to evaluate diachronic changes in lithic technology, material procurement, site use, mobility, and subsistence strategies throughout the entire span of the Late Archaic period in Eastern Tennessee.
Gregory, Danny and Shawn Patch (New South Associates). 2010. GPR AND DATA RECOVERY AT A MIDDLE WOODLAND VILLAGE ON THE TENNESSEE RIVER. New South Associates used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to guide and focus data recovery excavations at a Middle Woodland village on the Tennessee River in Marion County. The 5.1-acre GPR survey altered the 106 process, allowing for early project redesign and a focused data recovery effort. The data recovery allowed for ground-truthing of the radar results and revealed a Middle Woodland village site containing shell middens, a prehistoric river levee, structures, and other prehistoric features. These results can be used to guide the future use of GPR in Tennessee archaeology. This presentation highlights the utility of the GPR results and summarizes the findings of the data recovery excavations.
Hammett, Michelle L., Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University), Douglas Idleman, and Renee B. Walker (State University of New York -Oneonta). 2008. THE NELSON SITE: A MIDDLE TO LATE WOODLAND HABITATION LOCALE ON THE NOLICHUCKY RIVER, WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In this paper, we discuss the Middle and late Middle Woodland occupation of the Nelson Site on the Nolichucky River. Our focus is largely aimed at Middle Woodland ceramic typology and chronology in upper East Tennessee. We also discuss subsistence at the site, as evidenced by recovered faunal elements.
Hazel, Christopher (Duvall & Associates, Inc.). 2002. VINCA MINOR, MEDICINE BOTTLES, AND FRENCH BRAIDS: CEMETERY RELOCATION IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. A previously undocumented cemetery in Rutherford County was identified and relocated by DuVall & Associates, Inc. during the past spring. The cemetery was almost entirely unmarked yet contained the remains of 83 individuals. A wide variety of coffin furnishings, clothing items, jewelry, and other funeral offerings were recorded from among the graves dating from the last half of the 19th century. The good preservation of cranial features as well as non-bone remains revealed something quite unique about the cemetery population. This well-organized and tightly packed cemetery contained the remains of both African and European Americans as well as a very high frequency of child graves. The range of datable artifacts indicated that this cemetery was occupied at least from 1876 to 1920. This cemetery may reflect changes in post-Civil War race relations in Middle Tennessee or be associated to a nearby "Pest House".
Hazel, Christopher (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2003. ARCHAEOLOGISTS VISIT THE LAWSON HOME: PHASE III ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT SITE 40SV51. This presentation focuses on Phase III investigation of portions of site 40SV51 that were conducted for the Tennessee Department of Transportation. Site 40SV51 is located between the Little Pigeon River and Main Street in the northern portion of Sevierville, Tennessee. This multi-component site contained evidence of prehistoric occupation possibly dating to the Archaic and Early Woodland periods, and also a portion of the early 19th century Forks of the River Baptist Church Cemetery. Block excavation and mechanical stripping were used to identify and excavate living surfaces, features and burials. Although analysis of the data is on-going, we accomplished three goals from these investigations: (1) community outreach during the 2002 Archaeology Awareness Week; (2) discovered evidence to refute claims of 20th century grave desecration in the next-door Piggly-Wiggly and funeral home parking lots; and (3) created a synthesis of new and old histories from the Forks of the Little Pigeon River community.
Hazel, Christopher and Robert Pace (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2001. COMPARISON OF BIOARCHAEOLOGY AND FUNERARY ANALYSIS OF 40AN74. DuVall & Associates excavated 34 features (including the remains of 14 individuals) at the Clinton site (40An74) during the summer of 1998. This site was discovered within the proposed State Route 69 right-of-way on the east bank of the Clinch River in Clinton. The site contained artifacts of the Hamilton Focus, a Late Woodland mortuary complex in east Tennessee. Charcoal from selected features yielded corrected radiocarbon dates of 980160 and 950170 BP. The interpretation of the bio-archaeology and funerary practices at 40An74 excavations necessitated comparison with other temporally and spatially related mortuary populations. Comparisons of funerary practices revealed similarities in mortuary patterning, body placement, and grave construction between 40An74 and other sites along the Clinch and upper Tennessee Rivers. The demographic trends at 40An74 were similar to other Hamilton Focus sites. The frequency of pathologic trends involving environmental stress (arthritis and trauma) and dental infection observed at 40An74 was similar to the comparative sites. However, the frequency of developmental disorders and skeletal infection at 40An74 was remarkably higher than the comparative sites.
Heffington, J. Douglas (Cumberland University/Middle Tennessee State University). 1999. HORN SPRINGS: AN EXERCISE IN "ARCHAEO-GEOGRAPHY". As a joint classroom project at Cumberland University and Middle Tennessee State University, excavations at Horn Springs served as a focal point for exposing students to the mutual relationship geography and archaeology have shared for decades. Limited testing at this historic Wilson County spa site provided hands-on experience for students in the Cumberland "Introduction to Archaeology" class but also provided geography students at MTSU an opportunity to explore the application of archaeologically generated data to the examination of some fundamental themes of their discipline. Testing at Horn Springs was not a "research" project, but simply an applied exercise for students to better understand the interconnectedness of their social sciences. This brief presentation summarizes the fieldwork and intended outcomes of this joint exercise.
Herrmann, Nicholas P. and Chad Caswell (Department of Anthropology, Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2005. A TOWNSEND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT UPDATE: THE ARTIFACT DATABASE AND GIS. A critical component of the Townsend Archaeological Project is the development of a functional artifact and context relational database and GIS. We have been working with Dr. Rod Riley of IBM to develop a web based artifact analysis data entry interface. The structure and user interface of the Townsend relational database will be presented, and our progress will be detailed. In addition, the status of the project wide GIS will be presented and illustrated.
Hockersmith, Kelly S. and William F. Stanyard (TRC, Inc.). 2009. THE SPIRIT HILL SITE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF DATA RECOVERY EXCAVATIONS AT A LARGE LATE WOODLAND/MISSISSIPPIAN VILLAGE AND CEMETERY COMPLEX IN NORTHEASTERN ALABAMA. In May 2008, TRC completed data recovery excavations at the Spirit Hill site (1JA642) along the Tennessee River in northeastern Alabama. In addition to being a focal point of mortuary activity during the Late Woodland and Mississippian periods, long-term or permanent settlements had been established during that time. This presentation discusses the preliminary results of our investigations, with a particular emphasis on Late Woodland and Mississippian material culture, site structure, and mortuary behavior.
Hodge, Shannon C. (Middle Tennessee State University), Michael K. Hampton (Middle Tennessee State University), and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2011. RITUAL USE OF HUMAN SKULLS AT CASTALIAN SPRINGS, TENNESSEE. Investigations of a 22-m diameter Mississippian circular wall-trench structure during summer 2010 revealed a post-structural revisiting of the locale for construction of a ritual tableau centered on the use of disarticulated human skulls. Devoid of other objects, the skulls form the principal components closing a short-term ceremonial event involving the construction, use, and burial of a series of circular and rectangular pits.
Hogan, Christopher and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University) ANOTHER ONE DOESN'T BITE THE DUST? DEVELOPING THE FEWKES SITE (40WM1) AS PART OF PRIMM PARK, BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. Recently, the Primm family donated 30 acres to the City of Brentwood that is now under development as an historical park (Primm Park). The land includes most of the Fewkes Site (40WM1), a Mississippian period mound center and the Boiling Springs Academy, an 1833 brick schoolhouse. The City has consulted with the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and Middle Tennessee State University to develop the park in a fashion sensitive to archaeological concerns. During restoration of the academy, a significant sample of Mississippian and historic period artifacts were recovered from beneath the floorboards. This paper will provide an update on the park development and artifacts recovered.
Hollenbach, Kandace D. 2009. PROTOHISTORIC CHEROKEE PLANT USE IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS. Recent analyses of plant remains from protohistoric Cherokee contexts at the Townsend site in eastern Tennessee and Smokemont in western North Carolina add to our current understanding of Cherokee foodways, based largely on the traditional triad of corn, beans, and squash. Perhaps most interesting is the lack of definitive evidence for peaches at the Townsend site. These Old World fruits quickly spread through the Southeast, similar to glass trade beads. Although glass beads were recovered in quantity at Townsend, peaches are notably scarce here, despite their recovery from other sites in the region, like Smokemont, Coweeta Creek, and the Tellico sites.
Hollenbach, Kandace D. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee). 2013. SETTLEMENT AND SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES IN THE LATE ARCHAIC AND EARLY WOODLAND PERIODS IN TUCKALEECHEE COVE, EASTERN TENNESSEE. Large-scale excavations associated with the Townsend Archaeological Project revealed a nearly continuous occupation in Tuckaleechee Cove, in the Appalachian foothills of eastern Tennessee, from the end of the Late Archaic through the Early Woodland periods (roughly 1750-300 cal BC). While the basic economy seems to change little – with apparently similar use of nuts, native cultigens, and fruits in addition to deer and other animal resources throughout this occupation – there is a significant shift in the size, types, and layout of features through time. At the same time, the cove’s occupants replaced soapstone vessels with ceramic ones. These patterns likely mark changes in the strategies employed by peoples living in these rich foothills as they increased their investment in horticulture.
Hollenbach, Kandace D. and Bradley A. Creswell (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2012. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS AT THE MCCOLLOUGH BEND SITE (40CE2) AND FISCHER SITE (40CP21) ON NORRIS RESERVOIR IN EAST TENNESSEE. In early 2011, the UT Archaeological Research Laboratory evaluated the extent of intact cultural deposits at two sites on Norris Reservoir that are actively eroding into the lake. At the McCollough Bend Site (40CE2), a series of fire-cracked-rock concentrations as well as pit features were identified. Three Middle Woodland pit features were analyzed, one of which yielded a nearly whole sand-tempered pot as well as over 300 chenopod seeds. At the Fischer Site (40CP21), 55 features were recorded, including a midden area and at least one structure, dating to the Mississippian Hiwassee Island phase. The location of the site on a knoll at the confluence of the Powell River and Cedar Creek, approximately 140 ft above the original river elevation, well above the typical “floodplain” site, is of particular interest.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 1994. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM 40HA84, CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE. Limited archaeological testing was carried out at 40Ha84 last summer by the UTC Archaeological Field School. This heavily looted site has been identified by Dr. Charles Hudson as the location of a Napochie village that was attacked by a combined force of Coosa warriors and Spanish soldiers from the Luna expedition in 1559. Twenty square meters of area was excavated, resulting in the recovery of a large quantity of prehistoric artifacts, primarily burned daub. The presence of a burned prehistoric house and three sixteenth century beads (from the plow zone) lend some credence to Hudson's identification of this site as a 16th century Napochie village.
Honerkamp, Nick (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 1995. LOOKING FOR A SPANISH-COOSA ALLIANCE AT AUDUBON ACRES (40HA84). On the basis of documentary evidence and looted artifact assemblages, Charles Hudson and his colleagus have identified 40Ha84 as a probable Napochies village attacked in 1560 by an alliance of Coosa warriors and soldiers from the Tristan de Luna expedition. This claim is examined in light of preliminary archaeological research at the site carried out through the University of Tennessee Chattanooga summer field program over the past two summers. The recovery from controlled excavation of Spanish artifacts, architectural features, and large quantities of burned daub lends limited support to the site's Napochies attribution.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 1996. A SUN CIRCLE PICTOGRAPH SITE NEAR CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE. The Kell Site is a pictograph site located on Signal Mountain, near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee. This site consists of a small sandstone rock shelter with three abstract pictographs rendered in red: a sun circle, a partial anthropomorphic stick figure, and a possible four legged animal. A review of the literature on pictograph sites in and adjacent to Tennessee reveals the rarity of recorded examples of this resource, and this lacunae underscores the importance of recording and reporting them before they disappear. Recent looting at the Kell rock shelter exacerbates the difficult problem of estimating the date of occupation of the shelter (and by association, the pictographs) and emphasizes the fragile nature of this scarce archaeological resource.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 1998. TESTING A WOODLAND COMPONENT ON MACLELLAN ISLAND, CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE. During the summer of 1983 a UTC archaeological field school performed a systematic survey of Maclellan Island. The reort on this survey, which took the form of an anthropology student's honor's thesis, indicated a highly localized distribution of prehistoric artifacts in the approximate center of the island; the vast majority of identifiable ceramics were limestone tempered Woodland types. This cultural affiliation is in distinct contrast to Williams Island just down the river, a multicomponent site with a heavy Mississippian occupation. More intensive testing by yet another UTC field school during the summer of 1997 indicates that the survey results accurately reflected the apparent absence of a Mississippian component, and possible reasons for this lacuna are suggested.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga) . 2004. SURVEY AND TESTING AT THE SAMUEL DOAK PLANTATION, GREENEVILLE, TENNESSEE. In the summer of 2003, four weeks of survey and testing was undertaken adjacent to the Samuel W. Doak plantation house in Greeneville, Tennessee, by the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Archaeological Field. Built about 1829, this still-standing structure housed a series of Doak descendents until the present. Despite continual occupation and modification of the plantation landscape, intact archaeological remains were identified at the site, including undocumented structural foundations that probably predate the house and an enigmatic and out-of-(temporal)-place delftware apothecary jar, complete with its intact and even more enigmatic contents. Finally, the problems and promises for future testing at this site are explored.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 2005. PLANTATION ARCHITECTURE AT THE SAMUEL DOAK SITE, GREENEVILLE, TENNESSEE. A second field session of archaeological testing at the Samuel W. Doak plantation, in Greeneville, Tennessee, revealed two extensive architectural features adjacent to the extant plantation manor and the Doak "academy," or schoolhouse. Artifacts associated with both features indicate that they both predate the initial construction dates of buildings documented for the site. This archaeological challenge to the archival version of the plantation's history has resulted in a more accurate but at the same time more complex reconstruction of the Doak occupation.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga) . 2006. EVOLVING LANDSCAPES AT THE SAMUEL DOAK PLANTATION, GREENEVILLE, TENNESSEE. Two UTC summer field schools of archaeological survey and testing at the Samuel W. Doak plantation (40GN257) have resulted in major revisions to the document-based interpretations of the site's antebellum origins and use, thanks to the discovery and excavations of: (1) a cellar associated with a possible early domestic Doak structure, and (2) the foundations of a student dormitory. Building on these earlier results, the 2005 field session generated almost as many enigmas as sherds relating to these two features. The questions revolve around the discovery of an architectural feature of unknown function near the dorm and human remains in the cellar fill.
Honerkamp, Nicholas (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga) and Tom Bodkin (Hamilton County Medical Examiner). 2003. RELATIVE VS. CHRONOMETRIC DATING AT THE CITICO SITE (40HA65), CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE. The Citico site (40HA65) has been the focus of enormous interest by relic collectors and archaeologists from the Civil War until the site's nearly complete destruction in the 1960s. Despite thousands of artifacts that have been taken from this Mississippian mound center over the years, chronological dates have never been generated for any of its components. This paper presents the results of a recent radiocarbon date from a prehistoric burial discovered during construction activities at the site, and the challenges in accurately dating the surviving archaeological remnants using nonchronometric approaches.
Honerkamp, Nicholas and Julie Coco (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 2001. CONTRASTING WOODLAND AND MISSISSIPPIAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Limited testing of MacLellan Island (40Ha64), a small prehistoric site in the Tennessee River in Chattanooga, has revealed a multicomponent, stratified Late Archaic to Late Woodland artifact sequence; virtually no Mississippian artifacts were recovered, despite the presence of several major Mississippian sites nearby. On the other hand, Williams Island, just downstream from MacLellan, contains a Mississippian village and mound complex, and several well-known Mississippian sites are found on upstream islands. While both were attractive to earlier foraging-based groups, the factors that eventually produced contrasting occupations by native groups over time are explored in this paper.
Howell, Cameron (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2003. MISSISSIPPIAN STRUCTURES AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN TOWNSEND, TENNESSEE. The Townsend Archaeological Project opened up large block areas that allowed visibility of, among other components, the Mississippian component consisting of multiple palisaded villages, individual households, and a variety of related features. In this preliminary survey, certain patterns and relationships between different aspects of the components will become clear, answering some questions about the Mississippian period in East Tennessee, and posing new questions, that even with the tremendous amoutn of data collected, currently go unanswered.
Humpf, Dorothy (Cultural Resource Management Program, Environmental Division). 1999. THE CULTURAL RESOURCE PROGRAM AT FORT CAMPBELL. Fort Campbell is located in Trigg and Christian counties, Kentucky and Montgomery and Stewart counties, Tennessee, and is the home of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). Since 1995, the installation has maintained a cultural resource management program, responsible for surveying approximately 5000 acres per year and ensuring compliance with federal, state, and Army regulations regarding cultural resources and Native American concerns. This presentation briefly describes the program and goals and the surveys that have been conducted at the installation since 1980.
Jahan, Muhammad and Charles McNutt (University of Memphis). 1997. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THERMOLUMINESCENCE TESTS OF CAMPBELL APPLIQUE FROM THE OTTO SHARP SITE. Tests are currently being conducted at the University of Memphis to evaluate the practicability of calibrating thermoluminescence determinations to produce age determinations on local pottery.
James, Steve (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2001. SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCES ASSOCIATED WITH THE BATTLE OF JOHNSONVILLE. In August and September of 2000, Panamerican continued underwater archaeological investigations in the Battle of Johnsonville site area. Findings from the 2000 field season ascertained that a previously discovered anomaly thought to represent the tin clad vessel Undine most likely does represent the remains of this vessel. Buried under eight feet of overburden, the vessel is burned below the waterline. In addition, the investigations conducted in front of Johnsonville located the remains of four other vessels. Tentatively identified as two transports and two barges (or three transports and one barge), these vessels are burned to the waterline and contain numerous artifacts, many in the form of supplies.
Johanson, Jessie (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee). 2013. PLANT USE AND LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT AT THE BIRDWELL (40GN228) AND NEAS SITES (40GN229), GREENE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Excavation of the Birdwell and Neas sites (40GN228 and 40GN229) was undertaken by the ARL at the University of Tennessee from August 2009 to January 2010. Contracted by TDOT, the excavations succeeded in the recovery and documentation of the cultural remains of upper Ridge and Valley Province communities spanning from the Late Paleoindian period to the Pisgah phase of the Mississippian period. This presentation compares the paleoethnobotanical analysis of 33 features and four columns of floatation samples to the geoarchaeological correlates at these sites. Land use practices distinctive to each landform were identified, with investment in horticulture surprisingly restricted to the western side of the river. The long history of plant husbandry at this site began as early as the Late Archaic period and transitioned to intensified use in the Early Woodland period. Interestingly, the plant analysis of the lower terrace of 40GN228 suggests that, in spite of frequent flooding, the occupants repeatedly burned this landscape to invest in a suite of small edible seed crops.
Jones, Scott (DuVall & Associates, Inc.) 1997. PHASE III ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION AT THE JACOBS SITE (40MU525). Phase III data recovery was conducted at the Jacobs site (40MU525) during the summer of 1996 by DuVall and Associates, Inc. for the Tennessee Department of Transportation. The investigation focused primarily upon data recovery from a large midden deposit and excavation of a large number of features within the impact zone. Excavations revealed a well-defined activity area as well as a number of unusual features. These unusual features range in size from 1.6 meters to 5 meters in diameter and consist of a basin lined with a well-defined organic ring or mat. Unlike many tree throws identified on archaeological sites that also served as trash receptacles, the feature fill was culturally sterile and did not produce any evidence of domestic use. Similar features have been recognized in archaeological contexts by others and a cultural origin is suggested.
Jones, Scott (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1999. SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE KELLEY'S BATTERY SITE (40DV392): A MISSISSIPPIAN VILLAGE IN WESTERN DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Kelley's Battery site is a large, multi-component site located in western Davidson County on the Cumberland River. Salvage operations revealed Early Archaic through Civil War period archaeological remains. Of particular importance in the excavations is a large Mississippian village. Two formal stone-box cemeteries, numerous structures, and large pit features were investigated. Analysis is currently in progress.
Jones, Scott (University of Kentucky). 2002. VARIATION IN STONE-BOX CEMETERY MORTUARY PATTERNS AT THE KELLY'S BATTERY SITE (40DV392). Archaeological investigations conducted at the Kelly's Battery site (40Dv392) in 1998 included excavation of two formal stone?box cemeteries and associated habitation/village area. The site has been dated to the Thruston phase of the Middle Cumberland Mississippian culture. A total of 131 stone-box burials representing 161 individuals were removed from the site. Subsequent analysis of the structure and grave good associations of the two stone-box cemeteries revealed differences indicative of significant sociopolitical and/or political-economic variation within the site. Initial comparison of the two stone-box cemeteries suggests a greater degree of social differentiation during the Thruston phase than previously suggested.
Kauffeld, Valerie and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2009. MORTUARY ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE EASTMAN ROCKSHELTER (40SL34). In this paper, we present the analysis of human skeletal remains uncovered in the Eastman Rockshelter (40SL34). S. D. Dean conducted the excavations in 1981. The excavations revealed a deeply stratified site with intact prehistoric deposits ranging over several thousand years. We believe the burials date to the Middle Woodland and therefore report on those deposits with particular emphasis on the burials. Our focus is on the age and sex structure of the individuals. We also highlight traumas and pathologies that may shed light on social and subsistence behaviors.
Kellar, Elizabeth (The Hermitage) 2003. THE PRESS, THE PIT, AND THE POSTHOLES: THE SEARCH FOR ANDREW JACKSON'S COTTON GIN HOUSE AND PRESS. During the 2001 field season, Hermitage archaeologists attempted to locate the original cotton gin house and press. Through researching Jackson family letters, documentary and cartographic resources, an approximate location for the cotton structures was established. Fieldwork conducted in a 64-acre field revealed the remains of a cotton pit press dug in ground to a depth of nearly nine feet, and nearby postholes associated with the original cotton gin house. The identification and location of these structures have allowed for a better understanding of the industrial activities that took place on the plantation.
Kerr, Jonathan (Cultural Resources Analysts, Inc.). 1995. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE SURVEY OF KENTUCKY LAKE. Archaeological survey of Tennessee Valley Authority land on Kentucky Lake along the lower Tennessee River was undertaken between 1990 and 1993. A total of 20,000 acres along the shorelines, on adjacent floodplains and in surrounding uplands was surveyed. Over 1000 new sites were recorded and 137 previously recorded sites were revisisted as a result of these efforts. Paleo-Indian through Historic period sites were represented. This paper presents an overview of the nature and results of the project.
Kim, Yong W. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1995. PHASE II TESTING OF SIX ROCKSHELTERS IN PICKETT COUNTY AND AT THE MABRY-HAZEN SITE IN KNOX COUNTY. This paper will address Phase II testing of six rockshelters in Pickett County, Tennessee and Phase II testing at the Mabry-Hazen site, a historic house site in east Knox County.
Kim, Yong (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT A MIDDLE WOODLAND SITE (40GN52) AND A HISTORIC SITE (40GN63), STATE ROUTE 350, GREENE COUNTY.
Kim, Yong W. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1998. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY OF THE POSSUM CREEK SITE (40GN52) AND THE MYERS SITE (40GN63) IN GREENE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Data recovery was conducted on two sites in East Tennessee in conjunction with the TDOT realignment of State Route 350 in Greene County. The Possum Creek site (40GN52) was an open habitation prehistoric site containing Middle Woodland components. Limestone and quartz tempered ceramics and Middle Woodland PPKs were recovered in pit feature context and a sample of radiocarbon dates were obtained. The Myers site (40GN63) was a historic rural Euro-American farmstead with components ranging from the early nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Only subsurface features occurred on the site and included two cellars, three midden areas and two chimney pads.
Kim, Yong W. (Center for Transportation Research, University of Tennessee). 2001. LATE ARCHAIC IN GILES COUNTY. This presentation presents the results of Phase II testing of 40Gl72 (Fite site) and Phase III data recovery of 40Gl68 (Oliver site) in 1996 by the Center for Transportation Research within the US Route 64 corridor east of Pulaski. Moderate Ledbetter and Wade occupations were identified at 40Gl72, and a Late Archaic component comprised of storage pit clusters was investigated at 40Gl68. Both of these upland sites occur along minor tributaries within the Richland Creek/Elk River drainage in southern Middle Tennessee.
Koerner, Shannon D., Lynne P. Sullivan, and Bobby R. Braly (Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2010. A REASSESSMENT OF THE MOUND A CHRONOLOGY AT TOQUA. Ongoing research on the timing and location of Mississippian settlements in the eastern Tennessee Valley by the authors has led to a re-emphasis on dating the well known Mississippian town of Toqua (40Mr6). The Toqua site remains one of the most thoroughly excavated Late Mississippian mound sites in East Tennessee and has been the focal point of Late Prehistoric studies in Southern Appalachia. We discovered significant issues with the original site radiometric dates that may affect current interpretations of the evolution of Mississippian culture in eastern Tennessee. A new AMS date from the large platform mound at Toqua has allowed us to re-think the site occupation. Our aim is to anchor this new chronology with complementary lines of evidence, which includes archaeomagnetic dates, settlement architecture, mortuary practices, and pottery traditions.
