The following are abstracts from the twenty-five years of the Tennessee
Anthropologist, published by the Tennessee Anthropological Association.
Abstracts are in order of publication. Volume, issue, and page information is given
following the author(s) name. While the abstracts are not formally indexed, your
should have a FIND command on your web browser that will permit searching by
- THE ARCHAIC PERIOD IN THE LOWER LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER
VALLEY: THE RADIOCARBON DATES. Jefferson Chapman. I(1):1-12. 1976.
Nineteen radiocarbon dates on charcoal obtained from four stratified Early and Middle
Archaic period sites establish a chronology for Kirk Corner Notched, bifurcate base,
Stanly Stemmed, and Morrow Mountain type points in the lower Little Tennessee River
Valley. These dates suggest that the Kirk phase dates c. 7500-6900 B.C., the bifurcate
phases date c. 6800-6100 B.C., the Stanly phase dates c. 5800 B.C., and the Morrow
Mountain phase may be as early as 5000 B.C. These dates compare favorably with other
dates for similar artifacts elsewhere in the eastern United States.
- THE LONG ISLAND MOUNDS, MARION COUNTY, TENNESSEE -
JACKSON COUNTY, ALABAMA. Donald B. Ball, Victor P. Hood, and E. Raymond
Evans. I(1):13-47. 1976. Research pertaining to a mound group on Long Island in the
Tennessee River has illuminated the nature and intensity of prehistoric occupations in an
area that is poorly known archaeologically. Basic data was limited to surface recovered
inventories supplemented by local collections. This material was collated with published
information from culturally similar sites whose data provided a framework from which
statements relevant to settlement, subsistence, and the degree of socio-political
development could be derived.
- FOLK ARCHITECTURE IN TENNESSEE: A CALL FOR NEW
DIRECTIONS. George F. Fielder. I(1):48-57. 1976. The study of Tennessee folk
architecture is still in the data collection phase of development. A sound theoretical
framework within which architectural observations can be placed is not possible until we
have a statistically adequate data base. The author summarizes the procedure of
architectural recording necessary to provide such a data base and calls for a new
organized effort in folk architectural research in Tennessee.
- OLD WORDS FOR NEW IDEAS: LINGUISTIC ACCULTURATION IN
MODERN CHEROKEE. Duane H. King and Laura H. King. I(1):58-62. 1976. Since
the time of European contact, the Cherokee language has undergone numerous changes
to accommodate new ideas. The linguistic processes utilized are borrowing, semantic
extension, and descriptive derivation. Examples of the changes and the linguistic
processes are examined in the article.
- TEAM SPORTS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AMONG THE
MISSISSIPPI CHOCTAW. Kendall A. Blanchard. I(1):63-70. 1976. Patterns of social
organization among the Mississippi Choctaw as they are manifested through the team
sport phenomenon are analyzed. It is argued that the function of modern athletic events
(e.g. basketball, football, softball, baseball) is identical to that of the older stickball.
Both the new and the old are significant elements in the process of defining social
boundaries, facilitating inter-community communication, reinforcing traditional models
of kin group interaction, and resolving potential conflict situations. The importance of
competitive conflict as a means of maintaining group cohesion and the practical
importance of an anthropological understanding of sport are stressed.
- THE CITICO SITE (40HA65): A SYNTHESIS. James W. Hatch. I(2):75-
103. 1976. The once impressive Citico site (40Ha65) on the outskirts of
Chattanooga, Tennessee has witnessed numerous, unrelated episodes of
archaeological excavation over the past 110 years. The work carried out there varies
greatly in quality, provenience data and field notes are scarce, and the artifacts
themselves are in private and museum collections all over the East. Since urban
expansion has destroyed significant portions of the site, Citico site research must rely
heavily on this information. This article recounts the history of archaeological work
at the site - the methods used, the discoveries made, and the current disposition of the
data. Following this, the data are collectively analyzed and reconstructions made of
Citico's site morphology, population and subsistence base, mortuary patterning, and
socio-political role on a regional scale.
- MOUNTAIN WOMEN IN A CHANGING LABOR MARKET. Thomas W.
Collins and Clata L. Finn. I(2):104-111. 1976. This paper analyzes the effects of
industrial development in a rural Tennessee county on traditional female roles. New
plants located in the county are representative of the peripheral sector of the national
economy and hence must obtain most of their employees from the female labor
market. In such a situation women gain a greater degree of power relative to their
husbands but remain in a static position in relation to the wider society.