Krivor, Michael C. and Steve James (Panamerican Consultants, Inc.). 2003. EDUCATION BY HOWITZER FIRE: FEDERAL NAVAL LOSSES AT THE BATTLE OF JOHNSONVILLE. For the past several year, Panamerican Consultants (under the auspices of the Tennessee Historical Commission) have conducted intensive remote sensing surveys and diver investigations on the historic Tennessee River channel off the submerged town of Johnsonville, Tennessee. The investigations have been conducted to locate the remnants of Union vessels lost at Johnsonville during a raid by Confederate forces under General Nathan Bedford Forrest on November 4, 1864. The remains of one tinclad, one barge, and at least two (possibly three) supply transports have been located. This talk will focus on the finds to date, as well as future investigation plans.
Kroulek, Orion (New Mexico State University) and Nicholas Honerkamp (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga). 2007. GIS APPLICATIONS TO ARTIFACT ANALYSIS AT THE DOAK SITE (40GN257), GREENEVILLE, TENNESSEE. Application of GIS techniques to archaeological data at the Doak site resulted in an objective, quantified model of site structure. The artifact distributions generated from ArcMap signify past behavior that was incompletely identified and understood during the previous three years of excavations at this antebellum plantation. Simultaneously, it provided the project sponsor (Tusculum College) with an explicit guide for protecting the site's archaeological resources. The utility of GIS?based means for satisfying multiple ends is well illustrated in this study.
Langston, Lucinda (East Tennessee State University), and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2011. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF POGUE CREEK STATE NATURAL AREA: A GIS PERSPECTIVE. Rock Shelters have been occupied for thousands of years on the Upper Cumberland Plateau (UCP) of Tennessee. Different from adjacent lowland regions, the UCP is unique in that rock shelters played a dominant role in prehistoric cultural adaptations due to their ubiquity in this landscape. In an effort to shed light on prehistoric rock shelter use in the region, we use GIS to analyze data from the four year Pogue Creek State Natural Area survey. Now that the survey is complete, the data are used to look at patterning of rock shelter use through time in order to elucidate diachronic prehistoric human-land relationships.
Langston, Lucinda M., Meagan Dennison, and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2010. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING AT YORK PALACE (40FN220), POGUE CREEK STATE NATURAL AREA. York Palace is a scenic four-legged natural sandstone arch shelter on the Upper Cumberland Plateau. While the site has been known to local inhabitants for decades, we formally recorded it in 2006 as part of the Pogue Creek archaeological survey. The site had been seriously damaged by artifact hunters. Nonetheless, we conducted archaeological testing in March 2008 in hopes of mitigating further damage. We recorded intact archaeological deposits ranging from the Late Archaic through the Late Woodland periods. We also report on five luminescence dates from the testing.
Langston, Lucinda M. (East Tennessee State University), Lacey S. Fleming (Middle Tennessee State University), and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2008. THE EARLY WOODLAND ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ASG SITE, HAWKINS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The ASG Site is a large open habitation site on the Holston River that was occupied at least seasonally from the Early Woodland through the Mississippian periods. This presentation will discuss the Early Woodland component at the site, highlighting material culture, chronology, technology, and subsistence.
Langston, Lucinda and Jay Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2007. EARLY WOODLAND CERAMIC TYPOLOGY AND CULTURE CHRONOLOGY IN UPPER EAST TENNESSEE. Based on excavations at Phipps Bend on the Holston River, Robert Lafferty (1978, 1981) developed a model for Early Woodland ceramic typology and chronology for upper East Tennessee that he believed to be more accurate than a previous model laid out by McCollough and Faulkner (1973). The utility of either has yet to be evaluated beyond Phipps Bend, however. In this paper, we examine the ceramic assemblages from five sites in upper East Tennessee in an attempt to place them within a chronological and typological framework. We also report on newly acquired supporting radiocarbon age assays.
Langston, Lucinda M., Jeffrey W. Navel, and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2012. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN PICKETT STATE FOREST, 2011-12. We report on the status of ongoing archaeological survey in Pickett State Forest on the Upper Cumberland Plateau. Our efforts are largely focused on the prehistory of the region. A significant number of new sites have been identified and many previously recorded sites have been revisited. Results of luminescence dates associated with the survey are presented as well as some preliminary GIS analysis.
Langston, Lucinda (East Tennessee State University). 2013. SITE LOCATION MODELING OF PREHISTORIC ROCK SHELTERS ON THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU, FENTRESS AND PICKETT COUNTIES, TENNESSEE. Using data collected from three separate archaeological surveys of the Upper Cumberland Plateau (UCP), East Obey, Pogue Creek Gorge, and Pickett State Forest, a site location model was developed for prehistoric rock shelter occupation in the region. In an effort to understand prehistoric land-use and mobility patterns, environmental and socio-cultural variables were explored using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Rock shelters, however, pose a unique problem in that they are fixed places on the landscape and dictated almost entirely by environmental variables. An outline of the Upper Cumberland Plateau Model will be presented along with preliminary results of recent model testing in Pickett State Park.
LaPorta, Philip C., Scott Minchak, and Margaret C. Brewer (LaPorta and Associates). 2006. PREHISTORIC QUARRIES IN FORT CAMPBELL (KY-TN): DISCOVERY, TYPES, DEFINITIONS, AND SETTINGS. Fort Campbell (KY-TN) is located in the Western Highland Rim of the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province. Mississippian-age chert-bearing limestone and siltstone units that serve as potential raw material sources underlie the Western Highland Rim. In previous surveys, LaPorta identified twelve different quarry types within the Mississippian-age lithologies and weathered older lithologies. Recent investigations were conducted at three of these quarry types. Two bedrock quarries (FTC-08A-901 and FTC-08A-902) are located on Fletchers Fork, Montgomery County, Tennessee. A Felsenmeer (Garner 1973) quarry, or lag concentration of chert in a saprolitized or laterized soil, is located at site 15Tr269 on Skinner Creek in Trigg County, Kentucky. Combined techniques of mapping, detailed photo-documentation, excavation, and backhoe trenching were used to elucidate the anatomy of the quarries and the geomorphological processes associated with each of the LaPorta quarry types.
Lautzenheiser, Loretta (Coastal Carolina Research, Inc.) and John N. Lovett (Museum of Power and Industry). 2001. HISTORIC MILL CONTEXT. This presentation is based on the development of a context to evaluate historic water-powered mills that is being prepared for the Tennessee Department of Transportation by Lovett and Lautzenheiser (2000). The draft report traces the development of mills in Tennessee over time and provides a discussion of the changing technology of water-powered equipment. The context also illustrates various types of mill buildings, layouts, and equipment.
Law, Zada L. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1996. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF THE SHELBY BOTTOMS GREENWAY IN NASHVILLE. Nashville's Shelby Bottoms Greenway Project is presented as a case study of how greenway development can be used to conserve and interpret archaeological resources in urban settings. Archaeological resources were considered in the physical design and planning of the Shelby Bottoms Greenway. Signage along the greenway trails is being used to interpret local prehistory and promote awareness of natural resource conservation and stewardship.
Law, Zada and Susan Finger (Nashville City Cemetery Association). 2002. GPS AND GRAVESTONES: MAPPING THE NASHVILLE CITY CEMETERY. Recent work at Nashville's oldest public cemetery is creating an interactive map of the 19?acre cemetery that includes a searchable relational database of architectural and style data for grave markers as well as genealogical information. GPS is used to map marker locations with sub?meter accuracy. Marker data and interment records are then attached to create a geo?referenced database. Logistics of using GPS for cemetery mapping as well as how a cemetery GIS can be a tool for understanding the historic past will be discussed.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1997. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE FOXHOLE SITE (40LK10), A MULTICOMPONENT SITE IN THE REELFOOT BASIN. The Foxhole site is a large habitation area with associated mounds located adjacent to the submerged channel of Bayou du Chien within the Reelfoot Wildlife Management Area. The sites primary occupation dates to the Emergent Mississippian period. Recent testing has revealed a previously unrecognized Early Woodland component, and a small Middle Mississippian hamlet. This paper will discuss the results of limited testing and surface collections from the site.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1998. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE REELFOOT BASIN, LAKE AND OBION COUNTIES, TENNESSEE. The results of small scale testing at two sites in the Reelfoot Basin will be reported. Excavation at the Still Site (40Lk55) reavealed an intact Emergent Mississippian midden. Limited testing of one of a pair of small mounds along the shoreline of Reelfoot Lake (40Ob179) indicates that this mound overlies the burned remnants of a Mississippian charnel structure. Radiocarbon dates from this structure will be reported.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2002. O'BYAM INCISED: NEW IDEAS FOR AN OLD TYPE. This paper will examine the temporal and geographic distribution of Mississippian plate forms with sunburst motifs around the rim executed by fine line incising or engraving. O'Byam Incised (as these vessels are typed in the Mississippi/Ohio confluence region) will be compared to other regional plate forms, including Wells Incised in the American Bottom and Angel Negative Painted in the lower Ohio Valley. An examination of design themes, archaeological context, and a bit of ethnohistory, will suggest a possible function for these plates in the cosmological/ceremonial mindscape of the prehistoric Southeast.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee State Parks). 2009.RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL LAND ACQUISITIONS BY THE TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION. In the early 1970s the Tennessee Department of Conservation purchased a number of significant archaeological sites in an effort to preserve at least a portion of the states rapidly disappearing cultural resources. These sites include Mound Bottom, Pinson Mounds, Link Farm, Sellars Farm, and Old Stone Fort. Unfortunately, no additional properties were acquired during the remaining years of the 20th century. The last five years have seen a renewed interest in the preservation of archaeological resources by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Recent acquisitions include the Johnson site; large additional tracts at Mound Bottom, Link Farm, and Pinson; Devilstep Hollow (11th unnamed cave); and a recently discovered rock art site on the Cumberland Plateau.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee State Parks). 2010. C.B. MOORE AND THE NIGHTRIDERS OF REELFOOT LAKE. In the winter of 1915, during his second expedition in the Lower Mississippi Valley, C.B. Moore docked his vessel The Gopher at Bass Landing in Lake County, Tennessee. Despite the numerous and impressive archaeological sites in the vicinity, Moore’s visit to the area would be short and his departure hasty. Following productive preliminary investigations at Middle Woodland burial mounds and the Sassafras Ridge site in Fulton County, Kentucky, Moore abruptly departed the area. Moore’s visit to the Reelfoot Basin coincided with a violent period known as the Nightrider incidents, when masked men perpetrated a series of vigilante actions directed towards land speculators and African Americans. The decision to abandon further investigations in the Basin was likely the result of Moore’s concern for the safety of both himself and of his crew. This paper will examine the likely reasons for Moore’s fears and The Gopher’s subsequent departure from the Reelfoot Basin.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee State Parks). 2012. THE BARNER SITE REVISITED: A TERMINAL ARCHAIC/EARLY WOODLAND MORTUARY SITE IN THE OBION RIVER DRAINAGE OF NORTHWEST TENNESSEE. The Barner site (40WK83) is a large “midden” mound situated on the south bank of the North Fork of the Obion River, approximately 5 km north of Martin Tennessee. Limited testing of the site was conducted in 1991 by TDOA staff as part of the West Tennessee Tributaries Project in conjunction with the Memphis District Corps of Engineers. As with many projects that were conducted 21 years ago, some ruminations exist on the part of this author concerning our original interpretations of the site. This presentation will examine the possibility that the Barner site represents a Terminal Archaic mortuary mound that was intentionally constructed and incorporated the ceremonial use of large quantities of gastropod shells.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2013. THE CAT CORNER CACHE (40OB216), A TURKEY TAIL CACHE FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY IN OBION COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the spring of 2012 the discovery of a cache of turkey tail blades was reported to the Division of Archaeology and investigated by the author. Additional excavation of the area, combined with the initial find, resulted in the recovery of 106 complete blades or blade fragments which were refit for a total of 69 complete turkey tails and two fragments. An orthoquartzite bead, a fluorspar bead, a large mass of oxidized galena cubes, and a gastropod shell were also recovered with the cache. An AMS date has been obtained from an undisturbed context directly beneath and in contact with the cache.
Lawrence, William (Tennessee State Parks), R. Berle Clay (Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.), and David H. Dye (University of Memphis). 2007. GEO-PHYSICAL SURVEY OF THE LINK FARM SITE (40HS6) AND LIMITED TESTING OF A VANDAL PIT ON THE PLATFORM MOUND, HUMPHREYS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the summer of 2006 a large vandal pit was discovered on the summit of the large platform mound at the Link Farm site in Humphreys County. Limited excavation was conducted to expose a stratigraphic profile of the disturbed portion of the mound prior to backfilling the vandal pit. Radiocarbon samples were collected in association with the summit of at least one construction episode. Also, a geophysical survey of the site was conducted utilizing an archaeo-magnetometer. The results of this survey will provide a blueprint for future excavation at the site.
Lawrence, William L. (Tennessee State Parks), David H. Dye (University of Memphis), and Chester P. Walker (Archaeo-Geophysical Associates). 2008. RESULTS OF THE 2006 AND 2007 FIELD SEASONS AT THE LINK FARM SITE (40HS6), HUMPHREYS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Link Farm site, a large fourteenth century Mississippian mound complex, is located at the confluence of the Buffalo and Duck Rivers in Humphreys County, Tennessee. We report on research conducted over the past two years at the site. The field work resulted in a detailed topographic map of the mound complex and associated habitation area, a magnetometer survey of a large portion of the site, the discovery of an extensive and undisturbed stone box grave cemetery, and the relocation of a number of smaller mounds recorded by Charles H. Nash in 1936. In addition, excavations were conducted on two of the large platform mounds and ground penetrating radar was tested on a stone box grave cemetery. Three radiocarbon dates have been obtained from the two mounds.
Lawrence, William L. and Mark R. Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1996. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT REELFOOT LAKE, TENNESSEE. Recent survey and limited testing of Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent state properties resulted in the discovery of numerous archaeological sites. This project also provided an opportunity to investigate a number of previously recorded sites in the Reelfoot Basin.
Lilja-King, Kristine (University of Memphis), John Broster (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), and Mark Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2006. A GEOLOGIC LITHIC SOURCE SURVEY OF THE LOWER BUFFALO AND DUCK RIVERS. Over 95% of the lithic assemblage at the Carson-Conn-Short site (40BN190) is Waverly or Buffalo River (bulls-eye) chert. The limited number of artifacts deemed "non-local" derive from a variety of resources including Ft. Payne, St. Genevieve, Horse Mountain agate, reddish chalcedony, and brownish chalcedony. The location and analysis of possible non-local lithic sources may suggest and further define range mobility and therefore, relative sedentism of Paleoindian (Clovis) hunter-gatherers in the Tennessee River Valley. Local lithic raw material sources in the Lower Duck and Lower Buffalo basins are also defined.
Longmire, C. Alan (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. SPANNING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AT TWO TENNESSEE VALLEY FARMSTEADS: ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE HINDS SITE (40RE192) AND SITE 40RH156. From November 3 until December 31, 1994, archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville conducted Phase II testing of site 40RH156 in Rhea County, Tennessee. From November 3, 1994 until January 13, 1995, archaeologists from the University of Tennessee- Knoxville conducted Phase III data recovery on site 40RH156. Both sites were impacted by the reconstruction of State Route 29 from State Route 68 in Spring City to north of State Route 1 in Rockwood, Rhea and Roane Counties. Site 40RE192 was a historic cabin site dating from about 1820 to about 1840. Nine features were defined and excavated, including a subfloor pit cellar and a chimney base. The size, shape, and disposition of six of the subsurface features was consistent with Historic Cherokee cabin sites in the Hiwassee Reservoir area. A single indeterminate prehistoric pit feature was defined and excavated on the site as well. Site 40RH156 was a historic farmstead with two major occupations: a cabin site dating from about 1830 until the 1850s, and a house with associated outbuilding dating from about 1866 until about 1930. Twelve features and 52 postholes were identified and excavated during the investigations. There is inconclusive evidence of an enslaved or free African-American occupation on the site.
Longmire, C. Alan (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1998. A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT WESTVIEW PLANTATION, SITE 40WM178. From April 28 to July 10, 1997, archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville conducted Phase III data recovery at site 40Wm178 in the Highway 840 right-of-way in Williamson County, Tennessee. Site 40Wm178, Westview Plantation, was an antebellum plantation dating from about 1805 to the present. The area within the right-of-way included the core of the residential part of the plantation consisting of the remains of a large house foundation, a standing antebellum brick structure, a possible cemetery area, and a circa 1930s farmstead with house and outbuildings intact. The 1930s house was built on a foundation which appeared to have been the antebellum icehouse. In addition, the rear yeard of the standing antebellum structure contained the remains of at least one slave house, a privy, and a smokehouse. Our research was disturbed by the partial razing of the site by the road construction contractors shortly after the project began.
Longmire, C. Alan (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1999. THE WESTVIEW PLANTATION SITE (40WM178), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During the late summer of 1997, archaeologists from the Transportation Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville conducted Phase III data recovery at Westview Plantation (40Wm178). Westview was an antebellum plantation in eastern Williamson County dating from ca. 1805-1889. Preliminary findings were presented at the 1998 Current Research meetings. This year, more in-depth results will be presented.
Longmire, C. Alan (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 2000. PHASE III DATA RECOVERY AT THE DEVINE SITE, 40CE53. Not presented. The DeVine site, 40Ce53, was located in the city of Tazewell in Claiborne County, Tennessee. It consisted of a multi-component prehistoric occupation, a frontier period historic component, and a post-Civil War comopnent. This paper is primarily a presentation of the early historic component, a house site dating ca. 1810-1830. The house may have been associated with the Grahams, a prosperous merchant family of Claiborne County prior to the Civil War. The house was built, occupied, and abandoned as a residence within a twenty-year period in the early 19th century, leaving no subsurface features. A rich artifact scatter at the site tells the story of the house and argues for more careful determinations of significance for historic sites with no subsurface features.
Lunn, Anna and Jesse Weaver (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2012. REPORT ON THE 2011 RHODES COLLEGE SUMMER FIELD SCHOOL. This past summer, Rhodes College (Memphis) held a three-week archaeological field school at Ames Plantation near Grand Junction, Tennessee. Students from several different universities and colleges began excavating three historic-period sites. The first week, students worked at the Andrews Church site, a nineteenth-century church and cemetery, and a nearby structure believed to be associated with the church. The second and third weeks were spent at the Widow Dickins site, a small plantation owned by Fanny Dickins, who died in the mid-nineteenth century. This report summarizes the initial excavations and future research questions for these sites.
Mainfort, Robert C. and William Lawrence (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. WEST TENNESSEE TRIBS PROJECT: A SUMMARY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND TESTING. This paper will summarize two years of fieldwork in the Obion River drainage, including survey of approximately 13,000 acres and excavations at three major sites. The resulting data has permitted a reevaluation of the Woodland ceramic sequence for the region, which will be discussed in some detail.
Marks, Murray (Knox County Medical Examiner), Joanne Devlin, and Jan F. Simek (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2013. A MULTIPLE CAVE BURIAL IN EAST TENNESSEE. A forensic case in Northeast Tennessee yielded human remains from multiple individuals found in a small solution cave. The Knox County Medical Examiner was engaged to examine and assess these materials. We now know that they are prehistoric. As is often the case for prehistoric cave burials in Tennessee, the population is quite varied, including individual who died at various ages; both genders are represented. A single artifact was recovered from the cave-- a relatively rare form of gorget, and this context provides interesting information about this rare artifact type.
Martinez, Daniel J. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2009. NEW PERSPECTIVES ON DIGITAL MAPPING IN ARCHAEOLOGY: A CASE STUDY FROM THE MOSS-WRIGHT PARK SITE, SUMNER COUNTY. The Moss-Wright Park Site in Sumner County, Tennessee represents a substantial fortified Mississippian town (40SU61) and associated burial mound (40SU20). Recent work has compiled information from field maps and feature data to create a digital representation of the habitation area in hopes of facilitating further analysis of the site. The project is summarized and assessed against similar approaches currently employed in archaeological research, and some highlights of the settlement data itself are presented.
Matchen, Paul M. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee). ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE EVANS FERRY SITE (40GR22): A 19TH CENTURY SETTLEMENT ON THE CLINCH RIVER, GRAINGER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 2003. In May 2002, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, in contract with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, began mitigation of the Evans Ferry Site (40GR22) near Tazewell, Tennessee. This project was in preparation for bridge construction and the expansion of U.S. Hwy 25E(SR32). With laboratory analysis ongoing, our findings suggest this activity area was composed of two sizable residential structures, which may have been used to house ferry patrons. Surrounding these are several outbuildings that include a smokehouse and a possible slave cabin with an intact cellar. In addition, specific activity areas that involved hog processing, building construction, and sorghum syrup manufacturing were also encountered. These data contribute to our understanding of the day-to-day life of southern Appalachian communities in the 1800s.
Matternes, Hugh B. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1998. WAITING ON THE RIDGE: ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE WAR CREEK CEMETERY (40HK9). In East Tennessee, there is little to no information available to identify how long Appalachian burial practices have been part of the local cultural tradition. Recent excavations of five mortuary features in a frontier period cemetery (40HK9) in Hancock County, Tennessee provided an opportunity to address Appalachian funerary data from a temporal dimension deeper than available from local tradition. Investigations of the archaeological and biological data revealed that the cemetery was used during the first quarter of the 19th century by white agriculturists. Many features of the burial features corresponded with information collected by ethnographers as much as a century and a half later. It is suggested that many "traditional" Appalachian burial patterns are grounded in the same historical and cultural patterns expressed at the War Creek cemetery.
Matternes, Hugh B. and Betty Duggan (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. ANTHROPOLOGY AND HISTORIC APPALACHIAN MORTUARY DATA FROM THE WAR CREEK CEMETERY (40HK9), HANCOCK COUNTY. Examinations of Appalachian mortuary behavior have largely been limited to the realm of Folk Studies. Recent excavations of five mortuary features in a previously unrecorded cemetery (40HK9) in Hancock County, Tennessee provided an opportunity to approach funerary data from a more anthropological perspective. Investigations of the archaeological and biological data revealed that the cemetery was used during the first quarter of the 19th century by white agriculturists. Many aspects of the cemetery corresponded with information collected by ethnographers as much as a century and a half later. It is suggested that many aspects of the "traditional" Appalachian burial program are grounded in the same cultural pattern expressed at the War Creek Cemetery.
Matternes, Hugh B. and Jennifer Matternes (Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2000. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE PERIPHERY OF FORT SOUTHWEST POINT, KINGSTON, TENNESSEE. Fort Southwest Point (40RE119) is a well-documented late 18th/early 19th century military site on the outskirts of Kingston, Tennessee. Archaeologists from the University of Tennessee-Knoxville conducting cultural resource monitoring of construction activities on the periphery of the fort encountered a large historic period midden. The midden appears to cover most of a steep slope immediately west of the fort. Glass, nail and ceramic artifacts indicate that the deposit accumulated during the fort's occupation. A variety of activities, including construction, food consumption, button making and uniform repair are evidenced in the debris. This assemblage complements excavations in the fort and provides an additional glimpse of military life in the Tennessee frontier.
Matternes, Jennifer H. (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. EVIDENCE FOR EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY HABITATION NEAR THE ELK RIVER AT ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER. An 1805 treaty deprived the Chickasaw Indians of their lands on the Elk River drainage. In the course of a survey of Arnold Engineering Development Center, contracted through the Nature Conservancy, evidence of white occupation of this area dating to the early 19th century was discovered. These findings and their implications for the area's early history will be discussed.
Matternes, Jennifer and Hugh B. Matternes (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1996. THE DRENNON SITE (40DV447): A LATE ARCHAIC-EARLY WOODLAND CEMETERY IN DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Examination of site on a knoll in Davidson County has revealed the presence of no less than 25 prehistoric features. A sample of 22 flexed and cremated individuals were recovered. Examination of the burned bone indicated that the deceased were fully fleshed when cremated. Skeletal stress indicators among the inhumations suggest a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The cemetery appears to follow a pattery of cyclic use by a small population over a long period of time. Demographic and faunal data point towards burial accumulation during the winter months.
McKee, Larry (The Hermitage/Vanderbilt University). 1994. 1993 RESEARCH IN THE MANSION YARD AT THE HERMITAGE. This paper addresses the results of the first year of a multi-year program studying the backyard area of the Hermitage Mansion. DUring the summer of 1993, investigations were initiated with a systematic test pit survey of the yard area, and included excavations of portions of the ice house and a slave dwelling.
McKee, Larry (The Hermitage). 1995. HERMITAGE ARCHAEOLOGY 1994: EXCAVATIONS AROUND ALFRED'S CABIN IN THE MANSION YARD AREA. During the summer of 1994 the focus of excavation at the Hermitage was on the yard area around the standing log structure known as Alfred's Cabin, located approximately 175 feet behind the Jackson family mansion. The work revealed information on the distribution of artifacts and on the position of fence lines around the building. Although analysis is only in the preliminary stages, the work has provided some initial insights into the construction history of the structure and on the organization and use of the yard space around it.
McKee, Larry (The Hermitage). 1997. THE 1996 EXCAVATION SEASON AT THE HERMITAGE. In 1996, archaeological research at the Hermitage, home of Andrew Jackson, focused on continued investigations in the area behind the Jackson family mansion and at the area known as the first Hermitage. The mansion back yard work involved the expansion of the 1989 excavation around the subsurface remains of the log slave dwelling known as the yard cabin. Digging revealed a much more complicated situation than expected, including the discovery of a small "mystery" stone foundation perhaps linked to some early farm processing activity. The new work at the first Hermitage, representing the start of a new multi-year project, included an extensive auger survey of approximately five acres and a small test of one "hot spot" hit by the auguring. This may be the remains of another previously undocumented structure just southeast of the two standing log buildings which served as the original Jackson family residence on the property.
McKee, Larry (The Hermitage). 1998. NEW RESEARCH AT THE FIRST HERMITAGE SITE. During the summer of 1997 the Hermitage Archaeology Program undertook excavations at the First Hermitage, the first home of Andrew and Rachel Jackson on Hermitage property. This presentation will detail findings made within, between, and around the two standing log structures at the site, and discuss initial interpretations concerning changes to the area's use during the nineteenth century.
McKee, Larry (TRC Garrow Associates, Inc.). 2002. PROJECTS IN TENNESSEE DURING 2001. This presentation will review recent Tennessee projects carried out by TRC Garrow beyond the two projects reported in individual presentations. The general slate of TRC projects in the past year were connected with transportation, power production infrastructure, and land development, but also included interesting work associated with cemetery preservation efforts. Specific projects reviewed here will included road and transmission line corridors in Williamson County, a resort development along the Tennessee River in Kentucky, reservoir surveys at Tims Ford and Douglas lakes, and a study of Nashville's first public burial ground, the City Cemetery.
McKee, Larry (TRC, Inc.). 2006. TWO CEMETERIES AND A KILLED BUILDING: THREE RECENT TRC PROJECTS. In 2005 the Nashville office of TRC excavated burials at two separate nineteenth century cemeteries in Middle Tennessee and also participated in a salvage operation at Evergreen Place (the Jim Reeves Museum) in northeast Nashville. Work at one of the cemeteries, on the outskirts of Franklin, was done under the sponsorship of a descendent who wanted to move her ancestors and their large stone monument to a church graveyard. The second cemetery, near Alamaville in Rutherford County, was a family burial ground on the site of a new school complex. The salvage operation at Evergreen Place was carried out as part of a settlement over a disputed demolition permit issued to tear down what was probably Davidson County's oldest standing building. Not only were all three interesting archaeological exercises, but these also illustrate the wide range of clients seeking help from our profession.
McKee, Larry (TRC, Inc.). 2007. AN ISOLATED LATE PREHISTORIC SHELL DUMP FEATURE AT 40HK12, IN HANCOCK COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Recently, TRC undertook investigations along the Clinch River in Hancock County within the boundaries of prehistoric site 40HK12. The work was part of a shoreline stabilization project carried out by the Tennessee Stream Mitigation Program. Backhoe and column sample testing failed to discover a consistent presence of intact archaeological deposits, with the exception of a small but dense mussel shell dump. The feature, probably the result of a single harvest event, yielded no artifacts beyond some charcoal chunks. Radiocarbon assay of the charcoal yielded a date late in the prehistoric period, 570 +/- 40 BP. Shell from the feature was also submitted for dating, but this yielded a much older date, 1310 +/- 40 BP. This older age from the shell is due to the reservoir effect, in that the mussels were absorbing and using dissolved limestone of considerable antiquity in producing their shells. The paper will discuss the possible development of a reservoir effect correction equation for radiocarbon dates from freshwater shells from eastern Tennessee. The paper will also review other sources on the role of freshwater shellfish in the late prehistoric diet, and consider the value of single event features like this shell dump in looking at regional prehistoric settlement.
McKee, Larry (TRC, Inc.). 2009. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS OF CIVIL WAR ACTIVITY NEAR FRANKLIN, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the past year TRC has conducted investigations of two separate properties Williamson County, both with associations with the Battle of Franklin (November 1864). Both projects were conducted under contract with the City of Franklin Parks Department, as part of their efforts to develop and protect city properties with links to the Civil War. One of these properties, now known as the Eastern Flank Battlefield Park, was crossed in a mass assault by Confederate troops on the fortified Federal line to the east of downtown Franklin. The second property, now known as the Harlinsdale Farm Park, is north of the downtown and was the site of cavalry actions in the days following the battle. This paper reviews the methods and findings from the separate investigations, and discusses our experiences in working with local metal detector enthusiasts during the project.
McKee, Larry (TRC, Inc.). 2011. USING MULTIPLE LINES OF EVIDENCE TO SEARCH FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRACES OF THE BATTLE OF FRANKLIN. In 2009, TRC conducted a search for subsurface remains of Federal defensive lines associated with the Battle of Franklin. The work focused on several properties on either side of Columbia Pike near the Carter House, the center point of the Confederate attack. As with any historic period archaeological investigation, the research drew on multiple lines of evidence. Consulted sources included maps, primary and secondary documentation, and the expertise of local scholars. In the field, methods included ground penetrating radar, trackhoe stripping, and hand excavation. This paper reviews the relative value of the consulted evidence and effectiveness of the methods applied during field work. Also discussed will be the discovery of an intact section of a Federal defensive ditch line with numerous clusters of in-situ dropped and fired ammunition.
McKee, Larry; Ray Ezell, and Marc Wampler (TRC Garrow Associates, Inc.). 2001. FROM PINE BEETLES TO FAMILY GRAVEYARDS TO FIBER OPTIC LINES: RECENT TRC GARROW RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE. Recent Tennessee survey projects undertaken by TRC Garrow have ranged from timber stands to state highway enhancements to cell tower sites to a 175-mile fiber optic corridor running from Hardeman to Sumner County. The work has provided TRC staff opportunities for archaeological investigations in 29 counties and in six of the seven major physiographic divisions of the state. The work has resulted in the discovery and documentation of approximately 75 archaeological sites, ranging from Paleoindian habitation sites to abandoned family graveyards and an intriguing small-scale 19th century industrial site. Although most of our efforts have been at the survey level, the coverage has provided the TRC Nashville staff a broad look at Tennessee's archaeological resources. In doing so, we have had a chance to assess and even reconsider some long-standing assumptions about regional and chronological site distribution, raw material procurement, and historical settlement and development at the local level.
McKee, Larry (TRC, Inc.) and Samuel D. Smith (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2010. RECOVERY OF THE REMAINS OF AN UNKNOWN CIVIL WAR SOLDIER, FRANKLIN, TENNESSEE. In May 2009 a construction crew working on the south edge of Franklin, Tennessee uncovered an unmarked human burial. This paper reviews details of the discovery, thought to be the remains of a Civil War soldier. The find has generated a variety of so far only partially answered questions, in terms of the temporal and spatial association of the grave with Civil War activity in the area (including the 1864 Battle of Franklin) and especially whether this was a Union or Confederate soldier. This presentation also reports on the elaborate reburial of the remains in October 2009. The city government and community of Franklin used the occasion to create a permanent monument to this (apparent) unknown casualty of the Civil War.
McKee, Larry, Marc Wampler, Jared Barrett, and Ted Karpynec (TRC, Inc.). 2005. DIGGING AT BOTH ENDS: INVESTIGATIONS OF HISTORIC SITES ASSOCIATED WITH PROPOSED COMMUTER RAIL STATION SITES IN LEBANON AND NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE. In the spring of 2004 the Nashville office of TRC undertook investigations of property proposed for use as station sites along the eastern line of the new Nashville commuter rail system. The sites are located at the terminal points of the line, at the west end along the riverfront in downtown Nashville and at the east end a few blocks from the square in Lebanon. Documentary research on both properties found that each was the site of significant commercial operations during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In Lebanon, the station footprint included the location of an early twentieth century bottling works and ice plant as well as workers housing associated with the Tennessee Woolen Mill. In Nashville, the riverfront site had been the location of a variety of enterprises since the early nineteenth century, including a ferry landing and the Brennan iron foundry. Phase II testing was carried out at both station sites to search for and evaluate archaeological remains at each locale. Although the investigations found that the station construction will not disturb intact archaeological deposits, the work did produce additional archaeological and documentary information on historic period activity at each site.
McKee, Larry (TRC Environmental Corporation). 2013. FROM OOLTEWAH TO NUTBUSH: PATTERNS IN 19TH CENTURY TENNESSEE BURIAL CUSTOMS. Over the past seven years, the Nashville office of TRC has conducted investigations on four different cemeteries across Tennessee, with over 450 graves excavated during this work. The burial dates range from the 1830s through the 1920s, with most taking place in the third quarter of the 19th century. All the excavations were done under Tennessee burial laws with only minimal provisions and support for intensive analysis of the burials. Despite this, the broad geographic distribution and large sample of individuals does allow for recognition of patterns in demography, coffin style, and general burial customs.
Metz, Micca A. (Illinois State University). 2012. THE SPEED OF DISEASE: MORTUARY ASSESSMENT OF THE HOMESTEAD CEMETERIES OF THE FT. CAMPBELL WILDERNESS RESERVATION. Information has a tendency to travel faster in heavily populated urban areas as compared to sparsely populated rural communities. This research is examining whether or not disease travels in the same fashion. If individuals are more likely to come into contact with an infected person in urban cities then it could be assumed that the disease would be more potent in a crowded population. However, if the disease reaches the rural periphery would it be more devastating or less as rural communities are less likely to have access to trained physicians and the medical advantages of the city? I will be using the birth and death records as documented in the historic homestead cemeteries on the Wilderness Reservation of Ft. Campbell, KY-TN, and comparing the dates of death with known epidemic outbreaks (Yellow Fever and Cholera) that affected the closest urban population to these cemeteries, the city of Clarksville, TN.
Meyers, Danielle (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2001. SITE 40KN150, KNOX COUNTY, TENNESSEE: AN EXAMPLE OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE THROUGH THE YEARS. Site 40KN150 is a historic farmstead with occupation from post-1815 until the 1960s. The site area includes the main house remains, an ell addition with a large cellar, and a probable slave house. Excavations revealed multiple structural changes to the post-1815 structure that became the later ell addition. Historic remodeling phases often bewilder the archaeologist but reflect changes in property ownership. Site 40Kn150 provides an example of such remodeling phases.
Meyers, Spence (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1997. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40HK5 AND 40HK6 IN HANCOCK COUNTY. Intensive Phase II excavations in Hancock County, Tennessee revealed two prehistoric habitation sites. Site 40HK5 was a Late Archaic site with several large cylindrical storage pits. A heavy concentration of lithic debitage and numerous diagnostic projectile points or knives were recovered. Site 40HK6 was a Middle Woodland habitation site with cylindrical and basin shaped pits.
Meyers, Spence and Danielle Meyers (University of Tennessee Transportation Center). 1996. THE HARMON POTTERY SITE, A BLENDING OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. Little of East Tennessee's early pottery-making industry is intact today. Greene County, Tennessee was the site of many such potteries set up during the 19th century. With an ample supply of clay and a good rail system, some potteries remained in operation into the 20th century. Site 40Gn28, the M.P. Harmon Pottery, near Mohawk, Tennessee, was both a local industry and a center of commerce for an area then known as Pottertown.
Mickelson, Andrew M. (University of Memphis). 2006. EXPLORATORY GIS ANALYSIS OF PREHISTORIC FLOODPLAIN LAND USE OF THE LOWER TENNESSEE DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The presentation will present exceedingly preliminary results of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of the lower Tennessee River drainage system upstream of the Kentucky Lake. This study includes the Duck and Buffalo Rivers as well. Temporally, the dataset covers the entire prehistoric archaeological record of the region. One goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the benefits of exploratory GIS analysis in developing hypotheses and future research projects regarding questions concerning prehistoric land use.
Mickelson, Andrew M. (University of Memphis), Eric Goddard (University of Memphis), and Lee Owens (University of Memphis). 2011. MAGNETOMETERY AND THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN TENNESSEE. Over the past two years we have conducted extensive magnetometry surveys at the Ames, Denmark and Pinson sites in western Tennessee. Research at Ames revealed a substantial palisaded Mississippian settlement associated with the previously known mound complex. Similarly, geophysical prospecting at Denmark also detected several anomalies thought to be Mississippian houses or structures. Finally, a large-scale survey at the predominantly Middle Woodland period Pinson Mounds site detected hundreds of prehistoric features and one or more Mississippian period structures. The implication of this research is that Mississippian settlement in western Tennessee followed the model of nucleated village settlements with farmsteads scattered across the surrounding countryside.
Miller, Donald A. and Christopher A. Bergman (3D Environmental Services, Inc.). 1996. THE TERMINAL ARCHAIC OCCUPATIONS OF SITES 40LN163 AND 40LN167, TWO MULTICOMPONENT LOCALITIES IN LINCOLN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Site 40Ln163 and 40Ln167 are multicomponent occupations located in Lincoln County, Tennessee. Phase II and III investigations conducted by 3D Environmental Services, Inc. under contract to the Tennessee Department of Transportation identified Late and Terminal Archaic materials at both locales. The diagnostic lithic assemblages recovered from feature contexts consisted of Terminal Archaic Barbed Cluster, Ledbetter Cluster, Savannah River CLuster, and Benton Cluster projectile points. Replicative experimentation and microwear studies reveal that the Terminal Archaic projectile points have similar manufacturing trajectories and were utilized for multifunctional purposes.
Miller, Maury (Tennessee Archaeological Trust). 2002. THE TENNESSEE ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST: PURPOSE AND CODE OF ETHICS.. No abstract available.
Moore, Michael C. and Suzanne D. Hoyal (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1998. SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE BRENTWOOD LIBRARY SITE (40WM210): A FORTIFIED MISSISSIPPIAN TOWN IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Between July 28 and November 4 of 1997, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted salvage excavations at a fortified Mississippian town discovered during construction of the new Brentwood city library. These excavations were performed in conjunction with the removal of 68 human burials by DuVall & Associates, Inc. A total of 61 structures, 106 pit features, and two palisade lines were defined and mapped in our alloted time on the site. Site 40Wm210 has been assigned to the Thruston phase (A.D. 1250-1450) based upon the ceramic assemblage and presence of the palisade lines.
Moore, Michael C. and Suzanne Hoyal (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2002. THE BRENTWOOD LIBRARY SITE REVISITED: CONTINUING ANALYSIS OF A FORTIFIED MISSISSIPPIAN TOWN IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. This site was discovered in July 1997 during initial grading work for a new Brentwood city library. Human burials, structures, refuse-filled pits, and two separate palisade lines were among the cultural features exposed before construction activity was suspended. Under a court order, the City of Brentwood hired a private consultant to remove 77 of the 90 uncovered human burials. The Division of Archaeology examined the non-mortuary remains (including 65 residential structures and over 100 pit features) exposed during the removal. Analysis of the excavation data and recovered artifacts is ongoing, but the preliminary results suggest this site dates to the Thruston phase (AD 1250-1450).
Moore, Michael C. and Kevin E. Smith (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND MISSISSIPPIAN SURVEY PROJECT 1993-94. This paper addresses recent archaeological investigations conducted at the Rutherford-Kizer MOund group (40Su15) in Sumner County, Tennessee. Mechanical stripping and subsequent excavation of features yielded a structure loci and several large trash pits yielding circa twenty cubic feet of artifacts, including large samples of ceramics, lithics, faunal remains, and charred organics. Preliminary results of the analysis of these materials will be presented, along with updates on other on-going research.
Moore, Michael C. (Tennesseee Division of Archaeology) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2001. NINETEENTH CENTURY ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY FOR THE PEABODY MUSEUM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY. Research trips to the Peabody Museum and Harvard University Archives discovered numerous site records and artifacts from previously unrecorded 19th century archaeological excavations within the Nashville and surrounding Middle Cumberland region. Edwin Curtiss conducted these investigations between 1877 and 1882 under the general supervision of Frederick Ward Putnam, then director of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. This presentation offers a brief overview of the wealth of archaeological information obtained by the authors.
Moore, Michael C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2003. THE MIDDLE TENNESSEE EXPLORATIONS OF EDWIN CURTISS, 1877-1880. A third year of research at Harvard University provided additional insights into the explorations of Edwin Curtiss, a Nashville resident sponsored by Frederic W. Putnam to collect native artifacts for the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Curtiss began working for the Peabody Museum during Putnam's trip to Nashville in the late summer of 1877. After Putnam's departure, Curtiss continued working for the museum until his death in December of 1880. During this relatively short tenure, Curtiss explored numerous mounds and graves across the Cumberland Valley of middle Tennessee, acquiring thousands of artifacts for the museum. This presentation will discuss the breadth of sites dug by Curtiss, show a variety of artifactual material acquired through his work, and briefly examine Curtiss himself.
Moore, Michael C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2006. AVERBUCH REVISITED: A NEW LOOK AT OLD COLLECTIONS. Over the past 15 years the authors have conducted excavations and extensive research on Mississippian sites across the Middle Cumberland River valley. Among the products generated from these investigations is a rather comprehensive database of site ceramic assemblages. These ceramic assemblages, in conjunction with an ever-growing number of radiocarbon dates, have provided enlightening views into the intersite relationships within the Middle Cumberland drainage. Our research continues with a recently initiated reexamination of ceramics from the Averbuch site (40DV60). Averbuch is probably best known for the vast number of individuals (887) removed during the 1975-1978 excavations started by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and concluded by the University of Tennessee. However, the pottery vessels and sherds obtained as a result of these investigations comprise the best documented, yet least known, Mississippian ceramic assemblage from the Middle Cumberland region. This presentation will chart our progress to date, with a focus on the whole vessels obtained from mortuary contexts.
Moore, Michael C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). 2008. CONTINUING RESEARCH ON THE AVERBUCH CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE. Last year’s Current Research presentation focused on burial vessels recovered during the 1975-1978 Averbuch site excavations. This year’s presentation will include a discussion of the ceramic wares and types identified from an analysis of over 32,000 vessel sections and sherds obtained from other contexts such as structures and pit features. Some interesting results include the presence of several non-local pottery types not previously observed in the mortuary sample, including specimens of Tolu Fabric Impressed, O’Byam Incised, and Moundville Incised/Engraved.
Moore, Michael C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University), and Aaron Deter-Wolf (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2011. A PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF WORKED CRYSTALLINE ARTIFACTS FROM THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND REGION. This presentation offers some preliminary results from our on-going study of worked crystal artifacts from the Middle Cumberland region. Four specimens are known to date, with most recovered from burial contexts on Mississippian period sites across the study area. The modest sample consists of two earplugs, one effigy pendant, and one bead manufactured from calcite and fluorite crystals. Several other specimens reported from sites adjacent to the western boundary of the Middle Cumberland region are also discussed.
Nance, Benjamin (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1997. SURVEY OF CIVIL WAR PERIOD MILITARY SITES IN EAST TENNESSEE. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology is currently studying Civil War period military sites in East Tennessee. The goal of this project is to record those sites related to military activity that still retain some archaeological integrity, and add the information to the Division's site files. This project is a continuation of previous surveys of Middle and West Tennessee, each of which resulted in a completion report. The final report for the current survey will be a synthesis of information covering all three regions of the state.
Nance, Benjamin C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1998. SURVEY OF CIVIL WAR PERIOD MILITARY SITES IN TENNESSEE. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology has conducted the third phase of a now statewide survey of Civil War period military sites in Tennessee. The purpose of the survey was to identify and record those sites of military activity that still retain some archaeological integrity and complete a written report on the findings. The study was conducted using a combination of archival information, field survey, and informant leads. Each site was described in terms of specific military components such as types of earthworks, battle activity, or encampments, and the information was entered into the Tennessee archaeological site file maintained by the Division. The project has resulted in the recording of over 400 sites across the state.
Nance, Benjamin C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2000. HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CHEROKEE INDIAN REMOVAL. Not presented. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology is currently conducting an investigation of surviving portions of the road system by which thousands of Cherokee Indians traveled westward during their forced removal. This removal, commonly known as the Trail of Tears, took place in 1838 but was preceded by years of "voluntary" removals. The Division's investigation focuses on surviving road segments used during the removal by comparing period maps to modern topographic and road maps. Period journals and other documents are also used in the study, followed by field investigation. The study will conclude in June 2000.
Nance, Benjamin C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2001. TEST EXCAVATIONS ON ROPER'S KNOB: A UNION FORTIFIED SIGNAL STATION IN FRANKLIN, TENNESSEE. In the fall of 2000, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted test excavations on Roper's Knob, a high prominence in Franklin, Tennessee. During the Civil War, Roper's Knob was fortified by the Union Army and used as a signal station. The fortifications consisted of an earthen redoubt, a blockhouse for 60 men, entrenchments surrounding the redoubt, and an abatis. An engineer's report also reveals that the site had two cisterns and a magazine. Excavations focused on identifying these Civil War fortifications. Another component of Roper's Knob is the site of a house that probably dates to the first half of the nineteenth century. This was possibly the home of the Roper Family for whom the knob is named.
Nance, Benjamin C. and Samuel D. Smith (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2006. A SURVEY OF WORLD WAR II MILITARY SITES IN TENNESSEE. During World War II there was intense activity on the home front in Tennessee. The Tennessee Division of Archaeology has been conducting a statewide survey of sites related to the military activity in Tennessee during the war. Most of the military activity in Middle Tennessee was related to the training exercises known collectively as the Tennessee Maneuvers. More than 850,000 soldiers participated in the maneuvers from 1941 to 1945, and their presence profoundly affected the local residents. Other types of military facilities in Tennessee were training camps and military air bases. Additionally almost every airfield had War Service Training for pilots. German and Italian prisoners of war were kept in several prison camps across the state, and the state hosted the nation's only barrage balloon training camp. The goal of the Division's project is to identify and record the resources directly related to military activity while there are still living informants who witnessed the events. Privately owned industrial sites that produced war materials were noted but not systematically recorded.
Nance, Benjamin C. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology) and Samuel D. Smith (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2011. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT WYNNEWOOD. In February 2008 the Wynnewood State Historic Site suffered extensive damage in a tornado. Subsequent stabilization and repair of the main house, outbuildings, and grounds necessitated ground disturbance, potentially destroying archaeological deposits. To minimize the loss of archaeological information, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology has been working with the contractors restoring the site, monitoring some of the earth moving activity and screening the soil once it has been excavated. This process will continue until the restoration is complete.
Navel, Jeffrey W. (East Tennessee State University) and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2011. LATE WOODLAND LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND ASSEMBLAGE FORMATION AT FAR VIEW GAP BLUFF SHELTER, FENTRESS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Far View Gap Bluff Shelter was recorded in March 2006 and sondages were begun. ETSU archaeologists returned to the site in March 2007 and conducted intensive Phase II testing. While the site is multi-component, its most obvious feature is a Late Woodland midden. In this paper, we present the Late Woodland archaeology of Far View Gap Bluff Shelter with particular focus on lithic technology and assemblage formation. We then make some regional comparisons for the Late Woodland period on the Upper Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee.
Navel, Jeffrey W., Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University), Meagan E. Dennison (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Maureen A. Hays (College of Charleston), Andrew D. Dye (East Tennessee State University), Travis Bow (Tennessee State Parks), and Lucinda M. Langston (East Tennessee State University). 2012. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDIAN ROCK HOUSE, PICKETT STATE FOREST. We report on archaeological test excavations in March 2010 at Indian Rock House in Pickett State Forest. Results of technological, use wear, faunal, ceramic, and chronometric dating analyses are presented. The most intensive time of use was the Woodland Period. We also highlight our plans for public outreach for the site because it is a frequent local tourist attraction.
Norton, Mark R. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1997. PINSON MOUNDS: MOUND 35. Recent test excavations at Pinson Mounds (40MD1) have revealed a previously unknown earthen mound. Mound 35 is located on the first terrace of the Forked Deer River, approximately 300 meters southeast of the Twin Mounds. Obviously, this mound has been altered by past agricultural activities and subsequently mistaken for a natural ridge remnant. The stratigraphy recorded during this investigation suggests that mound 35 is a platform mound. Charcoal recovered from the burned area at the base of level 10 should provide a position for mound 35 within the chronology of Pinson Mounds. This project was undertaken by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and members of the Jackson Archaeological Society.
Norton, Mark R. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1998. RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT PINSON MOUNDS. Recent test excavations at Pinson Mounds (40Md1) have documented a total of three previously unrecorded mounds, bringing the known total to 15. Mounds 36 and 37 exhibit attributes typical for platform mounds, while the classification of Mound 38 is difficult to determine without more extensive testing. A hypothesis will also be presented suggesting the placement of key mounds at the site as markers for a solar calendar.
Norton, Mark (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2004. OBSIDIAN RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE AND ALABAMA. Recently, four obsidian artifacts found in Tennessee and north Alabama were submitted to the Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon for analysis. The results indicate volcanic glass from California, Nevada, and Oregon was traded into this region, possibly as early as the Late Archaic period. The types of obsidian artifacts also reveal that cores, bifaces, and finished projectile points were traded. This presentation will provide all of the laboratory data and will hopefully lead to a better awareness of this exotic material.