- STONE CONSTRUCTIONS ON LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN: A PROBLEM
OF IDENTITY. Jeffrey L. Brown. I(2):112-115. 1976. A complex of stone walls
on the side of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee has been identified by Phillip E. Smith
(1961) as an aboriginal construction. In this paper evidence is presented to show that
the complex is clearly a Civil War military site.
- THE SKELETAL REMAINS OF THE EARLIEST AMERICANS: A
SURVEY. Fred H. Smith. I(2):116-147. 1976. A survey of skeletal remains from
possibly the earliest American Indians is presented. Included is a summary of the
morphology of each specimen, something about its discovery and claims to antiquity,
and references appropriate to each. The amino acid racemization technique for
dating bones and its resultant early dates for American skeletons are also discussed.
Finally, the concept of "morphological dating" in paleontological studies is
considered. It is concluded that there is no sound skeletal evidence for the presence
of man in the New World prior to the final opening of the Bering Strait Land Bridge
at about 27,000 BP. Most early remains date to less than 15,000 BP.
- THE YEARWOOD SITE: A SPECIALIZED MIDDLE WOODLAND
OCCUPATION ON THE ELK RIVER. Brian M. Butler. II(1):1-15. 1977. In
1975, extensive excavations at the Yearwood site documented an unusual Middle
Woodland occupation characterized by a variety of structural types and a substantial
amount of "exotic" goods indicative of participation in Hopewellian exchange
networks. This overall character of the site differs substantially from other
documented Middle Woodland sites in the area, and it is argued that Yearwood
represents a warm weather encampment whose prime function was to serve as a locus
for important social activities of the aggregate residential unit (social intensification).
Radiocarbon dates from Yearwood place the site in the first century A.D., but other
considerations argue for a later date, probably in the third century A.D.
- PRELIMINARY REPORT ON AN EXPERIMENTAL STONE BOX
BURIAL. H.C. Brehm and E. Raymond Evans. II(1):16-23. 1977. In November
1973 an experiment was initiated by the senior author of this paper in an effort to
gain a better understanding of the construction and function of the so-called "stone-
box" graves which have been long regarded as the most diagnostic cultural trait of the
Middle Cumberland culture. This preliminary report offers some data and
conclusions regarding box construction, rate of decay and displacement of burial
- THE HOUSEWIFE SYNDROME AMONG NATIVE AMERICAN
WOMEN. Billye Y.S. Fogelman. II(1):24-28. 1977. The hypothesis that a
housewife syndrome is emerging among Native American women living in urban
setting is examined and found to be unsubstantiated. When a feature is present is it
argued that it is a cultural feature rather than a sign of the housewife syndrome.
- OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF MIDDLE
TENNESSEE GRAVEHOUSES. Donald B. Ball. II(1):29-62. 1977. An intensive
survey of three contiguous Middle Tennessee counties (Cannon, Coffee, and
Rutherford) has documented a total of 16 extant gravehouses in nine cemeteries plus
to former location of several others. Built to cover an in-ground interment, these
structures were found to exhibit a high degree of diachronic attribute similarity when
recorded in detail and compared architecturally to one another. It is suggested that
these structures represent a traditionally patterned mechanism for the tangible
expression of sentiment on a personal, rather than social, basis. To place these little
studied structures in a spatial and historical framework, data are presented pertinent
to both their distribution in North America and probable European source area.
- A MODEL FOR LATE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE SYSTEMS IN THE
WESTERN MIDDLE TENNESSEE VALLEY DURING THE BLUFF CREEK
PHASE. David H. Dye. II(1):63-80. 1977. A testable model of the prehistoric
subsistence patterns existing in the western Middle Tennessee Valley from
approximately 1500 to 700 B.C. is proposed. This period includes that time when
fiber-tempered ceramics were manufactured. Evidence for the Wheeler series or
Wheeler culture in the Tennessee Valley is reviewed. A model of subsistence
strategies is set forth for the Wheeler culture in the form of four procurement
systems. These are suggested to replace a model recently proposed by Jenkins
(1974). Jenkins' formulation places emphasis on shellfish, nuts, and white-tailed
deer. Such an emphasis is not in accord with information on contemporary hunters
and gatherers and the early historic Indians of the Southeast, which stresses wild and
domesticated plant foods as the staple items of the diet. Hunting is a major source of
animal protein but a minority food in comparison with plant foods. Fishing is a
source of supplementary protein. The model proposed in this paper is compared with
known archaeological plant and animal remains from contemporary sites in the
Midwest and Middle South.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL TEST EXCAVATIONS AT THE SAM HOUSTON
SCHOOLHOUSE. D. Bruce Dickson. II(1):81-97. 1977. Test excavations at the
Sam Houston Schoolhouse were conducted to determine if there were substantial
changes in the building when it was restored during the 1950s. These excavations
indicated that the restored hearth is the same size as the original one, and the building
was restored in its original location. No evidence was found of foundations for other
structures in the vicinity of the schoolhouse, but additional excavation should be
conducted to verify this preliminary conclusion.