Norton, Mark (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2005. THE JOHNSTON SITE (40MD3): AT THE EDGE OF PRESERVATION. The Johnston site is located on the Forked Deer River in Madison County, Tennessee, some three miles north of the Pinson Mounds complex. In 1916 1917, archaeologist William E. Myer mapped the Johnston site after completing the first map of Pinson. Myer noted 10 mounds, geometric earthworks, and a cemetery at Johnston. Although very little is known about the site, the available clues suggest the mounds were constructed during the Middle Woodland period (200 BC 500 AD) and are contemporary with Pinson. The major indicators are: (1) platform mounds; (2) Middle Woodland period ceramics identical to those recovered from Pinson Mounds; and (3) a lack of Mississippian period artifacts. Fortunately, landowner Judy Vailes understood the significance of this Native American site and contacted Tennessee State Parks officials about the purchasing the property. Tennessee State Parks and the Division of Archaeology (both with the Department of Environment and Conservation) have teamed together to move this site forward through the land acquisition process. This presentation will display the information available for the Johnston mounds, from Myer's investigations to current photographs of this mound complex.
Norton, Mark R. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2012. SWIFT CREEK INFLUENCES AT PINSON MOUNDS. While updating the educational displays in the Pinson Museum, a wooden paddle stamp was carved to replicate one of the Swift Creek sherds recovered from the site. This experimental archaeology project led to a closer examination of the complicated stamped sherds from Pinson and a catalog of designs that have been recovered to date. A number of the designs contain symbols of the sun and may represent rituals and/or ceremonies taking place at Pinson, which is consistent with astronomical observations that have been previously suggested for the site.
Norton, Mark R. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2013. LIDAR IMAGERY OF PINSON MOUNDS. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an optical remote sensing technology that utilizes measuring techniques similar to radar. LiDAR instruments are mounted on an aircraft and flown over a designated area to generate a very accurate topographic map of the surface below. Recently obtained LiDAR imagery of Pinson Mounds reveals mounds, walls, and geometric earthworks previously unknown to archaeologists.
Norton, Mark R. and John B. Broster (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2009. THE SINCLAIR SITE: A CLOVIS QUARRY ON THE BUFFALO RIVER IN WAYNE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In September of 2008, Mr. Rex Moore contacted the authors about a Paleoindian site he had located in Wayne County, Tennessee. A visit to the locale revealed a Clovis quarry site situated on a ridge top where high quality Buffalo River chert can be found eroding out of the hillside. Mr. Moore has collected thousands of Clovis age artifacts at this site including: preforms, blade cores, blades, blade tools, and lithic debitage. Mr. Moore has made his extensive collection available for study and the Division has been able to make a sample collection of over 700 artifacts from the site.
Norton, Mark R. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), John B. Broster (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Dennis Burgess (Gainesboro, TN), and Larry Mabrey (Gainesboro, TN). 2011. PALEOINDIAN HABITATION AT THE BURGESS-MABREY SITE: 40JK267, JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Burgess-Mabrey site (40JK267) is located on a terrace above the Cumberland River in Jackson County, Tennessee. Numerous Paleoindian projectile points including Clovis, Cumberland, Beaver Lake, and Quad have been recovered. Other Paleoindian artifacts include blade cores, unifacial blade tools, and overshot flakes. The artifact assemblage is comprised of the locally available Fort Payne and Bigby-Cannon cherts. Nodules and cobbles of these high quality cherts are found eroding out of the limestone formations above the site and surrounding region. Although smaller in size, the Burgess-Mabrey site is very similar to the Sinclair Clovis Quarry site in Wayne County, Tennessee.
Oster, Warren J. and Guy G. Weaver (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2003. RECENT HIGHWAY PROJECTS IN TENNESSEE. This paper briefly summarizes the results of Tennessee highway projects completed by Weaver & Associates during 2002. Phase II testing projects include those conducted at the nineteenth century Wayne Furnace site in Wayne County, and the multi-component prehistoric and historic period Wolf River Boulevard site in Shelby County. The reconnaissance survey for the proposed I-69 route between Dyersburg and Memphis is discussed, as are the results of Phase I surveys for the Bolivar By-Pass in Hardeman County, and Kirby-Whitten Road in Shelby County.
Oster, Warren J. and Jamison P. Richardson (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2004. RAISING THE DEAD: CEMETERY EXHUMATION BENEATH RUNWAY CHARLIE AT THE MEMPHIS SHELBY COUNTY AIRPORT. On March 4, 2003, a construction crew working on runway improvements at the Memphis Shelby County Airport unearthed a casket containing human remains. Following a chancery court order allowing for the excavation of the cemetery, Weaver & Associates archaeologists began an intensive program of monitoring, probing, and burial excavation. A total of 65 graves were located and exhumed between March 5 and March 27. Archival research indicates the cemetery was affiliated with the Providence Missionary Baptist Church, an African American church that stood on the site from 1899 to ca. 1935. This paper presents the methodologies and preliminary findings of our investigations and explores questions raised by the loss and recent discovery of the graveyard.
Owens, Dalford Dean, Jr. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1996. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC EDUCATION IN TENNESSEE. Public education is an increasingly important ethical aspect within the discipline of archaeology. This has created a dilemma for archaeologists in deciding how to incorporate educational opportunities with their research. Even when archaeology is integrated into an educational program, archaeologists discover that multiple interests often limit the scope and goals of their research. Working through a state educational program, archaeological research was conducted at the Exchange Place, a 19th century farmstead in East Tennessee. Systematic evaluation and prioritization produced a model that satisfied site, research, and educational interests.
Owens, Dalford Dean, Jr. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1997. ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE EXCHANGE PLACE. The Exchange Place (40SL22) was an early 19th century stage coach relay station, store, and post office in upper East Tennessee. For two years an archaeological field school has been conducted at the site in conjunction with the Tennessee Governor's School. Research has focused on the rear yard area of the main residential structure and has produced an array of cultural features and artifactual evidence that include an exorbitant amount of modern material. Topics of discussion include the geographical distribution of extant structures and archaeological features as they pertain to site history, as well as the task of making a meaningful utilization of a large 20th century artifact assemblage in defining intersite activity areas.
Palmer, Nicole (University of Memphis), Anna Inman (Weaver & Associates, LLC), Andrew Mickelson (University of Memphis), Ryan Byrne, Katherine Mickelson, Milton Moreland (Rhodes College), Guy Weaver (Weaver & Associates, LLC), and Jamie Evans (Ames Plantation). 2008. ARCHAEOLOGY AT AMES PLANTATION. Encompassing more than 18,650 acres in Fayette and Hardeman counties, Ames Plantation provides a unique setting for multidisciplinary research in both the social and natural sciences. In a joint effort by the Rhodes College Archaeology Program and the University of Memphis Department of Earth Sciences, archaeological and archival research was conducted this spring on two sites at Ames Plantation. Rhodes College faculty, staff, and field school students concentrated their efforts at the early ninetieth to early twentieth century Holcombe site (40FY446), addressing issues in plantation archaeology. Faculty and staff from the University of Memphis, along with Rhodes College field school students, sought to determine the temporal affiliation of the Ames Plantation Mound Complex (40FY7) and to generate a detailed map of the mounds and adjacent areas. This presentation provides the results of the 2007 investigations and discusses current and future research designs at Ames.
Parish, Ryan (Murray State University). 2009. QUANTITATIVE AND GEOLOGIC DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR DOVER CHERT QUARRIES IN STEWART COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The prehistoric quarries located in Stewart County Tennessee have fascinated archaeologists with both their size and the cultural implements produced from the chert that was so extensively procured. Despite this interest very little has been done to survey the size and distribution of the quarry sites. The researcher undertook an examination of the sites as part of a larger chert sourcing project in the area. This presentation describes the survey of four previously recorded prehistoric quarry sites (40Sw64, 40Sw66, 40Sw67, 40Sw80) in Stewart County, which was conducted with an emphasis on mapping individual quarry pits and placing them in their geologic and topographic context.
Parish, Ryan (University of Memphis) and William L. Lawrence (Tennessee State Parks). 2010. EVIDENCE FOR PREHISTORIC QUARRYING ACTIVITY ABOVE DUNBAR CAVE, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The prehistoric component associated with Dunbar Cave is recognized by limited archaeological excavation work and the presence of Mississippian pictographs and mud glyphs. New evidence suggests that the chert resources along the ridgelines above the cave provided a valuable resource to prehistoric people. The presence of circular depressions and crescent shaped backfill piles in the wooded hillslopes above the cave entrance signify the exploitation of residual chert nodules. A survey of the extent of quarrying activity contributes to our knowledge of the diversity of uses of the site and may guide future research at Dunbar Cave.
Peres, Tanya M. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2006. A ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CONTEXTS FROM THE FEWKES SITE (40WML). The Fewkes site faunal assemblage, excavated by DuVall and Associates as part of a Phase III data recovery for the Tennessee Department of Transportation, was analyzed and evaluated in light of its potential to provide significant information about Middle Mississippian subsistence practices and environmental conditions of the area around the Fewkes site during the time of occupation. Specific goals of the analysis included: (1) defining the subsistence strategies and practices of the people whom inhabited the site; (2) determining the relationship of the site to the surrounding ecological habitats, and (3) determining the seasonality of the site. Additionally, the Fewkes faunal assemblage was compared to animal exploitation practices as outlined for the Cumberland River drainage model of Mississippian period sites. The results of the analysis of selected contexts will be presented in this paper.
Peres, Tanya M. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2007. MISSISSIPPIAN ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS SITE (40SU14). Archaeological sites dating to the Mississippian occupation (A.D. 1000–1400) of the Cumberland River drainage in Tennessee have yielded well-preserved faunal assemblages, resulting in a proposed regional model of Late Prehistoric animal exploitation. This project focuses on the analysis of faunal remains recovered from two column samples excavated at the Castalian Springs site; a method that ensures complete recovery of all animal remains. The interpretations inferred from this analysis will be used to test and refine the existing model of animal exploitation for the middle Cumberland River.
Peres, Tanya M., and Teresa L. Ingalls (Middle Tennessee State University). 2008. ANIMAL EXPLOITATION AT THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS SITE (40SU14): AN INTRASITE COMPARISON. Excavations at the Castalian Springs Site (40SU14) in Sumner County, Tennessee, have yielded features consistent with three types of activity areas. A peripheral manufacturing area, excavated in 2005, is located outside of the palisade wall, but in close proximity to the naturally occurring mineral springs. A circular semi-subterranean structure, partially excavated in 2006, is located near the mounds, and has been preliminarily interpreted as a sweatlodge. Most recently, a rectangular wall trench structure associated with an elite lineage group was identified to the east of the sweatlodge (excavated in 2006-2007). All three areas yielded adequate faunal assemblages, which serve as the focus of this analysis. This presentation will compare the faunal assemblages to one another and to similar Mississippian structures in the Southeast.
Peres, Tanya M., Teresa L. Ingalls, and Lacey S. Fleming (Middle Tennessee State University). 2008. A ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL REANALYSIS OF THE FERNVALE SITE (40WM51) FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE. The Fernvale Site (40WM51) is a multi-component site spanning the Late Archaic through Mississippian periods. Archaeologists with the Tennessee Division of Archaeology (TDOA) conducted excavations in 1985, with artifact analysis following the fieldwork. Recently the TDOA has undertaken a re-analysis of the entire artifact assemblage as part of the production of a final monograph. Faculty and students at Middle Tennessee State University have been involved in this effort. The results of the faunal analysis from excavations of posthole testing, units, and features are presented here. Additionally, re-analysis of two dog burials excavated as part of the original project is included.
Peres, Tanya M. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Alison E. Jordan (Middle Tennessee State University). 2011. THE HUNTING OF GARDEN PESTS BY MISSISSIPPIAN FARMERS IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Cultivation is an intensive strategy for food production and requires large inputs of time and energy. By adopting a garden hunting scheme, farmers were be able to hunt with no special preparation, as was required for communal hunting parties, since it took place in cultivated fields and home gardens. It was far less time-consuming because it happened while performing other cultivation requirements. Garden-hunting was also low risk, and reduced the competition for a farmer’s resources by killing the larger pests that could destroy the crops. Farmers could be more selective in the animals hunted when crop harvests were good. When crops failed, farmers may have used a “take what you can get” approach to hunting animals in and around their fields. These strategies can be seen in the archaeological record through patterns in the zooarchaeological data. We use faunal data from Brandywine Pointe (40DV247), Rutherford-Kizer (40SU15), and Fewkes (40WM1) to determine the extent and type of garden-hunting employed during the Mississippian period in the Nashville Basin.
Pike, Meta G. (Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2005. RECENT ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COPROLITES FROM BIG BONE CAVE (40VB103): EVIDENCE FOR EARLY AGRICULTURAL DIET AND SEASONAL FOOD STORAGE IN CENTRAL TENNESSEE. This paper presents the results of a macrobotanical analysis on the unanalyzed portions of eight human coprolites recovered from Big Bone Cave in Van Buren County. Represented in all eight specimens are indigenous seed crops of the prehistoric Eastern Woodlands, such as sumpweed (Iva annua), goosefoot (Chenopodium berlandieri), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and erect knotweed (Polygonum erectum). This study provides evidence for the seasonal use of cultivated plants as stored food resources based on the presence of spring and fall ripening plants in the paleofeces.
Pike, Meta G. and Scott C. Meeks (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2006. NEW RADIOCARBON DATES ON HUMAN COPROLITES FROM BIG BONE CAVE (40VB103): EXAMINING TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS OF EARLY AGRICULTURAL BEHAVIOR IN THE MIDSOUTH. Nine accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates recently obtained from human paleofecal remains at Big Bone Cave range from 220-320 cal B.C. (2170-2270 cal B.P.), indicating a terminal Early Woodland temporal association. These dates are consistent with a suite of eleven previous radiocarbon dates from Big Bone Cave, which places the primary utilization of the site during the Early Woodland period. Macrobotanical remains from the paleofecal specimens, combined with information from the regional paleoethnobotanical record, are examined with regard to the timing and spread of plant food production in the Midsouth.
Polhemus, Richard (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1995. TWO MISSISSIPPIAN STRUCTURES AT MCCROSKEY ISLAND, SEVIER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Two of seven Mississippian structures excavated at McCroskey Island in Sevier County are described. Both structures possess very larger rectangular pits with fired floor and walls within the posthole pattern. Both pits display complex redepositional sequences. Associated ceramics suggest a Late Hiwassee Island phase date for both structures.
Polhemus, Richard (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1998. NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE
Price, Beth and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2007. MORTUARY PRACTICES AT THE HOLLISTON MILLS SITE, A MISSISSIPPIAN TOWN IN UPPER EAST TENNESSEE. Mississippian “towns” are virtually unknown in upper East Tennessee. We introduce the archaeology of the Holliston Mills site on the Holston River in Hawkins County, Tennessee. There is both archaeological and mortuary evidence to suggest that Holliston Mills does not conform to the prototypical “chiefdom” model for the Mississippian. Nonetheless, it was a town of several hundred residents. We suggest that the sociopolitical structure within this community was corporate in nature. Further, the archaeological assemblage from the site may indicate a distinct cultural identity of its inhabitants.
Prichard, Mack S. (Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation). 2009. THE ROOTS-N-SHOOTS OF THE TENNESSEE DIVISION OF ARCHAEOLOGY. After serving as the first Director of the Division of Archaeology beginning in September of 1971, it seems appropriate to look back at some of our state’s pioneer archaeologists (both amateur and professional) whose good work led the way to today’s current research. Myer, Cox, Lewis and Kneberg, Tennessee Archaeological Society, Southeastern Indian Antiquities Survey, Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society, and others contributed to eventually create our Division of Archaeology. The story of how the Division of Archaeology began with a shoestring budget, how it got state support, and the ideas and individuals who were behind this effort are worth remembering. The efforts that saved some of Tennessee’s finest archaeological parks still continue today with more urgency.
Pritchard, Erin E. and Jay D. Franklin (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1998. ARCHAIC CHERT MINING IN 3RD UNNAMED CAVE, TENNESSEE. We present a brief overview of recent archaeological research in 3rd Unnamed Cave in Tennessee, where Archaic period hunter-gatherers traveled far underground to intensively mine and work chert nodules. As preliminary analyses of the primary mining and workshop chamber have been presented elsewhere, this paper focuses on a flintknapping concentration in an adjacent passage. Through core refitting, we examine the technology practiced at this locality by the prehistori miners. Results are compared to those from the primary mining and workshop center.
Prouty, Fred and Gary Barker (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. SURVEY OF CIVIL WAR PERIOD MILITARY SITES IN WEST TENNESSEE. During 1992-1993, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted a survey of Civil War period military sites in West Tennessee. Although this region was the scene of numerous conflicts between the north and south, and was occupied by the Federal army for a large part of the Civil War, only seven sites related to this critical period in our history had been recorded prior to the survey. This paper briefly discusses the results of the project, including the material remains of the war, the archaeological significance of these remains, and the need for the conservation and maintenance of these rapidly disappearing cultural resources.
Rogers, Stephen T. (Tennessee Historical Commission). 1996. THE MAN IN THE CAST IRON COFFIN: A TALE OF HISTORIC AND FORENSIC INVESTIGATION. Road construction by the City of Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, encountered a small unmarked family cemetery. During the removal of several graves, a cast iron coffin was uncovered that contained the well preserved remains of an unidentified individual. Historical research, forensic analysis, and clothing analysis were combined to identify this indidividual, and provide important information on the pathology of diseases, and material culture associated with mid-19th century burial practices. This modern day detective story illustrates how several different disciplines cooperated to solve the mystery of the cast iron coffin.
Rogers, Steve (Tennessee Historical Commission). 2004. STEVE, NICK AND ISAAC'S GREAT ADVENTURE OR MR. MASON GOES TO WASHINGTON. During the summer of 2002 archaeologist from DuVall and Associates worked to relocate a small family cemetery in Giles County, Tennessee. Thirty-nine burials were moved that included the remains of four adults and two children buried in six cast-iron coffins. The identity of five of the six individuals buried in the cast-iron coffins was known, however, the remains of one individual was not determined. The ensuing historic, forensic, and clothing analysis provide detailed information to positively identify the individual and offer a unique opportunity to study bone pathology, burial customs, and mortuary practices during the Civil War.
Rogers, Stephen T. (Tennessee Historical Commission). 2012. TENNESSEE POTTERY AND THE STORIES THEY TELL. Thirty four years of research on the history Tennessee pottery production has uncovered 199 pottery producing sites, and 514 individuals directly associated with the industry. While initially focused on locating the pottery sites, and recovering representative examples of their work, we learned very quickly the importance of the human element involving the potters and their families. We realized telling their stories and finding historic photographs of these individuals takes this research project into a different more personal direction that allows a wider range of people to appreciate the talents of the potters and the beauty of their pots. The rich and diverse craftsmanship that existed among Tennessee potters cannot be fully appreciated without knowing something of the context in which they were produced, and learning of their often-times compelling personal stories.
Rogers, Stephen T. (Tennessee Historical Commission). 2013. TENNESSEE FACE JUGS: AN EVOLVING TRADITION. The existence of stoneware face jugs as a part of a Southern pottery tradition is well established. Recent scholarship and archaeological testing in Edgefield, South Carolina has sought to establish a chronology for their origins and develop a deeper understanding of their symbolic significance. As conditions surrounding the manufacturing of these face jugs changed through time, their function or meaning also changed. This presentation will discuss the historic context of these vessels, explore their African origins, and illustrate how the four documented Tennessee-produced face jugs help to document this evolving tradition.
Rogers, Stephen T. (Tennessee Historical Commission) and Daniel S. Allen, IV. (Cumberland Research Group). 2010. CHARLES DICKINSON: WHERE ARE YOU? Controversy concerning the location of the final resting place of Charles Dickinson (1780-1806) has remained a matter of speculation for over 70 years. Dickinson, who was killed by Andrew Jackson in a famous duel, was buried on his father-in-law’s farm, an area now part of suburban West Nashville. With the disappearance of Dickinson’s grave marker in 1923, and the subsequent subdivision of the land, all above ground evidence to Dickinson’s grave has been lost through time. Discovery of a lead-lined coffin on Dickinson ancestral home in Caroline County, Maryland in 1965 fueled the local legend that Dickinson’s remains were disinterred in the early nineteenth century and returned to the Dickinson family graveyard. Recent historical and archaeological research has attempted to answer the question, Charles Dickinson: Where are you?
Rose, Arden (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 1995. DISCRETE LEDBETTER/PICKWICK ASSEMBLAGES FROM 40HR148 (HARDIN COUNTY) AND 40CH50 (CHEATHAM COUNTY). Excavations at 40Hr148 on the Tennessee River in Hardin County and at 40Ch50 on the Cumberland River in Cheatham County have produced discrete Ledbetter/Pickwick artifact assemblages. Previous research on Ledbetter/Pickwick occupations has focused primarily on multi-component sites also containing stratigraphically undifferentitated early and/or later Archaic components. The Ledbetter/Pickwick PP/ks recovered from these two sites provide baseline assemblages for examining morphological variation within the Ledbetter/Pickwick cluster. Radiocarbon dates from the two small sites will similarly provide an unambiguous chronological placement for Ledbetter/Pickwick occupations in west-central Tennessee. Similarities in both morpholoy and associated radiocarbon dates between Ledbetter/Pickwick PP/Ks and various Late Archaic PP/K types from the Northeast, Southeast, and Mid-South are also examined.
Sampeck, Kathryn E. (Illinois State University). 2012. THE NOLICHUCKY VALLEY IN EAST TENNESSEE DURING THE PERIOD OF SPANISH CONTACT. The sixteenth century in the southeast US is an archaeological challenge. It lies between the florescence of the Mississippian period on the one hand, and the flourishing of English colonial involvement in the eighteenth century on the other. Because east Tennessee was not a site of Spanish forts or missions, the amount of European material culture is limited. Much attention has been devoted over the last few decades to detecting the routes of Spanish expeditions and ventures such as missions and forts in the US southeast, and considerable work has been done in North Carolina, the Knoxville and Chattanooga area, as well as north Georgia. Site location, historical accounts, and ceramic analysis will be presented to show that the contact-period (sixteenth- to seventeenth-century) cultural landscape in Greene and Washington Counties was that of a time of shifting boundaries and the exploration of new frontiers by indigenous populations as much as by any European.
Sharp, Robert V. (Art Institute of Chicago). 2010. WOMAN IN THE PATTERNED SHAWL: FEMALE EFFIGY BOTTLES FROM THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND RIVER BASIN. Starting with an iconographical study of female effigy bottles of the Cumberland River basin and the symbolic motifs of their regalia, this presentation also explores the influence of the Classic Braden style on a corpus of ceramic ware rooted in Middle Tennessee. In addition, this paper will suggest the existence of other similar patterns of regalia evident on ceramic female effigies across a broad region of the Mississippian world.
Sharp, Robert V. (Art Institute of Chicago). 2011. OUR LADY OF THE CUMBERLAND AND THE PORTAL TO THE BENEATH WORLD. This presentation begins with a review of a select group of ceramic female effigy bottles recovered from numerous sites throughout the middle Cumberland River basin. It then establishes a connection between the symbolic motif that often appears on these vessels through the resist technique of negative painting and one of the most familiar icons of the Mississippian world, a motif that is not only widespread throughout the prehistoric Southeast but also one that appears on various media including ceramic, shell, copper, stone, and wood. The presentation posits a source for this symbolic motif in the natural world, and then building on that, establishes an interpretation of this motif and of the female effigy bottles themselves.
Sharp, Robert V. (The Art Institute of Chicago). 2012. MYTHIC FIGURES OR SHAMANIC PRACTITIONERS: WHAT NEW ADDITIONS TO THE FLINT-CLAY CORPUS SUGGEST. The flint-clay effigy pipes and figurines of the 12th century constitute a remarkable corpus of Native American art of the Mississippian world. While the female figures are surprisingly rich in iconographical significance, more than half the known examples of flint-clay works depict males, often with few accoutrements and surprisingly little regalia. Two new additions to this subgroup bring fresh material for examination and also invite a reconsideration of prior studies of these sculptures that have suggested they represent shamans in ritual practice or supernatural figures of cosmic significance. This paper reopens that discussion and hopes to stimulate further consideration of their function.
Sharp, Robert V. (The Art Institute of Chicago) and Kevin E. Smith (Middle Tennessee State University). THREE LATE PREHISTORIC FELINE-SUPERNATURAL COPPER PLATES: BENEATH WORLD IMAGERY IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS. Three very similar and largely unknown small embossed copper plates from late prehistoric sites in the Southern Appalachians exhibit the face of what appears to be a feline supernatural bearing a tri-forked eye surround. Two previously reported examples were recovered from early excavations in Georgia at Etowah's Mound C (9BR1) and the Hollywood Mound (9RI1), and we report a previously undocumented object in a private collection recovered from southeastern Tennessee. We examine this small but important corpus within their stylistic and archaeological contexts and associated artifacts in the Southern Appalachian region and then offer our interpretations.
Sharp, Steven, Todd D. McCurdy, Cheyenne Krull, and Jay D. Franklin (University of Memphis). 2004. THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND PRESERVATION OF THE ENTRANCE TRENCH INTO THE RESIDENTIAL RIDGE AT CHUCALISSA. In this presentation, we outline a brief culture history of the residential ridge at Chucalissa. Further, we discuss the excavation and preservation history of the Entrance Trench into the ridge, including the intricacies of chronological resolution. Finally, we present our proposals for renewed archaeological investigations and future preservation concerns.
Sherwood, Sarah C. (Dickinson College), Stephen B. Caromdy (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Sierra Bow (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Kandace Hollenbach (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Nicholas P. Herrmann (Mississippi State University), Martin Knoll (Sewnaee, University of the South), Leila Donn (Sewnaee, University of the South), Annie Blankenship (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), and Alan Cressler (National Speleological Society). 2011. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM UZZELLES ROCKSHELTER: AN ARCHAIC AND WOODLAND UPLAND SITE IN SEWANEE, TENNESSEE. This paper reports on the Sewanee Environmental Institutes (SEI) field school excavations of an upland Warren Point Sandstone shelter. We present the preliminary results from the pottery, archaeobotanical, lithic, geoarchaeological and radiocarbon analyses. The analyzed pottery represents the Early, Middle and Late Woodland periods, and is composed primarily of limestone tempered plain, plain/scraped and check stamped wares. The projectile points span the Early Archaic through Late Woodland periods. The botanical analysis has revealed diverse seeds, nuts and wood charcoal suggesting the occupants exploited a variety of environments during the late summer through early winter. The deepest deposits in the shelter represent an Early Archaic Bifurcate occupation. The geoarchaeological analysis focuses on site formation processes, mainly the variability and accumulation of sediments and the post depositional processes that impact the archaeological deposits.
Sherwood, Sarah C. (Sewanee, University of the South), Stephen B. Carmody (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Nicholas P. Herrmann (Mississippi State University), Sierra M. Bow (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Martin M. Knoll (Sewanee, University of the South). 2012. MICHAELS SHELTER (40FR276): PRELIMINARY REMOTE SENSING, CHRONOLOGY, GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHAEOBOTANY, AND CERAMIC ANALYSIS. The sandstone rockshelters perched along the rim of the Cumberland Plateau contain a rich and complex archaeological record. Michaels Shelter, located in the Sewanee Conglomerate, contains Early Archaic through Late Woodland (possibly Mississippian) deposits. An interdisciplinary project is underway to decipher the shelters history, especially how these sites form and infill and the roll these upland sites played in the processing and storage of indigenous cultigens and mast crops. This paper will summarize the results from the Sewanee Environmental Institute and Mississippi State University Field School this summer, focusing on the GPR, C14, stratigraphy and ceramic analyses.
Sherwood, Sarah C. (University of the South), Nicholas Herrmann (Mississippi State University), Matthew Gage, Jan Simek, Sarah A. Blankenship, Kandace Hollenbach, Scott Meeks, Stephen Yerka (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Alan Cressler (US Geological Survey). 2009. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON THE SOUTHERN CUMBERLAND PLATEAU: ROCK ART, REGIONAL SURVEYS AND RADIOCARBON DATES. The Southern Cumberland Plateau, stretching through the lower half of Tennessee into Northern Alabama, has been largely overlooked in Southeastern Archaeology with only a few exceptions. This paper provides updates on several projects that are underway in this region including a survey of select Bowater land along the eastern Plateau, rock shelter test excavations in Fall Creek Falls State Park, work in the Sequatchie Valley, and rock art survey at the University of the South.
Sherwood, Sarah C., Nicholas P. Herrmann, Jan F. Simek (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Stuart W. Carroll (Fall Creek Falls State Park), Christopher Goodmaster, Stephen Yerka, Daniel Brock, and Julianna Lindsay (Middle Tennessee State University). THE FALL CREEK FALLS ARCHAEOLOGY PROJECT: OUR FIRST YEAR. Fall Creek Falls State Park is located on the Cumberland Plateau in Bledsoe and Van Buren Counties, Tennessee. Currently the park consists of approximately 22,000 acres, 6,200 of which are relatively recent acquisitions whose boundaries have not appeared on any available maps. According to the Tennessee State Site Files there are only 20 historic sites, and no prehistoric sites recorded within the park boundaries. The Fall Creek Falls Archaeology Project was initiated with two primary objectives 1) the development of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) base map of the park and 2) complete a preliminary survey of prehistoric archaeological resources there. The GIS base map and the survey are needed to provide an important management tool for the park while serving as a platform for archaeological research to study the prehistoric use of the Cumberland Plateau. In this presentation, we will report on our efforts to date including: the status of the GIS base map; development of a relational database to record sites for the State Site File and manage site location and survey data; our survey progress; and some initial efforts to test the preservation and condition of looted rockshelters.
Sherwood, Sarah C., J.J. Kocis, B.A. Creswell (Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and C.B. Oakley (MACTEC). 2004. DEEP TESTING AND PHASE II EXCAVATIONS ALONG THE NOLICHUCKY RIVER, GREENE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Archaeological Research Laboratory, in conjunction with MACTEC Engineering, conducted Phase II excavations for the Tennessee Department of Transportation's replacement of West Allen's Bridge over the Nolichucky River in Greene County, Tennessee. A program of hand-test excavations, mechanical backhoe trenching and hydraulic coring (Geoprobe) was used to investigate the potential for buried sites. The project resulted in the identification of deeply buried, former surface horizons associated with Mississippian to Archaic cultural materials at the Birdwell Site (40GN228) and the Neas Site (40GN229). Hand excavations revealed a significant Pisgah Phase refuse pit with a diverse assemblage of artifacts that included exceptionally well-preserved bone. Backhoe excavations could not reach the vertical extent of the sites, however, the Geoprobe was able to recover cultural deposits over five meters in depth. A comparison of these methods demonstrates that the hydraulic corer is the more informative, efficient and safer technique to identify buried archaeological deposits in an alluvial setting.
Shlasko, Ellen (University of Memphis). 2002. WHERE WAS WIDOW BELL'S BARN? CONTINUING RESEARCH AT SHILOH NATIONAL MILITARY PARK. This paper presents the results of archaeological testing at Shiloh National Military Park, conducted by the University of Memphis. The goal of the survey was to locate historic buildings in a field adjacent to the Peach Orchard, the scene of heavy fighting during the battle of Shiloh. Historic maps place two structures in this area, but the exact location, age, form and function of the buildings are unknown. In order to recover this information, the researchers used both metal detector survey and shovel testing, with varying results.
Shlasko, Ellen and Claire Henline (University of Memphis). 2000. A HOUSE OF SOME PRETENSION: HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AT SHILOH NATIONAL MILITARY PARK, 1999. In the spring of 1999, the University of Memphis, Department of Anthropology ran an archaeological field school at the Shiloh National Military Park. The students located and excavated an antebellum farmstead, one of approximately 70 structures that stood in the area at the time of the battle. Although the Shiloh area was, at the time, home to a number of farm families, little physical evidence of their lives remains on the park. This excavation was the first step in a larger project that will increase our knowledge of these yeoman farmers and the area in which they lived.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1998. RECENT STUDIES OF TENNESSEE'S PREHISTORIC CAVE ART. In 1979, two Southeastern caves were almost simultaneously discovered that contained prehistoric art in their dark zones, beyond the reach of all exterior light. Since that time, more than twenty others, mostly in Tennessee, have been identified and recorded, including five over the past year. This paper discusses recent work by the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in locating and documenting these important, beautiful, yet still little-known aspects of Tennessee's archaeological record. Special attention will be given to variability in the art, chronology, and protection.
Simek, Jan F., Sarah A. Blankenship, Alan Cressler, Dan Weinand, and Heather Welborn (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2007. MORE ON THE PREHISTORIC ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY FROM DUNBAR CAVE, TENNESSEE. From 1977-1978, the Tennessee Division of Archaeology undertook excavations at Dunbar Cave, Tennessee (40MT43). A rich and deeply stratified archaeological sequence was revealed that suggests the use of Dunbar Cave from the Early Archaic through the Mississippian. In 2005, prehistoric cave art was discovered in Dunbar’s dark zone, and extensive chert mining was also recognized in the limestone outcrops that crown the cave. The University of Tennessee has begun study of the recovered materials from the site, which were never properly analyzed. This paper will report on what we currently know about Dunbar Cave’s archaeology, stratigraphy, chronology, and artifacts.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Sarah A. Blankenship (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Joseph Douglas (Volunteer State Community College), and Alan Cressler (US Geological Survey). 2010. CHEROKEE SYLLABARY IN CAVES. Despite James Mooney’s assertion to the contrary, it is now clear that Cherokee people in Tennessee and Alabama visited caves and probably used them for ceremonial and perhaps industrial purposes. We discuss evidence for this from two caves. One is in northern Alabama, and is of certain Cherokee origin as graffiti on the cave wall was clearly produced in the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah in the early nineteenth century. The second cave, in south-central Tennessee, is more difficult to attribute with certainty as it may date rather early for the syllabary and involves few identifiable words or phrases. This second site is, however, quite intriguing as it associates possible Cherokee writing with representational cave art, produced with a technique not seen before in prehistoric art caves, and with evidence for intriguing historical industrial use of the site.
Simek, Jan F., Sarah Ann Blankenship, Nicholas Herrmann (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Sarah C. Sherwood (University of the South), and Alan Cressler (USGS-Atlanta). 2008. NEW ROCK AND CAVE ART SITES IN TENNESSEE. Over the past year, a number of previously unknown prehistoric open air rock art and dark zone cave art sites were discovered by archaeologists from and associated with the University of Tennessee. Included among these are the oldest directly dated pictograph from the eastern woodlands, found in a cave near Knoxville, several cave burial sites that have associated art, and a number of pictographs found high on the bluffs of the Cumberland Plateau. Variability in this prehistoric art is discussed and several patterns in their nature and distribution are documented.
Simek, Jan F. (Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and Alan Cressler (USGS). 2005. ON THE BACKS OF SERPENTS: PREHISTORIC CAVE ART IN TENNESSEE. Examination of nearly fifty prehistoric cave art sites in the Southeast indicates that some caves were organized compositions rather than simple scatters of unrelated pictures. This paper considers several sites from the late Mississippian Period and, using detailed recordation and analysis of spatial distributions, illuminates an underlying structure or grammar controlling the locations of different image types. Mississippian cave art depicted transcendental pathways from the outside to the underworld, emphasizing the role of dark reaches in the cosmological landscape of late prehistoric people.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee - Knoxville), Alan Cressler (USGS Atlanta), Brent Aulenbach (USGS Atlanta), and Sarah C. Sherwood (Dickinson College). 2011. EXPANDING THE PREHISTORIC ROCK ART DATABASE OF THE MIDSOUTH 2010: NEW SITES IN TENNESSEE AND NORTH GEORGIA. In 2010, the University of Tennessee Cave Archaeology Research Team investigated a few new rock art localities in Tennessee and North Georgia. A petroglyph at Burgess Falls, first thought to be prehistoric, probably has a 19th Century historic origin. A second site in the South Cumberlands conforms in its context to a number of localities nearby. A third striking locality represents a new type of site in a so-called “Rock Town” feature on the top of Lookout Mountain; the implications of this site for Mississippian religious landscapes, and for other potentially similar sites in Tennessee and elsewhere will be discussed.
Simek, Jan F. Alan Cressler, Joseph C. Douglas, Amy Wallace, Ken Oeser, and Annette Oeser (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2006. FIVE NEW PREHISTORIC CAVE ART SITES IN TENNESSEE. Over the past twelve months, five new prehistoric cave art sites have been discovered in Tennessee, designated 43rd - 47th Unnamed Caves in our regional nomenclature. These additions bring the total number of art caves known in the Southeast to 52. Three of the caves are owned by the State of Tennessee, their discovery and analysis sanctioned by state archaeological permits. A fourth is under Federal stewardship. The sites contain a variety of art, including both petroglyphs and pictographs. Most appear to date late in Tennessee's prehistoric sequence (i.e., Mississippian), although there may be at least one early site among the new discoveries.
Simek, Jan F., Alan Cressler, Nicholas Herrmann (University of Tennessee) and Sarah Sherwood (Middle Tennessee State University). 2002. THE ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF 12TH UNNAMED CAVE, TENNESSEE. 12th Unnamed Cave, a limestone karst feature in the eastern Highland Rim of Middle Tennessee, contains one of the most extensive and elaborate groupings of prehistoric dark zone petroglyphs in North America. This paper will discuss the archaeological context of the site, which suggests a Late Woodland/Early Mississippian production. A series of new radiocarbon age determinations will be presented in its stratigraphic context. The art itself will be reviewed, and aspects of production variation, spatial distribution, content, and composition will be presented.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Joseph Douglas (Volunteer State Community College), Sarah C. Sherwood (University of the South), Sarah A. Blankenship (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Randy Boedy (US Forest Service), Erik Kreusch (Great Smoky Mountains, National Park Service), Tom Des Jean (Big South Fork NRRA, National Park Service), and Alan Cressler (US Geological Survey). 2009. PREHISTORIC ROCK ART RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE—2008. Over the course of 2008, seven new prehistoric rock art sites, two in caves and five in the open, were discovered by the UT Cave Archaeology Research Team working with colleagues from the University of the South, Volunteer State Community College, and the National Park Service. New data were also obtained on several other already-known cave art sites. This paper reports on these discoveries and refers them to known sites in Tennessee. Finally, a rock art site just north of the state line in Kentucky will be discussed as it relates to rock art sites in Tennessee.
Simek, Jan F.; Jay D. Franklin, and Alan Kressler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2000. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF PREHISTORIC CAVE ART IN TENNESSEE. Ancient art work found far below the surface of the earth, in the "dark zone" of caves beyond the reach of external light, is now known from more than thirty sites, most of them in Tennessee. Unfortunately, these prehistoric treasures are in jeopardy. Loots, casual cave visitors, and graffiti artists are taking a toll. In this paper, we give examples of some of the problems and describe recent efforts to protect this important aspect of Tennessee's archaeological record. We also assess the efforts of protection on the art itself at one very important art site: Mud Glyph Cave.
Simek, Jan F. And Erin Pritchard (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 1999. PREHISTORIC CAVE MINERAL MINING IN TENNESSEE. Prehistoric use of sulfate minerals, extracted from speleothems found in deep cave environments, has long been known from Mammoth and Salts caves in Kentucky. There, large-scale mining is associated with widening trade systems and more complex social interactions linked to the Woodland period Hopewell culture. In Tennessee, this kind of prehistoric activity has previously been unproven, with only circumstantial evidence form Big Bone Cave in Van Buren County suggesting such ancient industry here. Recent discoveries in Hubbards Cave (Warren County) show conclusively that gypsum mining did occur in southern Tennessee on an impressive industrial scale. Native miners worked wall crusts for several miles below the ground surface and removed great quantities of sulfates as their product. Radiocarbon dating implicates Early Woodland people in this endeavor, roughly contemporary with mining in the Mammoth/Salts complex.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Sarah C. Sherwood (Sewanee, University of the South), Nicholas P. Herrmann (Mississippi State University), Sierra M. Bow (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Alan Cressler (USGS-Atlanta), and Stephen B. Carmody (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2012. YOU CAN’T TAKE IT (ALL) WITH YOU: ARCHAEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND LOOTED SITES IN THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU. Archaeologists working in the numerous rockshelter sites that line the bluffs of the Cumberland Plateau have long been confounded by the scale of looting that has compromised the archaeological record. Looter damage is often so severe that sites are considered emptied of the record they once contained and deemed insignificant for management purposes. We examine the archaeological contents of three Southern Plateau prehistoric rock art sites (a site type especially subject to looting), two heavily looted and one pristine, in order to show that even in cases of extreme disturbance, significant archaeological materials remain in looter tailings that can address important research questions, for example chronology and intersite variability. These sites should not be presumptively precluded in cultural resource management considerations.
Simek, Jan F. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Shane Loyd, Scott Carter, Charles Penn (The RLS Group, Chattanooga), and Alan Cressler (U. S. Geological Survey). 2013. HIGH DEFINITION LASER SCANNING IN 68TH UNNAMED CAVE, TENNESSEE. Thanks to the RLS Group of Chattanooga, TN, extremely high definition laser scanning was undertaken at 68th Unnamed Cave in southeastern Tennessee. The cave contains a rich Mississippian period cave art assemblage, including remarkable canine images, much of which was affected by inadvertent cleaning about a decade ago. The scanning provides an extremely precise record of the cave and its contents amenable to quantitative analysis. The scans also contribute new information about the art itself, rendering some aspects of individual images visible that were not previously seen. There is hope that this technology may help identify some of the rock art that was damaged by the cleaning process.
Simmons, Scott E. (R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc.). 1998. CURRENT RESEARCH IN THE LOWER CUMBERLAND VALLEY EARLY ARCHAIC: NATIONAL REGISTER TESTING AT SITE 40SW333. Recent investigations at an Early Archaic Period site located along the banks of the Cumberland River in Stewart County, Tennessee were completed in adavnce of shoreline stabilization work proposed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The results of testing at this site indicate that intact shell midden deposits in which relativley high densities of lithic debitage, formal stone and bone tools, and well-preserved faunal material are present along the existing shoreline portion of the site. The results of testing indicate that the site is indeed eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. This paper discusses the preliminary results of testing at the site as well as pertinent research topics that could be addressed following additional work at site 40SW333.
Smith, Gerald P. (Memphis State University). 1994. EXCAVATIONS AT PUNCHEON CAMPE CREEK, OVERTON COUNTY. Phase III excavations conducted at 40Ov28, in the headwaters drainage of the West Fork of Obey River, revealed up to two meters of deposits with multiple components spanning the late Early Archaic through the Middle Archaic. Components present include those represented by Kirk Stemmed, several poorly known stemmed and side-notched types, and the Stanly-Kanawha Stemmed group. Extensive archaeobotanic studies are to be included in the analysis in addition to lithic analyses oriented toward site usage and lithic technology.
Smith, Gerald (University of Memphis). 1996. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT SITE 40WY87, WAYNE COUNTY. Phase II and III excavations were conducted at 40Wy87 for the Tennessee Department of Transoprtation in conjunction with a bypass for US64 around Waynesboro. The site had occupations extending from Early Archaic through possible Middle Woodland, but the main components were Benton, Pickwick, and Late Gulf Formational. The site had a shallow midden deposit which included an area of several rock hearths of unknown cultural origin and another area with three apparent sunken-floor houses of probable Pickwick affiliation.
Smith, Gerald P. (University of Memphis). 1999. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING AT FIVE SITES IN LEWIS COUNTY. Five sites, four prehistoric occupations and a late nineteenth century cemetery were tested last summer in Lewis County for TDOT in conjnction with the proposed widening of SR 99 east of Hohenwald. The prehistoric sites are primarily Late and Terminal Archaic in age, but one also includes Early and Middle Archaic components as well as a minor Woodland occupation of unknown affiliation. While two of the prehistoric sites turned out to have little surviving sub-plow zone evidence of activities, the other two had cylindrical pits, multiple other pits, and a possible structural postmold pattern at one of them. The other of these sites had a large number of pits and appears to also have some surviving midden under the turnrow at the edge of the site. Initial lithic analysis suggests the existence of two sets of lithic resource area usage patterns, one oriented to the west and northwest within the Western Highland Rim and the other to the south towards the central Tennessee River area. The nineteenth century cemetery was relocated by use of a combination of local oral tradition and late 1940s aerial photography with extensive backhoe trenching. Grave outlines are quite clear below the plow zone and upper soil horizon, but bone preservation appears almost nonexistent due to soil conditions.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 1996. MTSU ARCHAEOLOGY 1995. The first MTSU archaeological field school was conducted from July to August 1995 at Bledsoe's Fort Historical Park (40Su32) and Wynnewood State Historic Area (40Su75). Limited testing focused on three areas: (1) the fresh-water springhouse associated with the 18th to 19th century Bledsoe's Station; (2) areas around the sulphur springs in "Lick Bottom;" and (3) areas around a mound supposed associated with the Castalian Springs Mississippian Mound group (40Su14). This paper will present the preliminary results of the testing project, and proposed activities for the 1996 field season at Bledsoe's Station.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 1997. MTSU ARCHAEOLOGY: 1996. The archaeology program at Middle Tennessee State University sponsored two excavation projects in the summer of 1996. During May at Traveller's Rest (historic home of Judge John Overton), testing focused on the large Mississippian period village beneath the yard area. During June at Bledsoe's Station (ca. A.D. 1780-1795), the second MTSU archaeological field school continued investigations of this early frontier settlement. This paper will summarize results of both projects, and plans for the 197 summer field project at Bledsoe's Station.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State Univerity). 1998. ARCHAEOLOGY AT BLEDSOE'S STATION, 1997. The 1997 MTSU Archaeological Field School completed a second year of investigations at Bledsoe's Station (40Su32), one of the first fortified Euroamerican settlements in Middle Tennessee (ca. 1783-1806). This paper will present the results of the 1997 auger testing program with relation to determining site boundaries, a summary of the seven structures identified in excavations to date, and an overview of the results of laboratory analysis of artifacts from the four seasons of archaeology at the site.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 1999. ARCHAEOLOGY AT BLEDSOE'S STATION, 1998. The 1998 MTSU Archaeological Field School completed a third season of investigations at Bledsoe's Station (40Su32), one of the first fortified Euroamerican and African-American settlements in Middle Tennessee (ca. 1783-1806). This paper will provide an overview of the project, including the identification of five additional structures on the basis of subfloor "root cellars" (bringing the total to twelve) and investigations of the trench for the palisade enclosing the community.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2002. BACK TO BLEDSOE'S FORT: RESULTS OF THE 2001 MIDDLE TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY FIELD SCHOOL. The 2001 MTSU Archaeological Field School completed a fourth season of investigations at Bledsoe's Station (40Su32), one of the first fortified Euroamerican and African?American settlements in Middle Tennessee (ca. 1783?1806). This paper will provide an overview of the project, including the identification of nearly twenty structures and the entire palisade enclosing the community.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and George HeFinrich (Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society). 2000. AVOCATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE CORDELL HULL SURVEY PROJECT. Over the past six years under an ARPA permit issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Nashville District, the authors have coordinated a shoreline survey of Cordell Hull reservoir. Using only volunteer labor supplied by the Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society and Middle Tennessee State University, the survey has recorded information on more than 250 archaeological sites ranging from Paleoindian to twentieth century farms. While only very basic surface information has been recorded, project results illustrate the potential for involvement of avocational archaeologists in site recording and preservation efforts.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2004. DIGGING THE 1822 STATE CAPITOL BUILDING (40RD271) IN MURFREESBORO, TENNESSEE. While largely forgotten today, Murfreesboro served as the capital city of Tennessee from 1818 1825. As part of the Rutherford County Bicentennial Celebration, the 2003 MTSU Archaeological Field School located and investigated the remains of the original First Presbyterian Church of Murfreesboro (1820 1864) a structure that served as the Capitol Building in 1822 when the Tennessee legislature first nominated Andrew Jackson for President. The results of the archaeological and historical investigations served to heighten community awareness of this important period in local and state history, and will be used to nominate the church site and surrounding Old City Cemetery to the National Register of Historic Places.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2005. MISSISSIPPIAN SITE PRESERVATION IN 2004: CASTALIAN SPRINGS (40SU14) AND FEWKES (40WM1). In contrast to the destructive trend of the last three decades, two major Mississippian sites in Middle Tennessee have been preserved from development by public acquisition during the past year. This paper presents information on the land acquisition process for the Castalian Springs Mound site in Sumner County along with a summary of previous archaeological investigations. In addition, an update on archaeological testing and park development at the Fewkes Mound site in Williamson County will be provided.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Emily L. Beahm (University of Georgia). 2008. PLACING THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS CHIEFDOM IN TIME AND SPACE: SOCIOPOLITICAL CENTERS IN THE EASTERN NASHVILLE BASIN OF TENNESSEE. At the conclusion of the third field season in summer 2007, the Castalian Springs Archaeological Project has generated new insights into the internal structure of the community and a more refined sense of the overall chronological span of the site (including evidence of a Late Woodland component). In this paper, we present a summary of recent investigations at the site, preliminary interpretations of the spatial and chronological relationship with the nearby Dixon Springs, Rutherford-Kizer, and Sellars site, and new information on the 1916-1917 excavations resulting from a recent trip to the National Anthropological Archives.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Emily L. Beahm (University of Georgia). 2008. SPATIAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MISSISSIPPIAN SHELL GORGETS IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Two centuries of excavations have yielded dozens of Mississippian shell gorgets from sites throughout Middle Tennessee. Although the regional distribution of engraved shell gorgets has been treated in a number of publications, re-examination of curated notes, manuscripts, and the objects themselves permits a more refined presentation of their intra- and inter-site distribution in the Nashville Basin. Structural analysis of the elements and motifs of the more frequent Middle Tennessee gorget styles (Cox and Nashville) is also considered. Finally, seriation of gravelot assemblages, stratigraphic information from the Castalian Springs mound excavations, and radiocarbon dates permit a more refined examination of the chronological placement of these objects.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University), Emily L. Beahm (University of Georgia), and Michael K. Hampton (Texas State University, San Marcos). 2012. THE CASTALIAN SPRINGS MOUNDS (40SU14) 2011: INVESTIGATIONS OF MOUND 3, SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During Summer 2011, the Middle Tennessee State University archaeological field completed the seventh season of investigations at the Mississippian town of Castalian Springs on the eastern periphery of Tennessee's Central Basin. Efforts focused largely on Mound 3 - the presumed platform mound on the northwestern corner of the plaza. Investigations revealed pre-mound structures and features, portions of wall-trench structures on three summits, and a clay cap interpreted as a ritual closing of the mound. Fragmented ritual objects scattered across the final summit and flank suggest that the mound's final structures were purposefully destroyed just prior to abandonment of the site.
Smith, Kevin E. and Christopher Hogan (Middle Tennessee State University). 2005. BEGINNING THE SEARCH FOR THE SAM DAVIS HOME SLAVE QUARTERS (40RD23), SMYRNA, TENNESSEE. In summer 2004, students in the MTSU Archaeological Field School initiated an archaeological search for the fourteen buildings that once housed over fifty enslaved African Americans at the Sam Davis Home in Smyrna. Originally preserved by the Sam Davis Memorial Association in honor of young Sam Davis, a Confederate Civil War hero, interpretation at the site is being expanded to include more comprehensive information about the upper middle class plantation of the Davis family and their slaves. This paper presents the results of the initial search for the lost slave quarter(s) and preliminary interpretations of the field and lab work.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and James V. Miller (Middle Cumberland Archaeological Society). 2007. TENNESSEE?CUMBERLAND STYLE MISSISSIPPIAN STONE STATUARY. The authors provide a preview of our forthcoming book defining the Tennessee?Cumberland Style of late prehistoric Mississippian stone statuary culminating 15 years of research ? including 48 from the Cumberland River valley, 12 from north Georgia, and 23 significant outliers in Tennessee and other states. In both comparison and contrast to the redstone Missouri flint clay statues of the Cahokia Style, our research indicates that these statues were also created as paraphernalia for ancestral shrines of chiefdoms, but represent a chronologically brief and geographically restricted expression of this persistent and widespread complex distinct from the Cahokia Style.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Michael C. Moore (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1995. 1994 ARCHAEOLOGY IN SUMNER COUNTY: PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS IN THE "CAVERN OF SKULLS" (40SU126), FORT BLEDSOE PARK; AND AN UPDATE ON THE RUTHERFORD-KIZER MOUNDS (40SU15). This paper presents a summary of two archaeological projects conducted in Sumner County during 1994. In August 1994, Smith directed preliminary investigations inside a cave in cooperation with the Bledsoe's Lick Historical Association. Excavations identified a Pleistocene bone bed consisting entirely of peccary remains (Playgonus compressus). A single 1x1 m test unit yielded a minimum of twelve individual peccaries. Additionally, the authors continued salvage work at the Rutherford-Kizer Mounds, a Mississippian town. Efforts in 1994 have focused on recording two palisade lines and associated bastions, and several wall-trench and single-post houses exposed during cemetery relocation.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University), Michael C. Moore (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), and Stephen T. Rogers (Tennessee Historical Commission). 2010. NEW INSIGHTS FROM OLD RECORDS OF THE NOEL CEMETERY (40DV3), DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE: THRUSTON'S “ANCIENT METROPOLIS OF THE STONE GRAVE RACE.” For over a century, Gates P. Thruston's well-illustrated Antiquities of Tennessee (1890, 1897) has provided a key resource about Mississippian artifacts from Middle Tennessee. Most of Thruston's collection came from an estimated 3,000 stone box graves on the Noel Farm. Our recent re-discovery of an unpublished 1878 map, fieldnotes, and collections generated by Peabody Museum expeditions a decade before Thruston provides new insights. In this paper, we combine information from nineteenth century excavations, newspaper articles, Oscar Noel’s personal collection, and limited excavations by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology in 1973 to generate some new hypotheses about this enigmatic “ancient metropolis.”
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Mark R. Norton (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2000. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE 1999 PINSON MOUNDS ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SCHOOL. In cooperation with the Division of Archaeology, State Parks, and Forestry, a field school sponsored by Middle Tennessee State University and the University of the South was conducted during June 1999 at Pinson Mounds State Archaeological Park. Testing focused on the Western Mound Group and confirmed the existence of two additional Woodland platform mounds (Mounds 36 and 37). The final surviving sand cap on Mound 37 yielded a puddled clay hearth and eight postholes. B. Clay (Cultural Resource Analysts) conducted near-surface geophysical survey (gradiometer and conductivity) with promising results for future applications at Pinson.
Smith, Kevin E. (Middle Tennessee State University) and Robert V. Sharp (The Art Institute of Chicago). 2013. SACRED BUNDLES, AMULETS, AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL PRACTICE IN THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND REGION, A.D. 1250-1450. Although sacred bundles are relatively commonly recognized in other parts of North America, southeastern archaeologists have only rarely examined prehistoric objects explicitly within the conceptual framework of these precious assemblages. After examining and reinterpreting several Mississippian objects from Middle Tennessee from this perspective, we conclude with several propositions for future consideration: (1) prior to about A.D. 1400 sacred bundles of various kinds were in use in prehistoric Middle Tennessee and some of their constituent objects can be identified archaeologically; (2) between A.D. 1300 and 1350, the contents of some formerly communal sacred bundles were transformed into personal protective devices (primarily for children); and (3) by A.D. 1350 to 1450, some former sacred bundles and their contents were themselves being depicted as figurines.
Smith, Kevin E. and Michael Strutt (Middle Tennessee State University). 2001. ANOTHER SIDE OF SLAVERY IN TENNESSEE: INVESTIGATIONS OF SLAVE HOUSING AT A MINERAL SPRINGS RESORT IN SUMNER COUNTY. During June 2000, the Middle Tennessee State University archaeological field school conducted testing of suspected slave residences at Wynnewood (40SU75), a Sumner County mineral springs resort and inn. Investigations confirmed the well-preserved archaeological remains of two domestic structures and an adjacent non-residential structure. Alongside the presence of pierced coins, crystals, and blue beads, the discovery of a "hand charm" similar to those from the Hermitage (40DV100) and Hilderbrand House (40SY615) slave dwellings lends further support to the association of these objects with slaves - and expands the mystery of their distribution.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1994. CONTINUING EXCAVATION AT THE FORT BLOUNT SITE, JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Eight months of additional excavation at the Fort Blount site in Jackson County, Tennessee, has resulted in a much improved understanding of the artifactual and architectural remains of this 1794 to 1798 Territorial Militia and Early Federal Military Post.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1995. FINAL (?) COMMENTS ON EARLY FEDERAL MILITARY SITES IN TENNESSEE. In 1994 a final season of archaeological field work was conducted on the site of Fort Blount, a small 1790s territorial militia and federal military post located in what is now Jackson County, Tennessee. Following this season, all of the archaeological information recovered was used to produce a final artist's rendering. The site of Fort Southwest Point, a 1797 to 1811 federal military post in Roane County, was the subject of a series of archaeological projects that ended in the late 1980s, and one of the products of this research was an artist's rendering depicting the ca. 1800 appearance of the post. This past year, the Fort Southwest Point graphic information has been used to begin an on-site reconstruction of this post. This paper will summarize these two activities and, as no additional archaeological work on Early Federal Military Sites is planned, will provide some final (?) comments regarding the research opportunities offered by this theme.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1997. A BRIEF HISTORY OF CEDARS OF LEBANON STATE PARK AND FOREST. This presentation will provide an orientation to this year's Current Research in Tennessee Archaeology meeting site. The area that is today Cedars of Lebanon State Park and Forest was first settled in the early 1800s, experienced several epochs of development relating to farming, logging, and other commercial endeavors, but by the early 1930s had become so economically depressed that it was chosen for redevelopment under a " New Deal" federal program known as the "Lebanon Cedar Forest Project". After the mid- 1930s there was an almost immediate cessation of private land use, and as a result the more than 9000 acres constituting today's state park and forest serve not only as a natural area of inestimable value but also as a kind of archaeological preserve for 19th and early 20th century farmstead and related archaeological sites.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 1999. CONTINUING RESEARCH CONCERNING HISTORIC PERIOD POTTERY MANUFACTURE IN TENNESSEE. In the late 1970s the Tennessee Division of Archaeology conducted a statewide survey of late 18th to early 20th-century pottery manufacturing sites (163 Tennessee operations were identified). This was the first study of southern pottery sites at the level of an entire state. A publication concerning this work was completed in 1979 and served as the catalyst for an evolving information exchange network composed of archaeologists, local historians, genealogists, and ceramic collectors. During the following twenty years, several more previously unknown potteries were discovered, a few kiln sites became the subjects of salvage excavations, and a great deal more was learned about the wares produced by Tennessee potters working in both small and large manufacturing establishments. A much expanded, revised version of the original survey publication is planned, and this paper serves as a kind of prospectus for this intent, providing a summary of the information collected since the 1970s.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2000. TURNERS AND BRIDGE BURNERS: SOME NEW INFORMATION CONCERNING THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY POTTERS OF GREENE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. One of Tennessee's more interesting early Civil War episodes cenetered around the destruction of several railroad bridges at points along the main East Tennessee line. On November 8, 1861, the railroad bridge across Lick Creek in western Greene County was burned by a group of 40 to 60 pro-Union residents, who believed that their effort was part of the vanguard of an expected Federal troop occupation of upper East Tennessee. Instead, within a short time, five of the saboteurs were hanged by order of Confederate officials. All of those executed lived in or nearl the small village of "Pottertown," and four of them had ties to the local ceramic industry. About three years ago, it became obvious that somewhere in this general area there was at least one still unrecorded earthenware pottery site where some truly remarkable mid-nineteenth-century wares were produced. Finding this site could connect the surviving examples of these vessels to the potter or potters who made them and help clarify the relationship of the known bridge-burner potters to the local socio-industrial environment. This paper discusses the recent discovery of what is believed to be this "missing" pottery site.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2001. TENNESSEE'S CIVIL WAR MILITARY SITES: CONTEXT FOR THE ROPER'S KNOB SITE. Since the mid-1970s the author has directed for the Tennessee Division of Archaeology a total of eleven large-scale, historic-period archaeological site survey projects. Three of these concerned Civil War era military sites, with the first two being regional surveys for Middle and West Tennessee. During the late 1990s, an additional survey project focused on East Tennessee, while also attempting to complete the recording of Civil War sites in all regions of the state. By the end of this field phase, the statewide total for recorded Civil War era military sites was 443. Work on a final, statewide report concerning Tennessee's Civil War era military sites is progressing. This paper provides a summary of the data collected and discusses how this information provides a context for the interpretation of the Roper's Knob site in Williamson County, where an excavation project was recently completed (discussed in the following paper by Benjamin Nance).
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2003. EXCAVATION OF FEATURE 14 AT WYNNEWOOD STATE HISTORIC SITE. Wynnewood in Sumner County is one of fifteen Tennessee properties that carry the designation "State Owned Historic Site." The general management of these sites is the responsibility of the Tennessee Historical Commission, but the management of archaeological resources on these and all other state-owned lands is the responsibility of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. The Wynnewood State Historic Site, which is also identified as archaeological site 40SU75 and is a designated National Historic Landmark, has been the subject of several archaeological projects dating back to 1975. This paper provides a general overview of psat work conducted on the site and discusses the circumstances surrounding the discovery and excavation of a historic period feature, designated Feature 14. This stone-filled feature was first encountered during some 2001 backhoe digging, and it was excavated in the spring of 2002. The presentation will also serve as a tribute to the many volunteer excavators who made the project possible.
Smith, Samuel D. (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2008. NITON ANALYSIS: STONEWARE AGE MAN MEETS THE RAY GUN. The author’s early childhood experiences following World War II included helping his rural Middle Tennessee grandmother churn butter in a stoneware churn, like those used in Tennessee since the early 1800s. This same era was one of cultural discontinuity, and 1940s boys fantasized about owning ray guns, like those in the imaginary world of Buck Rogers. In early 2007, as a long-time student of Tennessee-made pottery, I learned that actual “ray guns” are now available and just beginning to be used for a variety of archaeological applications. This presentation will discuss some of these applications, focusing on the experimental use of a NITON hand-held XRF (x-ray fluorescence) analyzer for determining the composition of glazed earthenware sherds. These sherds represent wares produced at some of Tennessee’s earliest historic-period potteries. The NITON analyzer is well suited for studying the actual composition of lead-based glazes, which exhibit color variations related to the presence of other specific elements.
Smith, Samuel D. and Benjamin C. Nance (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2013. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TENNESSEE’S ROSENWALD SCHOOL SITES. Since the mid-1970s a long series of thematic surveys concerning 18th and 19th-century historic-period archaeological sites has been conducted by staff of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. Recently some of this work has focused on sites dating to the first half of the 20th century. A current survey is attempting to record the sites of approximately 354 schools and a few related buildings constructed in Tennessee with assistance from the Rosenwald Fund. This funding program for African-American schools in the South began as a cooperative endeavor between Booker T. Washington, of the Tuskegee Institute, and Julius Rosenwald, noted philanthropist and President of Sears, Roebuck and Co. It was initiated in 1912 and continued until Rosenwald’s death in 1932, by which time approximately 5,400 schools and a few shops and teachers homes had been constructed in 15 states. Rosenwald Schools were built according to specific plans, initially focusing on rural one-room schools, but later including larger models. Some of the buildings survive, and some have undergone adaptive reuse. However, the work completed indicates only about 15% of Tennessee’s Rosenwald sites still have above ground architectural remains. The project is employing traditional archaeological site recording methods, enhanced by web-based search techniques. This presentation provides a summary of the kinds of remains being recorded and the discovery methods used. In the past few years there has been much interest in studying standing examples of these schools across the South, but the Tennessee project is the first to approach the topic as an archaeological site survey.
Smith II, Timothy J., Jan F. Simek (Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and Alan Cressler (USGS). 2005. TENNESSEE CAVE ARCHAEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS. The geology of the state of Tennessee allows for a tremendous amount of karst activity, the geological process responsible for the formation of a majority of the state's caves. With over 8,600 surveyed caves, 350 of which exhibit some degree of archaeological importance, the state of Tennessee affords archaeologists the opportunity for an in-depth analysis of prehistoric and historic cave use patterns. Through field data collection and an intensive literature review of Tennessee caves, the authors have assembled a substantial archaeological cave use database. This database has recently been incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS), allowing for an intensive study of potential variables affecting prehistoric and historic cave use.
Stanyard, William F. (TRC). 2003. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE DESTRUCTION WITHIN TENNESSEE'S WATERWAYS: A CASE STUDY FROM DOUGLAS LAKE. This paper will present a visual tour of archaeological sites within the Douglas Lake floodpool, and examine the erosion, looting, and other destructive agents that are destroying these important resources. The discussion will focus on current conditions, management policies, and recommendations for reducing or eliminating the causes of site destruction within Tennessee's waterways.
Sullivan, Lynne (New York State Museum). 1998. CURRENT RESEARCH ON HIWASSEE ISLAND. The WPA excavations at Hiwassee Island during the 1930s are well-known to every Tennessee archaeologist, but little professional work has been done on the island since then. In the interim, recovery and analytical techniques have improved and changed, as have ideas about late prehistory. In order to update knowledge of this "old" site, a research program initiated in 1997 is investigating remaining portions of the Mississippian town on the island. The main goal of these investigations is to collect subsistence and chronological information not available from the WPA work. This research program is a cooperative venture with Dr. Cheryl Claasen and the Appalachian State University Field School, TVA, and UT Knoxville.
Sullivan, Lynne P. (UT Frank H. McClung Museum). 2007. REVISED CHRONOLOGY FOR THE CHICKAMAUGA BASIN. Radiocarbon dates and shell gorget sequences viewed in concert with differences in pottery, mortuary practices, and architecture shed light on the chronological placement and sequencing of the Davis, Hixon, Hiwassee Island, Dallas, and Ledford Island sites. An understanding of the chronology of these sites also provides new perspectives on the definitions of the Hiwassee Island, Dallas, and Mouse Creek phases, especially when compared with similar data from contemporary sites in other subareas of eastern Tennessee.
Sullivan, Lynne P. (New York State Museum) and Timothy Baumann (University of Missouri, St. Louis). 1999. A PRELIMINARY SERIATION OF DALLAS CERAMICS. Dating from ca. A.D. 1300-1600, the Dallas Phase is the major Late Mississippian complex in the Upper Tennessee Valley. Lack of fine-grained chronological control makes tracking culture change across these centuries difficult. We are completing a formal seriation of Dallas ceramics, modeled after Steponaitis' Moundville study that correlates suites of attributes with early, middle, and late segments of the Dallas phase. Our work will enable a more detailed understanding of chiefdom development through time. We present our preliminary results to solicit feedback from colleagues interested in this time period and region.
Sullivan, Lynne P. (Frank H. McClung Museum), Michaelyn Harle, Nicholas Herrmann (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Sarah Sherwood (University of the South). 2008. ARCHAEOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING OF THE FRENCH BROAD CONSERVATION CORRIDOR. The French Broad Valley in eastern Knox County retains some of the only untouched archaeological sites in the county because of the lack of urban development in this area. This situation is beginning to change, and as development in the area progresses, these archaeological sites become increasingly endangered. In 2006 the authors received funding from the Tennessee Historical Commission to develop a GIS predictive model to identify potential archaeologically sensitive areas along the French Broad River. The study area, known as the French Broad River Conservation Corridor, encompasses nearly 20 river miles from the French Broad’s junction with the Tennessee River upriver to the Knox County line. The goal of the predictive model is to provide the Knox County Metropolitan Planning Commission with preliminary data that they can use to focus their conservation efforts. In this paper we discus the results of the predictive model, along with information on its implementation and future research goals.
Sullivan, Lynne P. (Frank H. McClung Museum) and Shannon D. Koerner (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2009. NEW PERSPECTIVES ON LATE WOODLAND ARCHITECTURE AND SETTLEMENT IN EASTERN TENNESSEE: EVIDENCE FROM THE DEARMOND SITE (40RE12). Evidence of Late Woodland (c. AD 600-900) settlements has been difficult to find in eastern Tennessee. Burial mounds (“Hamilton” mounds) dating to this time period are well known and have been studied for many years. These occur along the upper Tennessee River and its tributaries. The problem faced for decades has been locating contemporary habitation sites, especially those with evidence of structures. Such evidence was in fact found by a WPA-era crew at the DeArmond site (40RE12) in TVA’s Watts Barr reservoir area, but never reported.
Sullivan, Lynne P., Lesli Rowan, and Shannon Koerner (Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2005. DIGITAL PRESERVATION AND ACCESS FOR THE TVA/WPA ARCHAEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTIONS. Some 7000 photographs from WPA-era excavations in the Tennessee Valley are being preserved digitally and made internet accessible. This joint project of the McClung Museum and Hodges Library at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with the Universities of Kentucky and Alabama, is funded by an Institute for Museum and Library Services grant. The project is using international standards for image and text digitization and preservation. The searchable database is now online [http://diglib.lib.utk.edu/wpa/index.htm], but will be completed and more accessible in the spring.
Supak, Karen B. (BHE Environmental, Inc.). 2010. “LEVERITE” AND THE MOTHER LODE: A REVISED VIEW OF PREHISTORIC QUARRYING AND RAW MATERIAL PROCUREMENT AT FT. CAMPBELL, KY/TN. Prehistoric quarries have long been a focus of archaeological research, although studies of prehistoric lithic raw material acquisition have been largely restricted to extensively exploited resources such as the quarries at Dover, Tennessee. Excavations conducted by BHE at Ft. Campbell have documented a widespread, smaller-scale, extremely localized lithic procurement pattern that provides new perspective on traditional interpretations of prehistoric raw material acquisition in the western Tennessee region. This paper presents the survey results from several lithic procurement sites identified by BHE’s Old Clarksville Base survey, examines the implications of those results on the interpretation of previously identified “quarry” sites at Ft. Campbell, and proposes that the majority of prehistoric raw material acquisition took place in a significantly more casual manner than previously hypothesized.
Supak, Karen B. (BHE Environmental, Inc.). 2011. A TALE OF TWO SURVEYS: LUMPING VS. SPLITTING IN CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Between 2006 and 2010, a single parcel within Training Area 02 (Montgomery County) at Fort Campbell, TN-KY, was surveyed twice, by two different cultural resource management firms using almost identical methodologies. This paper compares the results of both studies with particular reference to historic site 40MT1171, the Mallory/Taylor farmstead, and examines the implications of “lumping” versus “splitting” when defining historic site boundaries, particularly at the survey level.
Thacker, Jacqueline P. (East Tennessee State University), Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University), and S. D. Dean (Kingsport, TN). 2008. THE WKM SITE: A STRATIFIED EARLY WOODLAND SITE ON THE HOLSTON RIVER, SULLIVAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The WKM Site was a stratified Early Woodland Site on the Holston River sluice in Kingsport, Tennessee. Salvage excavations were conducted at the site in preparation for building and green space construction. This presentation will discuss the excavations, ceramic typology, and culture chronology at the site.
Thomas, Brian (The Hermitage). 1995. COMMUNITY AMONG SLAVES AT THE HERMITAGE PLANTATION. Scholars interested in enslaved African-Americans on ante-bellum plantations often have distinguished between house and field slaves. House slaves are characterized as an "elite" among slaves, while field slaves are portrayed as occupying the bottom of a slave social hierarchy. Other researchers have downplayed differences between these two groups, noting instead the common bonds shared by all enslaved individuals. In this paper, I examine the material remains from three dwellings occupied between the 1820s and 1850s by African-American slaves on the Hermitage Plantation, along with documentary information on kinship connections, to assess notions of "community" among slaves.
Thomas, Brian (The Hermitage). 1996. EXCAVATIONS AT THE HERMITAGE FIELD QUARTER. Excavations during the 1995 archaeological field season of the Hermitage took place at the Field Quarter site, which is located approximately a third of a mile north of the Jackson family mansion. The site consists of the remains of four brick duplex cabins that once housed a large number of the African-American slaves owned by the Jacksons, as well as subsurface remnants of log structures that pre-date the brick dwellings. This summer's project focused on the interior and exterior around three different cabins, finishing up work begun in 1990 and 1991 at Cabin 3 and examining new areas around two other foundations, Cabins 1 and 4.
Thomas, Larissa (The Hermitage/SUNY Binghamton). 1995. WHAT TEACHING TAUGHT ME: AN ARCHAEOLOGIST IN THE HERMITAGE HANDS-ON HISTORY PROGRAM EXPLORES RELEVANCE, RESPONSIBILITY, ETHICS, AND THE PUBLIC. "Whatca digging for -- gold?" Archaeologists often poke fun at public ignorance about archaeology. Unfortunately, there are many structural barriers preventing involvement in public presentation and education. I have had the opportunity recently to work in the Education department at the Hermitage. From my experiences, I discuss the challenges involved in teaching archaeology to school children and teachers, and I offer some thoughts on the contribution public education can make to the discipline of archaeology. In particular, I focus on problems of archaeology's relevance and responsibility, and how education can alleviate ethical dilemmas, broad defined, in the realm of historic preservation.
Thomas, Larissa (TRC Garrow Associates, Inc.). 2001. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING OF 40LD116, LOUDON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Archaeological test excavations in 1999 at a multicomponent site in Loudon County in eastern Tennessee uncovered a number of diagnostic artifacts and one ambiguous feature. Although the site was ultimately deemed ineligible for the National Register of Historic Places, testing did produce some valuable information, and it provided an opportunity to explore the characteristics of natural versus cultural features. This paper summarizes what was learned about the site during last year's excavations.
Tippet, Lee (The Louis Berger Group, Inc.). 2008. PROPOSED SR 52 CORRIDOR STUDIES, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND EVALUATION, OVERTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE, OVERVIEW. The Louis Berger Group completed an archaeological survey of two sites and the archaeological evaluation of eight sites in September 2007, for the Tennessee Department of Transportation. Situated near the boundary between the Eastern Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, the list of archaeological sites investigated includes three multi-component open air sites, five rock shelters, and two dark zone caves. The survey of the caves was completed by the University of Tennessee Archaeological Research Laboratory. This paper will describe a few of the most salient characteristics of each site based on the fieldwork, subsequent data analysis, and interpretation.
Tippett, Lee, Katherine Kosalko, Eric Voigt (Louis Berger Group), Keith Seramur (Seramur and Associates), and Phillip Hodge (Tennessee Department of Transportation). 2013. THE CORRIDOR K ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT. Corridor K is one of the largest and most complex transportation projects in Tennessee history. Located in the far southeastern corner of the state in Polk County, it runs through the Cherokee National Forest across extremely rugged terrain and will ultimately connect I-75 in Bradley County with an improved portion of US-64 near the North Carolina state line. Corridor K presents an unprecedented opportunity to document the range of human settlement and use of the southern Appalachians from Early Holocene hunter-gatherers to the industrialization of the Ocoee Gorge in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An intensive archaeological survey of approximately 100 miles of project alternatives was completed in October 2012. The survey included a geo-archaeological reconnaissance that assessed the probability of encountering intact buried prehistoric components. Geo-archaeological methods and analyses were also applied to the delineation of previously unrecorded sections of the Old Copper Road. Survey methods were guided by an extensive pre-fieldwork scoping process used to generate survey expectations about the distribution and preservation potential of archaeological sites in the project area. This presentation will discuss the major findings of both the scoping process and the fieldwork, and discuss directions for future research.
Tune, Jesse W. (American University). 2010. REANALYSIS OF THE WELLS CREEK SITE, 40SW63. During a 1962 geological survey investigating the Wells Creek impact crater, artifacts were collected that were suggestive of an early Paleoindian occupation. Don Dragoo led subsequent investigations at the site between 1963 and 1968 and published a report in 1973. Since that time the Wells Creek site has been understood as a Clovis workshop/quarry site. A reanalysis of the collection is currently being conducted as part of a Masters thesis. The preliminary results of this reanalysis are presented here and suggest that Wells Creek was not primarily a Clovis workshop/quarry location as previously understood. Rather the site was occupied intermittently from Clovis until Late Archaic, with Clovis only representing a small portion of the assemblage.
Tune, Jesse W. (American University) and Aaron Deter-Wolf (Tennessee Division of Archaeology). 2009. NEW FINDS OF OLD BONES AT THE COATS-HINES SITE (40WM31). The Coats-Hines Site was first recorded in 1977 when mastodon remains were identified during construction of a golf course in Brentwood, TN. In 1994 subdivision construction and excavations by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology uncovered remains of two additional mastodons and an assortment of other late Pleistocene animals. The importance of the site was elevated when lithic tools were found in association with one of the mastodons, which exhibited cut marks from butchering. Over the last 14 years, reconnaissance investigations at the site have continued to produce material. This presentation will describe the current condition of the site and discuss a May 2008 visit that resulted in the identification of additional faunal remains.
Tune, Jesse W. (Texas A&M University). 2013. ONCE AGAIN, THE COATS-HINES SITE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE TEXAS A&M 2012 EXCAVATION. Previous studies have suggested that Coats-Hines was a possible pre-Clovis site where humans exploited megafauna. In 2012 the Center for the Study of the First Americans, at Texas A&M University, conducted a large-scale excavation at the Coats-Hines site to evaluate the association between lithic artifacts and extinct Pleistocene fauna. That excavation resulted in the first geoarchaeological study of the site and linked together all previous excavation areas. Preliminary results from the geoarchaeological analysis indicate a complex geologic setting with multiple sources of deposition. A series of charcoal samples were collected to further refine the radiocarbon record of the site, and human occupation was once again confirmed by the recovery of lithic artifacts. The significance of Coats-Hines was reaffirmed, not just as an archaeological site, but also as a paleontological site. A diverse faunal assemblage was recovered from the same geologic layer that contained lithic artifacts, and indicates that humans co-existed with now-extinct Pleistocene animals such as the Giant Beaver (Casteroides ohionensis), which is exceptionally rare in Tennessee.
Tuttle, Michael C. (Panamerican Maritime L.L.C.). 1999. REMOTE SENSING AND DIVER INVESTIGATION OF THE BATTLE OF JOHNSONVILLE SITE. During 1998, archaeologists with Panamerican Maritime, L.L.C. of Memphis, Tennessee conducted an intensive remote sensing investigation and diver inspection on portions of the historic Tennessee River channel in Kentucky Lake off the submerged town of Johnsonville, Tennessee. The investigation was conducted in order to locate the remnants of U.S. Naval vessels lost by the Union during a raid by the Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest on Johnsonville in 1864. Numerous magnetic anomalies and side scan sonar images were acquired and analyzed for indications of submerged cultural properties in the form of shipwrecks. Twelve sites were chosen for diving operations. Three watercraft were represented among the targets dived. The remains of each seem to represent a separate and distinct temporal period. Although there was no direct evidence of a Civil War era vessel, the three examined still have a historical interest. The collection of vessels encountered seem to represent an evolution in the construction techniques and materials that indicate the use of new and different technologies to meet the conditions, both riverine and economic, on the Tennessee River.
Tuttle, Michael C. (Panamerican Maritime, LLC). 2000. 1999 FIELD SEASON UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BATTLE OF JOHNSONVILLE SITE, KENTUCKY LAKE, TENNESSEE. During the summer of 1999 Panamerican Maritime LLC continued an intensive remote sensing and diver investigation in portions of Kentucky Lake off the now submerged town of Johnsonville, Tennessee. The investigations were conducted in order to locate the remnants of US Naval vessels lost during the raid on Johnsonville by the Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Previous investigations in 1998 indicated the presence of watercraft in the area, two of which did not date to the Civil War, while the third remained a bit of an enigma. The present investigations determined the temporal affiliation of the unidentified remains, and located four new sites and a suspected fifth site. Two of the newly discovered sites may have temporal affiliation with the Civil War Battle, while a third may be the remains of a tinclad. Further investigations during the upcoming field season should aid in determined the significance of the wrecksites.
Voigt, Eric (The Louis Berger Group, Inc.). 2004. RECENT EVIDENCE OF MISSISSIPPIAN OCCUPATIONS IN SOUTHWESTERN VIRGINIA. The Louis Berger Group, Inc., has completed archaeological data recovery excavations at two archaeological sites, Station Creek (44LE211) and Parkey No. 3 (44LE217), in Lee County, Virginia. The sites are located in the Indian Creek locality, less than 2 kilometers north of the Claiborne County line (Tennessee). The sites are located near sinkholes, features that are relatively common in the karst landscape that characterizes this portion of the Valley and Ridge province in Virginia. At the Station Creek Site, a Mississippian component was identified based on the presence of two chamber-and-shaft burials (one of which was dated to AD 1035-1245), Pisgah Plain sand-tempered pottery, shell-tempered pottery, Candy Creek limestone-tempered pottery, and a cannel coal bead. At Parkey No. 3, the Mississippian component is manifest as Pisgah Check Stamped and Plain pottery. The proximity of the two sites to the Cumberland Gap and the Tennessee River drainage appears to have facilitated interaction among local, late prehistoric groups in Virginia and regional groups involved in the Appalachian Summit Mississippian tradition. The presence of town-and-mound complexes, shaft-and-chamber burials, Mississippian pottery, and other aspects of Mississippian material culture indicates that Mississippian cultural influence in the area was significant and that it cannot be viewed as a mere cultural veneer adopted by the late prehistoric inhabitants of southwestern Virginia.
Walker, Chester P. (Archaeo-Geophysical Associates), David H. Dye (University of Memphis), and William L. Lawrence (Tennessee State Parks). 2008. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT MOUND BOTTOM (40CH8), CHEATHAM COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During November 2007 approximately 60,000 square meters were surveyed at the Mound Bottom site using a fluxgate gradiometer. Results from the magnetometer data are complex, but several patterns of anomalies are evident. We interpret these geophysical patterns as prehistoric structures, mound bases, and previous excavation units. Data is being collected in order to assess the potential of using magnetometers to survey the entire prehistoric landscape present within the Mound Bottom Archaeological Complex.
Walker, Chet (Archaeo?Geophysical Associates, LLC) and Guy Weaver (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2007. GEOPHYSICAL DELINEATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THE BOYD?COOK?HAMPTON CEMETERY (40WM338), SR?397, MACK HATCHER PARKWAY WEST, FRANKLIN, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. At the request of the Tennessee Department of Transportation, archaeologists from Weaver & Associates, LLC and Archaeo?Geophysical Associates, LLC conducted archaeological investigations at the Boyd?Cook?Hampton Cemetery (40WM338) between July 25 and August 9, 2006. The cemetery is located within the proposed alignment of a new bypass of State Route 397 (Mack Hatcher Parkway), northwest of Franklin. The investigations included an archival research, site mapping, and a geophysical survey of an area measuring 40 m by 40 m. The geophysical survey was conducted using a GSSI SIR?2000 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with a 400 MHz dipole antenna, a GeoScan Research RM15 resistivity meter with a MPX15 multiplexer, and a Bartington Grad 601?2 dual sensor fluxgate gradiometer. In addition, limited backhoe excavations and probing was conducted to ground check the geophysical data. This paper presents a review of the methods and results of the investigations, and suggests measures that could increase the affectability of geophysical surveys on cemeteries in Tennessee.
Wall, Jacob I. (East Tennessee State University). 2013. INITIAL INVESTIGATION OF CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE FROM GWINN COVE ROCK SHELTER, UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU, TENNESSEE. Although prehistoric ceramic systematics in Middle and East Tennessee have largely long been worked out, it cannot be assumed that these systems necessarily apply to adjacent regions. This is particularly true of the Upper Cumberland Plateau, a geographically and culturally unique upland region of Tennessee and southern Kentucky. This presentation presents an analysis and seriation of ceramic material from Gwinn Cove Rock Shelter (G2). Additionally, I use the material and optically stimulated luminescence dates from G2 in ongoing studies of ceramic material recovered in the nearby Pogue Creek State Natural Area.
Walling, Richard and Carl Kuttruff (Alexander Archaeological Consultants). 2002. EXCAVATIONS AT 40LD52, AN EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN HAMLET IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY, LOUDON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Portions of an Early Mississippian hamlet were excavated. Previous occupation of the site was minimal, and once abandoned after a short occupation, appears to have never been reoccupied. Two discrete house structures were defined. A circular granary was associated with one structure along with eight pit features of varying types, and eleven similar features were associated with the second, providing the physical makeup of two household clusters. The materials and information recovered allows for a determination of the artifact assemblages perhaps associated with two individual households, and excellent faunal preservation and recovery of botanical remains provide information on family level subsistence.
Wampler, Marc E. (TRC, Inc.). 2007. DATA RECOVERY AT 40CH195: A COMPLEX OF TERMINAL ARCHAIC FIRE-CRACKED-ROCK PIT FEATURES. In the spring of 2006, the Nashville office of TRC Inc. conducted data recovery excavations at site 40CH195, along the Cumberland River in middle Tennessee. The work identified twenty-nine fire-cracked rock pit features and one refuse pit. Fifteen radiocarbon assays obtained from charred material from thirteen of the features range from 2820 to 3820 years before present. Only three Late Archaic projectiles and very low amounts of lithic debitage and tools were recovered during the investigations. Analysis of feature morphology, contents, and orientation indicates that stone heating for cooking and processing plants and animals and/or indirect heating purposes was the sole activity at the site. Analysis of over seven hundred chenopodium seeds recovered from the refuse pit may provide early evidence for domestication of this plant in Tennessee.
Wampler, Marc, Ray Ezell, Larry McKee, and David Leigh (TRC Garrow Associates, Inc.). 2002. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE STARDUST SITES (40CY63, 40CY64, AND40CY65), ARCHAIC AND WOODLAND OCCUPATIONS ALONG THE UPPER CUMBERLAND RIVER, CLAY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. This paper details the results of limited archaeological and geomorphological investigations conducted at three prehistoric sites (40Cy63, 40Cy64, and 40Cy65) located along the Upper Cumberland River in the northeastern portion of the Eastern Highland Rim in Clay County, Tennessee. Analysis of archaeological data obtained during the study provides information regarding Archaic and Woodland adaptations including technological, chronological, and resource exploitation concerns in a region that has previously received little archaeological attention. Geomorphological analysis provides clues to site formation processes and the presence of buried archaeological materials.
Wampler, Marc, Larry McKee, and Ted Karpynec (TRC). 2003. THE CARNTON KITCHEN WING: INVESTIGATING ITS PRESENT AND PAST IN THE PLANTATION SOUTH. In the spring of 2002 TRC Nashville undertook investigations of the kitchen wing foundation at the Carnton Plantation mansion, near Franklin, Tennessee. The work, conducted for the small museum at the site, focused on the layout, construction history, and use of the wing. This paper will present the project findings as well as consider the general assumptions, romantic notions, and current scholarship on the role of kitchens within the architectural and social settings of antebellum plantatoins. In combination with still standing mansion/service wing complexes in the area, the Carnton findings provide insights on how mansion residents combined yet separated their private domestic space and the workspaces and enslaved workers supporting their gracious lifestyles.
Wampler, Marc E. (AMEC), Rick McWhite (Arnold AFB), Heidi Mowery (Arnold AFB), and Shawn Chapman (ATA). 2011. ARCHAEOLOGICAL, ARCHIVAL, AND GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT ARNOLD AIR FORCE BASE, COFFEE AND FRANKLIN COUNTIES, TENNESSEE. Over the past three years, AMEC Earth & Environmental conducted four cultural resource investigations at Arnold Air Force Base, located in south-central Tennessee. AMEC conducted archaeological surveys in 2008-09 of the 16,825 acres on base that previously had not been surveyed. AMEC then completed archaeological test excavations at four prehistoric sites, archival research for the former World War II African-American barracks locale (Camp Forrest), and geophysical investigations at the Huffar Cemetery in 2010. We will summarize these investigations and related research implications in this presentation.
Weaver, Guy (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1994. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN WEST AND MIDDLE TENNESSEE: BRILEY PARKWAY, PAUL BARRETT PARKWAY, AND AUTOZONE CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS PROJECTS. Recent investigations in Tennessee are reviewed. These include a reconnaisance survey along portions of hte proposed Briley Parkway (SR-155) from Brick Church Pike to Edmondson Pike, in Nashville, during which seven prehistoric and historical sites were recorded. A reconnaissance survey and phase II testing was also conducted on three Woodland period sites located along the proposed Paul Barrett Parkway (SR 385) in Shelby County. Special attention is given to recent archaeological monitoring and data recovery of an early twentieth century cistern and two mid- to late-nineteenth century wells at the site of the Autozone Corporate Headquarters in downtown Memphis.
Weaver, Guy (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1996. CURRENT RESEARCH IN MEMPHIS. This paper presents the results of three archaeological projects conducted in Memphis during 1994, including: (1) final analysis of two nineteenth-century wells at the AutoZone Corporate Headquarters site; (2) a cultural resources assessment and preservation plan of the Memphis Cobblestone Landing; and (3) on-going investigations at the site of the Memphis & Ohio/Louisville & Nashville railroad depots. urrent efforts in the preparation of a Preservation Plan for the City of Memphis are also discussed.
Weaver, Guy (Brockington and Associates, Inc.). 1997. CURRENT RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE. This paper reviews projects in Tennessee undertaken by the staff of Brockington and Associates' Memphis office during 1996. These include an archaeological assessment at the Burkle House in Memphis. Built in the 1840s, the Burkle House is believed to have been a station on the Underground Railroad, and is presently being restored as a house museum. In association with the University of Memphis, excavations of a cistern were conducted at the proposed site of the MATA North End Terminal. The cistern is believed to have been associated with the Memphis & Ohio Railroad. Results of archival research of the proposed site of the First Place Parking Garage in downtown Memphis are also reviewed, as is continuing work at the Memphis Cobblestone Landing. The up-coming survey of the Holston Army Ammunition Plant near Kingsport in also mentioned.
Weaver, Guy (Brockington and Associates, Inc.). 1998. CURRENT RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE. This paper reviews projects in Tennessee undertaken by the staff of Brockington and Associates' Memphis office during 1997. These projects include a survey of prehistoric and historic resources at the Holston Army Ammunition Plant near Kingsport, and archaeological assessment of historic period occupations at the proposed Gibson Guitar Manufacturing Facility and Visitor's Center near Beale Street in Memphis. Other projects include a Phase I survey of portions of the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Gibson County, and the delineation and documentation of the small Massey-Robins cemetery in Shelby County.
Weaver, Guy (Weaver and Associates). 1999. CURRENT RESEARCH IN TENNESSEE. This paper reviews projects in Tennessee undertaken by Weaver and Associates during 1998, including testing and data recovery at the Hilderbrand House, a nineteenth century plantation complex in Memphis. Other projects include a Phase I survey of a portion of Martin Luther King-Riverside Park in Memphis; and advanced planning survey of a number of bridge locations in Middle and East Tennessee, and salvage excavations of an abandoned cemetery at the Federal Express hub near the Memphis International Airport.
Weaver, Guy (Weaver and Associates, Inc.). 2000. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN TENNESSEE. This paper reviews projects in Tennessee undertaken by Weaver and Associates during 1999. Projects include work at the Hilderbrand House (40SY615), an early nineteenth century plantation complex in Memphis. Site survey along the proposed SR-385 corridor in Shelby and Fayette counties is discussed, as is Phase II testing results at the Lucky 7 site (40FY436), a large Woodland Period occupation located near Collierville.
Weaver, Guy (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2001. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN TENNESSEE. This presentation reviews projects in Tennessee undertaken by Weaver & Associates during the year 2000, including testing at the Memphis Cobblestone Landing, salvage investigations at the North Hall Auditorium in Memphis, and highway projects in Lewis County.
Weaver, Guy G. (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2004. THE BLUFF CREEK PHASE COMPONENT AT THE SWAN CREEK SITE (40LS20), LEWIS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the summer of 2000, extensive archaeological data recovery was conducted at the Swan Creek Site, a large multi component site impacted by the expansion of State Route 99. The site is located in the western Highland Rim on a tributary of the lower Duck River. Analysis of the feature distributions indicate structural remains and activity areas associated with the Wheeler horizon Bluff Creek Phase, dated ca. 900 BC. This paper describes the material culture and site structure of this component, and places it within an inter regional context.
Weaver, Guy G. (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2005. WAYNE FURNACE: IRON AGE ARCHAEOLOGY IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. During the summer of 2004, Weaver & Associates, LLC conducted extensive archaeological data recovery excavations at the Wayne Furnace site (40WY62). The investigations were conducted for the Tennessee Department of Transportation in conjunction with proposed improvements along State Route 15 (US Highway 64) in Wayne County, Tennessee. Archival research suggests that there were at least four major building episodes at the site, beginning in the 1830s and ending in the 1880s. First operated as an iron plantation with enslaved labor, the works were acquired and refitted by an Ohio firm after the Civil War. Archaeological investigations at 40WY62 uncovered the partial remains of a limestone furnace stack and hearth associated with Rogal Ferguson's original Mt. Jasper Furnace, in use between ca. 1836 1846. In addition, a larger brick foundation and hearth, believed to be Gaylord & Company's Wayne Furnace stack (ca. 1865 1886), were unearthed. The excavations also revealed a series of complex stratified deposits comprising the casting yards, as well as stone foundations and other features of the charging deck, situated on a bluff overlooking the stacks and casting yards. Investigations in the area surrounding the furnaces identified auxiliary structures, work areas, and iron ore mines. This paper briefly examines the environmental, technological, and social contexts of the site, and presents a review of the fieldwork and preliminary conclusions.
Weaver, Guy (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2012. THE CALLENDER COURT SITE (40SU251): A TERMINAL LATE WOODLAND/EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN OCCUPATION IN THE MIDDLE CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY. In the spring of 2011, Weaver & Associates, LLC conducted archaeological excavations at the Callender Court site in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Fieldwork included systematic mechanical removal of the plow zone and feature delineation, excavation, and recording within an area measuring approximately 5,500 m² (1.4 ac). The major occupation at the site occurred during the Terminal Late Woodland/Emergent Mississippian period, which is characterized by small triangular arrow points and limestone tempered cordmarked pottery. Red filming is common on pottery from the site. Three AMS dates obtained from feature contexts date this component between A.D. 980 and 1040 (cal. 1 Sigma). This paper examines the Callender Court site settlement and artifact assemblages and compares these data to other contemporary assemblages in the Midsouth and Midwest.
Weaver, Guy; Brian Collins, T. Clay Schultz, and Chet Walker (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2001. DATA RECOVERY AT SITES 40LS20 AND 40LS22, STATE ROUTE 99, LEWIS COUNTY, PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data recovery was conducted for the TDOT at the Hughes (40Ls20) and Johnston I (40Ls22) sites located along Swan Creek, a tributary of the Central Duck River in the western Highland Rim. A large intact midden and 106 prehistoric features were defined, excavated, and recorded at site 40Ls20. Seventeen prehistoric features were recorded at 40Ls22. Preliminary analysis suggests components dating from the Paleoindian through Middle Woodland periods, with major occupations during the Terminal Archaic and the Middle to Late Gulf Formational periods.
Weaver, Guy, Anna Inman, and Warren Oster (Weaver & Associates, LLC), and Jason D. Windingstad (Archaeological Research Laboratory, UT-K). 2008. PRELIMINARY REPORT OF TESTING AT THREE PREHISTORIC SITES (40PY288, 40PY289, AND 40PY290), STATE ROUTE 13 BRIDGE OVER THE BUFFALO RIVER, PERRY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. From October 1 to November 20, 2007, Weaver & Associates, LLC, LLC, conducted Phase II archaeological investigations at three prehistoric sites located on the Buffalo River in Perry County, Tennessee. Investigations were conducted for the Tennessee Department of Transportation in conjunction with the proposed widening of the Flatwoods Bridge on State Route 13. At the Elvis Riley Site, 40PY288, middens and features associated with a small settlement dating to the Middle and Late Woodland and Mississippian periods were defined, as well as a deeply buried Early Archaic period Kirk component. The Skelton Site, 40PY289, is a large Terminal Archaic/Early Woodland period occupation, although subsurface features and artifacts indicating Late Woodland and Mississippian period components were found as well. The Thomason site, 40PY290, is associated primarily with a late Middle Archaic period Benton occupation, but also has components dating from the Terminal Archaic, Late Woodland and Mississippian periods. This paper examines the environmental and cultural contexts of the Buffalo River sites and the preliminary results of the field investigations and on-going laboratory analysis.
Weaver, Guy, Carl L. Kuttruff, Mike Vanderboegh and Warren Oster (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2010. FINDING FORT PICKERING: CIVIL WAR ARCHAEOLOGY ON THE SOUTH BLUFF IN MEMPHIS. During the winter of 2007 and the summer of 2009, Weaver & Associates conducted Phase I and II survey and testing at site 40SY709 for the TDOT in conjunction with proposed improvements of the I-55 interchange at E.H. Crump Boulevard and South Riverside Drive, Memphis. Located at the southern end of the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, this historically significant area is the location of a prehistoric mound group (40SY5) at Chickasaw Heritage Park, as well as being the presumed setting of the French Fort Assumption (1739-1740) and the early American period Fort Pickering (1798-1814). During the Civil War, Fort Pickering was reestablished and expanded by Federal troops after the naval Battle of Memphis is 1862. Using archival resources, cartographic records and archaeological excavations, a section of the Civil War period fortifications was identified, uncovered and documented, along with evidence from the late prehistoric period. This paper summarizes the results of the investigations and outlines future research potential for the site.
Weaver, Guy (Weaver and Associates, LLC), Anna Lunn (Weaver and Associates, LLC), and Jeremy Blazier (Weaver and Associates, LLC). 2011. PRELIMINARY REPORT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RECOVERY AT THE FLATWOODS BRIDGE OVER THE BUFFALO RIVER, PERRY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In the fall of 2010, Weaver & Associates conducted archaeological data recovery for TDOT at three prehistoric sites (40PY288, 40PY289 and 40PY290) located on the Buffalo River in Perry County, Tennessee. This report provides a brief summary of the excavations and on-going analysis.
Weaver, Guy, Anna Lunn, and Jeremy Blazier (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2012. REFINING CULTURAL CHRONOLOGIES ON THE BUFFALO RIVER: THE SR13 PROJECT IN PERRY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. This paper presents a review of archaeological data recovery conducted at three sites on the Buffalo River in Perry County, Tennessee. The investigations were conducted for the Tennessee Department of Transportation in conjunction with the proposed widening of the Flatwoods Bridge on State Route 13. Stratified cultural deposits and features dating from the Paleoindian through the Mississippian periods are examined in light of a series of new AMS dates.
Weaver, Guy G. and Charles H. McNutt, Jr. (Garrow & Associates, Inc.). 1995. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. During 1994, Garrow & Associates, Inc., conducted a number of projects in Shelby County. These include survey, testing, and data recovery of sites along the proposed SR-385 Paul Barrett Parkway. Excavations at the Tchula period Fulmer Site (40Sy527) are of particular interest. Phase II testing and preservation planning at the Beale Street Landing Site (40Sy352) located on the historic Memphis cobblestone riverfront, are also discussed.
Weaver, Guy G. and Warren Oster (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2002. RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT THE MEMPHIS COBBLESTONE LANDING. In 2001, Weaver & Associates conducted extended Phase II testing at the Memphis Wharf, commonly known as the Cobblestone Landing. Excavations focused on antebellum deposits present in the northern portion of the landing which predate the construction of the stone pavement. This paper examines the depositional history of the area, feature contexts, and the material record.
Weaver, Guy G. and Bryan A. Stetzer (Weaver & Associates, LLC). 2002. ARCHAIC AND MIDDLE GULF FORMATIONAL COMPONENTS ON SWAN CREEK, LEWIS COUNTY, TENNESSEE. This paper presents the results of data recovery at the Hughes site (40LS20) and the Johnston I site (40LS22), located along Swan Creek, a tributary of the Duck River, in the western Highland Rim. Components dating from the Paleoindian through the Middle Woodland periods were identified, with major occupations dated to the Benton, Terminal Archaic and the Middle Gulf Formational periods. The material assemblages and feature distributions are discussed, as well as the results of the radiocarbon assays.
Weaver, Louella (Chucalissa Museum). 2001. REVITALIZATION PROGRAM AT CHUCALISSA MUSEUM. After years of neglect and declining attendance, Chucalissa Museum is poised for revitalization. We have begun a major fundraising initiative to improve the facility and exhibits. We are now developing programs aimed a university students and schoolchildren, especially Native American children. With a new Interim Director and a permanent Director to be chosen soon, the museum in on its way to new life.
Welch, LinnAnn (Radnor Lake State Natural Area). 2003. NATIVE PLANT LANDSCAPING FOR MANAGEMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of replacing archaeological sites dominated by fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with native herbs and grasses. Thirty-two 0.04 ha plots were established in an old field near Mound Bottom in the Harpeth River Valley, Cheatham County, Tennessee. The field was disked in the autumn of 1999, and the plots were sown with varying numbers of native wildflowers and grasses in late winter 2000. Coverage, density, height and reproduction of plants that were sown and those not sown (volunteers) were recorded in the autumns of 2000 and 2001. Data was also collected in summer 2002. Higher production and reproduction and lower amounts of volunteers were predicted in plots sown with greater numbers of native species than those with lesser numbers. Of the ten species sown; five became well established, three were moderately established, and two never established. In most cases, less volunteer species were present in the second year of the study than the first year. Native plant coverage enhanced cultural history interpretation as well as providing protection for the sites in question.
Wells, Edward (TVA, Cultural Resources), Sarah C. Sherwood, Nicholas P. Herrmann, and Kandace D. Hollenbach (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2007. TEMPORAL AND FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SOAPSTONE VESSEL USE FROM THE TOWNSEND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT, EASTERN TENNESSEE. The Apple Barn site (40BT90), excavated during the Townsend Archaeological Project, produced a large assemblage of soapstone artifacts – mostly vessel fragments. This provided an opportunity to address two important issues concerning soapstone use in the Southern Blue Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, namely when soapstone vessels were used and for what purpose. We present a description of the assemblage, AMS dates from vessel soot, residue analysis (pollen, starch, and phytoliths) of vessel interiors, and preliminary macrobotanical results from associated features. The results indicate that vessels were used to process a wide variety of plant remains, including cultigens, during the Early Woodland period.
Weinand, Daniel C. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2006. THE RADIOCARBON DATING LABORATORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE CENTER FOR ARCHAEOMETRY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY. The radiocarbon laboratory of the University of Tennessee Center for Archaeometry and Geochronology (UTCAG) was established in cooperation with the Illinois State Geological Survey. The laboratory utilizes the Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) method for conventional Carbon 14 analysis and is equipped with a benzene synthesis system, a Packard 2200CA low-level scintillation counter, and a Quantulus 1220 ultra low-level scintillation counter. The LSC method allows dating of samples ranging from 150 to 50,000 years old. We have produced accurate dates from dendrochronologically dated wood as well as archaeological charcoal samples from Townsend, Tennessee; however, the laboratory is capable of dating a variety of samples, including charcoal, wood, bone, paleosol, coral, and shell.
Welch, Paul (Queens College, New York). 2001. ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGY AT SHILOH INDIAN MOUNDS. The Shiloh Indian Mounds site, which lies inside the Civil War battlefield at Shiloh, has been known to archaeologists for over 130 years, but not much has been known about the site. The first reported archaeological work at the site occurred in 1899, and one of the early, large-scale Relief archaeology projects was carried out at Shiloh in 1933-4. Due to the absence of a report, information gained from the 1933-4 project was lost to the profession, so the site has rarely been mentioned in the archaeological literature. Analysis of the old excavations, and additional fieldwork in 1998 and 1999, reveals the AD 1050-1300 date of the site and its placement in the regional political geography.
Welch, Paul D. (Southern Illinois University). 2004. SWALLOW BLUFF ISLAND MOUNDS IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER, HARDIN COUNTY. Swallow Bluff Island in the Tennessee River in the western part of the state has on it a Mississippian site with two mounds. For at least the last decade, the larger of these mounds has been eroding into the river. An illegal and abortive attempt to develop the shoreline in the late 1990s increased the rate of erosion, and now only a small fraction of the mound remains. Shortly after the flood of May 2003, cleaning of the mound's profile revealed the stratigraphy of this about-to-disappear monument. Much about the site remains unknown, including its prospect for preservation.
Willard, Michelle, Jodi Johnson, and Merrill Dicks (DuVall & Associates, Inc.). 2005. ANOTHER COX MOUND GORGET FROM CASTALIAN SPRINGS (40SU14), SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Monitoring of the excavation of a sewer line trench at the Castalian Springs site in Sumner County, Tennessee resulted in the discovery of both intact and disturbed Mississippian period deposits within the State Route 25 right-of-way. Intact remains defined within the one meter wide by 450 meter long trench included portions of wall trench structures, lines of postholes, pit-like features, and midden deposits that contained animal bone, shell-tempered ceramics, lithic artifacts, and abundant charcoal. Also recovered was a Cox Mound Style gorget fragment manufactured on green slate. Although this artifact was recovered from disturbed contexts, it represents one of about seven Cox Mound Style gorgets that have been recovered from Castalian Springs. The potential significance of this find is discussed in site specific and regional contexts.
Wilson, Rebecca J., Lee Meadows Jantz, M. Kate Spradley, Donna McCarthy, and Richard L. Jantz (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). 2004. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS FROM PROVIDENCE MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE (40SY619). This presentation will discuss the analysis of the human skeletal remains from the Providence Missionary Baptist Church cemetery, a historic Black church in Memphis, Tennessee. Reconstruction of age, sex, and ancestry allows us to examine the population demography of the cemetery. Metric analysis of the crania and postcrania provides the opportunity to compare this population to others of the same period. Skeletal and dental pathology provide information on the overall health of these individuals and can allow insight into the life history of this historic community.
Windham, R. Jeannine and Judith Wettstaed (New South Associates, Inc.). 2010. SECULAR AND SACRED: ZOOARCHAEOLOGY AT THE SPIRIT HILL SITE (1JA642). The Spirit Hill site (1Ja642) on the Tennessee River of north Alabama revealed complex patterns of animal use including subsistence, tool and craft production, and canine burials. This study is twofold and provides an overview of the secular and sacred use of animals during the Middle to Late Woodland and Mississippian periods at the site. First, an optimal foraging framework is used to examine changes in prey selection over time. Second, we discuss animal remains in ritual contexts. This data is compared with other regional sites, and shows that Spirit Hill offers unique insights into the subsistence and social spheres of the late prehistoric timeframe.
Woodring, Kim and Jay D. Franklin (East Tennessee State University). 2010. PREHISTORIC CERAMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE TILTHAMMER SHOALS SITE, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE. The Tilthammer Shoals site lies on the Long Island of the Holston River in Kingsport, Tennessee. Fluctuations in stream level and periodic flooding are eroding the site. In consultation with the Eastern Band of the Cherokee, we conducted surface collections of the shoreline portion of the site for three months. We collected more than 1000 prehistoric pottery fragments. Recovered sherds appear to date from the Middle Woodland through the Mississippian periods. Little is known about the Woodland to Mississippian transition in upper East Tennessee. Further, types typical of both the East Tennessee Valley and western North Carolina are represented. We present our seriation and report on a luminescence date from the site.
Worne, Heather (University of Kentucky, Lexington). 2012. PATTERNS OF VIOLENCE AND WARFARE IN THE LATE PREHISTORIC MIDDLE CUMBERLAND REGION OF TENNESSEE. This paper examines the bioarchaeological and archaeological evidence for warfare in Mississippian communities from the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of Tennessee. Few studies thus far have focused primarily on warfare in the MCR, however, the presence of fortifications, pictographic representations of warfare, and osteological evidence of trophy taking suggest that intergroup warfare was present in the region. Warfare-related trauma from thirteen Mississippian MCR sites is compared to multiple geophysical variables, including waterway size, measures of terrain, soil productivity, and site visibility. The results suggest that a relationship exists between decisions communities made concerning site placemen t and intergroup conflict.
Yerka, Stephen J. (Archaeological Research Laboratory, UT-K), Nicholas P. Herrmann (Mississippi State University), and Michael G. Angst (Archaeological Research Laboratory, UT-K). 2009. RESULTS FROM GEOMAGNETIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AT UTK'S EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL FARM. A geomagnetic survey of 150,000 m2 on the second and third terraces along an inside bend of the Tennessee River was conducted to determine the extent and nature of archaeological deposits at Cherokee Farm (40KN45), Knoxville, Tennessee. The project area was then tested by mechanically stripping the plow-zone over a sample of the site. Results included the discovery of discrete, large Archaic pits, substantial Woodland deposits, Mississippian house structures, a large ring-shaped midden filled feature, historic cellars and cisterns, the base of an historic silo, and other archaeological features. The results of the survey indicate a high potential for understanding prehistoric settlement and organization in east Tennessee through future research at this site.
Yerka, Stephen J., Gerald F. Schroedl, Palmyra Moore, Sarah C. Sherwood, Nicholas P. Herrmann (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Ward Weems (Tennessee State Parks). 2007. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF GEOPHYSICAL DATA COLLECTED AT A MIDDLE WOODLAND HILLTOP ENCLOSURE, OLD STONE FORT STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK, MANCHESTER, TENNESSEE. Since August of 2006, a program of large-scale near-surface geophysical survey has been underway at Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park. Geophysical anomalies in test areas within the main enclosure area of 40CF1 have been tentatively identified as buried archaeological remains. Several technologies have been applied in creating an accurate geographical database for the park that includes the geophysical survey, prominent park features, small-scale topographic data and three-dimensional models of the site. This survey, in conjunction with small scale archaeological testing and geoarchaeological analysis, will provide data that can be compared to other Middle Woodland enclosures throughout the Eastern Woodlands, and contribute to the interpretation of one of the premiere ceremonial sites in Tennessee.
Avery, Paul G. and Chad Caswell (MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Inc.). 2010. INITIAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT FORT HIGLEY, KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE. Immediately following the 1863 Siege of Knoxville, Captain Orlando Poe of the Union Army of the Ohio designed a series of small earthen forts intended to guard the southern approaches to the city. One of these, Fort Higley, was located on a narrow ridge just west of the Maryville Road. Today, Fort Higley is one of only three Civil War fortifications that have survived. MACTEC archaeologists conducted initial investigations at the fort in 2009, marking the first professional archaeological work conducted at the site. The poster presented provides an overview of this project, which included detailed mapping and limited metal detection.
Brown, Andrew and Tanya M. Peres (Middle Tennessee State University). 2012. AN EXPLORATION OF TURTLE SHELL RATTLE USE IN THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD. Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina) remains are frequently recovered from archaeological sites across the Southeastern United States. Typically they are counted as food refuse; however, ethnographic and taphonomic data suggest box turtles may have functioned as rattles. Rattles were made using modern box turtle shells, and examined for manufacturing marks, use-wear, and breakage patterns. The information gained from the experimental studies was compared to archaeological turtle remains from two Mississippian Period sites. We determined that box turtle remains cannot always be classified as food refuse. Instead taphonomic history and contextual associations must be taken into account in functional interpretations.
Davis, Christopher Brady (Middle Tennessee State University). 2010. CONSISTENCY OF BENTON MORTUARY PATTERNS: A COMPARISON OF TWO SITES IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. According to Peacock (1988), major aspects of the Benton mortuary complex include cremations, fully-flexed interments and the inclusion of Benton points or cache blades. This poster compares and contrasts these aspects, density and provenience of Benton points and "cache" blades, and material used in their manufacture to estimate the consistency between the Ryan and Ensworth sites in Middle Tennessee.
Dorsey, Lydia L. (University of Tennessee - Knoxville). 2011. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON VARIATIONS IN BONE PRESERVATION AND SOIL pH AT THE BIRDWELL AND NEAS SITES. Sites 40GN228 and 40GN229 are located on the Nolichucky River on modern day agricultural land in Greene County, Tennessee. During the 2009 phase III excavation, the Birdwell site (40GN228) produced a variety of animal bone ranging in preservation from excellent to extremely poor. Located directly across the river, concurrent excavations at the Neas site (40GN229) yielded only a small amount of poorly preserved faunal material. Where bone is concerned, one of the most important chemical factors of soils is the degree of acidity, which is indicative of calcium levels. If calcium is lacking in the soil’s chemical composition, it is less likely that bone will be preserved within the matrix. The ability to measure this key element through soil sampling and chemical analyses offers both predictive and explanatory measures in site formation processes. The goal of this research is to not only clarify the behavioral patterns at the Birdwell and Neas sites, but to also identify a more general pattern of bone preservation as it relates to soil chemistry.
Everett, Kellum K. (Middle Tennessee State University). 2013. WEANING AND AGRICULTURE AT GORDONTOWN: A LIKELY CAUSE FOR SUBADULT MALNUTRITION. According to mortuary analysis, fetuses, infants, and young children of the Mississippian period village of Gordontown may have suffered a higher mortality rate than other contemporaneous villages. It is my belief that malnutrition may have been a contributing factor. In order to better understand the role nutrition plays in bone health, I analyzed the remains of 36 subadults recovered Gordontown, looking for evidence of nutritional deficiencies. My research found evidence of probable anemia and scurvy, sometimes existing co-morbidly. In bone, these nutritional deficiencies are characterized by porosity and hypertrophy. Here, I discuss the differences in anemic and scorbutic lesions as well as the mechanisms behind them. I also discuss the prevalence of these lesions among the Gordontown subadults and how weaning and a limited, maize-heavy diet may have led to them.
Gasperini, Nicole (Illinois State University). 2012. AUDITORY EXOSTOSES IN EAST TENNESSEE: CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS IN CITICO AND LEDFORD ISLAND. Auditory exostoses are pathological overgrowths of bone in the external auditory meatus. The primary clinical etiology of auditory exostoses is frequent exposure to cold water. This presentation will discuss the prevalence of auditory exostoses in the Late Prehistoric (AD 1300-1600) skeletal samples from sites of Ledford Island and Citico located in the upper Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee. The sites are located on river banks but in different reservoir areas of East Tennessee. Severity, sex and regional differences are observed. Cultural behaviors retrieved from ethnohistoric data which might account for the prevalence are discussed.
Guidry, Hannah and Andrew Mickelson (University of Memphis). 2013. MISSISSIPPIAN WALL TRENCH STRUCTURE REMAINS AT THE AMES MOUND SITE (40FY7), FAYETTE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Ames is a small mound and town complex located near the headwaters of the north fork of the Wolf River in Fayette County, Tennessee. Recent investigations combining geophysical survey and targeted excavation in an off-mound area uncovered the remains of wall trench structures. Excavations indicate that anomalies in the magnetometry data are structures adhering to a planned layout enclosed within a palisade. Radiocarbon dates for one structure and segment of palisade place that village occupation at Ames ca. AD 1290. The dated structure overlies at least two earlier structures at this location. Wall trench feature relationships demonstrate differing structure orientation over time, and potential expansion of the more recent structure. Trenches, post mold diameters, and the presence of daub provide insight into construction methods utilized during this period at the Ames site.
Goldhamer, Tiffany (University of West Florida). 2012. THE SUBMERGED HISTORY OF KENTUCKY LAKE. The Tennessee River Valley has a long and storied history but by the 1930’s the region was poverty stricken and its nutrients depleted. The federal government created the Tennessee Valley Authority to renew the region. The TVA constructed several dams along the Tennessee River. While this occurred, archaeologists surveyed the land noting sites they deemed significant. This survey is sadly lacking by today’s standards as little to no historic sites were noted. This project utilized the remote sensing technology of sides scan sonar and magnetometer equipment to survey portions of Kentucky Lake in an effort to locate assess and identify submerged historic resources. The results include the foundations of historic structures and the potential for more discoveries.
Howell, Amy (Middle Tennessee State University). 2011. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS OF ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND FOOD PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AT THE FEWKES SITE (40WM1), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The Fewkes site is a Mississippian complex of five mounds dating to A. D. 1050-1250. Faunal remains from the site have been examined for evidence of a variety of food processing techniques; here the focus is on spiral fractures that indicate bone marrow extraction and cut marks that indicate butchery. The possibility of pot polish, bone grease rendering, and digestion of bone is also addressed. Bone marrow extraction is interpreted as a standard part of processing animals for food, instead of the traditional interpretation of this practice as evidence of nutritional stress. Large mammals and large avians are analyzed for cut marks that show evidence of skinning, disarticulation, or defleshing. The frequency and location of faunal elements that show evidence of marrow extraction or cut marks is analyzed to estimate patterns of butchery and transportation. Data is gathered by reanalyzing previously identified as well as unidentified faunal remains from the Fewkes site, and photographing cut marks for study.
Keasler, Joseph L . (Middle Tennessee State University). 2012. WHAT LIES BENEATH: PRELIMINARY ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A MIDDLE TENNESSEE CAVE. In a small grove of trees, less than fifty yards from a busy highway, is a shallow sinkhole with a very interesting past. The sinkhole is the midpoint entrance to a small cave. The history of the cave ranges from a hiding place for livestock during the Civil War, a speakeasy during the 20’s, and a restaurant/dance hall in the late 30’s. These may have been the only stories that would ever be told about this cave until 2004, when the local Sheriff’s Department received a call concerning human remains inside the cave. It was determined that the remains were those of Native Americans based on skeletal traits and dentition. This poster chronicles the initial survey of the cave and what was found.
Kretzer, Austin, Lee Wolfe, Skylar Gleaves (Middle Tennessee State University), and Tom Des Jean (National Parks Service). 2012. A SUMMARY OF RECENT HISTORIC AND PREHISTORIC FINDINGS THROUGHOUT THE BIG SOUTH FORK NRRA CLIFFLINE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROJECT 2011. Recent surveys were conducted in the 2011 summer season documenting new historic and prehistoric sites at Big South Fork NRRA by the Cliffline Archaeological Survey Project, made up of Middle Tennessee State University interns. This led to an additional 47 historic and prehistoric sites being documented throughout the summer season, within a large mileage of previously unsurveyed clifflines. Historic moonshine sites of the Big South Fork area as well as prehistoric cliffline sites demonstrating unique rock formations previously undocumented in the area will be discussed.
Kroulek, Orion S. (Fort Campbell Cultural Resources Office). 2013. FORT CAMPBELL CULTURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. The Fort Campbell Cultural Resources Office (FTC-CRO) has initiated several exciting changes and additions to the program during 2012. This poster presentation is designed to highlight a few of these new facets, emphasizing in-house National Register of Historic Places Phase II evaluations, the relocation and inventory of historic cemeteries, and public outreach events designed to make the history and prehistory of Fort Campbell accessible and relevant.
Law, Zada and Bethany G. Hall (Middle Tennessee State University). 2013. GCI: GEOSPATIAL CEMETERY INVESTIGATION. In the early twentieth century, African American families living in a rural community outside Murfreesboro jointly purchased two acres of land with karst topography for the purpose of burying their dead. The cemetery - known as “Evergreen Graveyard” – now lies within a commercial district of Murfreesboro and is still used by the African American community. However, only half of the graveyard’s lawn has grave markers. This poster details how systematic probing, GPS mapping, aerial imagery, georectified historic maps, LiDAR data, and community memory were used along with historical research to identify and document the extent of burial activity in the graveyard. The analysis suggests that the current visual boundaries of the graveyard do not encompass the extent of burial activity and that the graveyard may have been encroached upon by adjacent development. The poster also illustrates how archaeological, geospatial, and historical data can be combined to contribute to community history and understanding.
Parrish, Ryan M. (University of Memphis). 2011. NON-DESTRUCTIVE PROVENANCE ANALYSIS OF A MISSISSIPPIAN SWORD FRAGMENT FROM THE LINK FARM SITE. Reflectance spectroscopy potentially provides a fast, non-destructive, and accurate technique to source chert artifacts back to their geologic place of origin and subsequent prehistoric procurement location. The current study utilizes Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy to build a chert spectral database of Dover and Fort Payne chert in order to: (1) test the techniques ability to differentiate the two visually similar material types; and (2) determine the geologic source of a Mississippian “sword” fragment recovered during excavations at the Link Farm site (40HS6). Though the scope of the pilot study is limited, results highlight the fast, non-destructive, accurate capabilities of reflectance spectroscopy and the limitations of visual chert identification.
Peres, Tanya M. (Middle Tennessee State University), Dave Baluha (Brockington & Associates), Aaron Deter-Wolf (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), Joey Keasler (Middle Tennessee State University), Niki Mills, Inna Moore (Brockington & Associates), and Ryan Robinson. CROSSING BOUNDARIES ALONG THE CUMBERLAND. The MTSU Middle Cumberland Archaeology Project (MCAP) investigated a multi-component shell-bearing site occupied between 7000 BC and AD 1400, along a terrace of the Cumberland River west of Nashville in May and June, 2012. The primary goals of the project were to: (1) determine site boundaries, depth, and nature of deposits; (2) locate the edge of the shell deposits; and (3) train MTSU students in field survey and excavation techniques. We met these goals through the use of deep testing with bucket augers, GPR, and excavation units; and collaborations between academics, state and federal archaeologists, and CRM firms.
Rigney, Phyllis S. (Brockington and Associates, Inc.). 2011. THE FUNCTION OF FLAKE TOOLS FROM THE TOWNSEND PROJECT (SITES 40BT89, 40BT90, 40BT91, 40BT94), BLOUNT COUNTY, TENNESSEE. The purpose of this study was to examine flake tools from Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian, and Cherokee components at the Townsend project (sites 40BT89, 40BT90, 40BT91, and 40BT94) in Blount County, Tennessee and to determine the function(s) of these flake tools and whether these tools were used expediently. Also, any changes that may have occurred through time in the function of these tools were assessed, as well as how these changes might apply to surrounding archaeological sites. A stepwise microwear examination was conducted, which included three levels of analysis: macroscopic examination, stereoscopic examination, and incident light examination. All 1,723 flake tools were examined macroscopically, 883 flake tools were examined stereoscopically, and only 82 flake tools were examined using the incident light microscopic examination. It was found that the flake tools from the Townsend project can be divided into two different modes of flake tools, selected tools and shaped tools.
Ryder, Amber (Middle Tennessee State University). 2012. LINKING LINEAR ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA TO CULTURAL PRESSURES IN LATE MISSISSIPPIAN POPULATIONS. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is a defect in tooth enamel which results from malnutrition or illness during the development of deciduous and permanent teeth. Tooth development takes place in utero and during childhood, and therefore the presence of LEH is an indicator of maternal or childhood ill health or deprivation. In addition, because teeth grow at a regular pace, the position of the defect on the tooth can tell the age at which the illness or malnutrition occurred, and the duration of the stress. This research examines the health of residents of two Mississippian period sites from Tennessee: the Arnold Site in Middle Tennessee, and the David Davis Site, in present-day Chattanooga. For this study, I looked at a sample of the teeth with LEH from each of these populations and calculated the age ranges of the health insults. As a result, I found that there were significant differences in the average age of health stress between the two sites and that both sites present some evidence of gender difference in diet.
Schneider, Max (Alexander Archaeological Consultants, Inc.). 2010. PRESERVING CHATTANOOGA’S CIVIL WAR BATTLEFIELDS: URBAN PLANNING THROUGH GIS. Alexander Archaeological Consultants, Inc. conducted a geographic information system (GIS) mapping project in which the primary objective was to overlay a series of six historic Civil War battle maps produced by Edward E. Betts for the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park in 1896 and 1901 onto modern topographical maps and aerial photographs. The resulting information was integrated with the existing Hamilton County GIS database in order to provide citizens with the ability to examine the potential for intact features associated with important Civil War battles on specific parcels. The area investigated includes the approximately 26,000-acre Chattanooga Battlefield in Hamilton County, Tennessee.
Tune, Jesse W. (Texas A&M University), Aaron Deter-Wolf (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), John B. Broster (Tennessee Division of Archaeology), and Tanya M. Peres (Middle Tennessee State University). 2011. NATIONAL REGISTER TESTING AT THE COATS-HINES SITE, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. In 2010, TDOA archaeologists were awarded a Historic Preservation Grant through the Tennessee Historical Commission and the National Parks Service to conduct archaeological testing at the Coats-Hines site. Previous excavations at Coats-Hines have recovered Pleistocene faunal material and documented rare evidence of human-mastodon predation. Archaeological testing was conducted in October with the aid of Dr. Tanya Peres, Zooarchaeology students from MTSU, and Texas A&M doctoral candidate Jesse Tune. The excavations identified an intact Pleistocene bone bed approximately 10 feet below ground surface, and have generated data to support nomination of the site for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.
Welch, LinnAnn and Jeremy Childs (Metro Nashville Parks). 2012. THE CULTURAL RESOURCES OF BELLS BEND PARK. Bells Bend Park is home to a variety of archaeological sites, including the 1842 Buchanan House, portions of the Civil War Battle of Bells Mill, and various prehistoric habitation sites. This poster includes information about ongoing efforts to manage and protect these resources, and to educate the public about the unique archaeological character of the park.