- A REEVALUATION OF LATE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE AND
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE WESTERN TENNESSEE VALLEY.
William Rowe Bowen. II(2):101-120. 1977. Examination of a main stream shell
midden and a tributary non-shell midden in the Western Tennessee Valley has
prompted new ideas concerning the subsistence/settlement patterns practiced by the
Late Archaic Ledbetter phase inhabitants in this area. Analysis of environmental and
artifactual data suggests a seasonal-round subsistence/settlement type as opposed to
the year-round model postulated by Lewis and Lewis.
- A REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PRE-COLUMBIAN
MAN ON THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS. Stanley Z. Guffey.
II(2):121-137. 1977. The effects of preliterate cultures on their environments have
received scant attention relative to the effects of the great civilizations and their
antecedents and descendants on their environments. In their studies of preliterate and
prehistoric ecology, anthropologists and ecologists have tended to focus on the effects
of various environmental parameters on the course of cultural evolution at the
expense of the opposite direction of the culture/environment interactive process.
This paper is an attempt to assess the current state of our knowledge of pre-
Columbian man's effects on the ecology of a relatively homogenous cultural and
biotic region, the eastern North American forest area. Further, a brief attempt is
made to formulate a set of conceptual schema for analyzing the interactions of man
and the ecosystems. Although full development and application of this conceptual
approach must be postponed, it is suggested that it is applicable to any natural and
cultural place/time, and it might suggest areas of research into the effect of preliterate
or prehistoric man on the ecosystem in much narrower spatial and temporal
- IMPOLITENESS: ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN COLLECTIVE
REALITY MODELS. Marilyn McKillop Wells. II(2):138-141. 1977. Adaptation
to the changing physical, social and ideological environment involves an interplay
between stability requirements and adjustment mechanisms such as impoliteness.
- PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE DUCK
RIVER DRAINAGE, COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE. Jay K. Johnson. II(2):142-151.
1977. Multivariate analyses of site assemblages from the proposed Columbia
Reservoir, as reported by Dickson (1976), have revealed distributional patterns which
may be interpreted in terms of aboriginal adaptation to gross differences in
physiography and presumed economic potential. These patterns are related to a
settlement-subsistence model, which has been developed to explain prehistoric
occupation in nearby and environmentally similar regions.
- PLANTATION ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE HERMITAGE: SOME
SUGGESTED PATTERNS. Samuel D. Smith. II(2):152-163. 1977. The
interpretive significance of "patterning" in the artifactual remains found on historic
sites is just beginning to be understood. In this paper three hypotheses, developed
during the course of an archaeological project carried out at the Hermitage, are
described and discussed. Each of these is thought to have considerable potential
utility for helping understand certain widespread nineteenth century cultural
practices, especially as they occurred on southern plantations.
- BONE ARTIFACT CLASSIFICATION: A DALLAS PHASE
MISSISSIPPIAN EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTION AND FUNCTIONAL
INTERPRETATION. Richard R. Polhemus. II(2):164-189. 1977. Forty-two bone
artifacts from Dallas phase sites in the eastern Tennessee Valley previously called
"daggers" or "spear points" are studied. The form, breakage pattern, and burial
context and associations indicate these artifacts may have functioned as tips on the
poles or "Spears" thrown in the chunky game.
- THE IDENTIFICATION OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FROM THE
OWL HOLLOW SITE, 40FR7, FRANKLIN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. James E.
Cobb and Andrea Brewer Shea. II(2):190-198. 1977. The remains of domesticated
sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., have been identified from the Owl Hollow Site,
40Fr7, a large late Middle Woodland habitation site located in south-central
Tennessee. Carbonized sunflower achenes and seeds were recovered from a small
processing pit, a stratified earth oven, and a large storage pit. A radiocarbon sample
from the storage pit has been dated at A.D. 310 + 65 years. The sunflower seeds are
short and wide with an average length-width of 36.5 mm. In comparison to other
Helianthus remains the Owl Hollow seeds are larger than Archaic sunflower
- TEACHING ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE REGIONAL SCHOOLS: THE
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER TRAINING. Choong Son Kim. III(1):1-5.
1978. This paper relates the personal experiences of an anthropologist who teaches
in a regional school where anthropology is not well known as a means of drawing a
possible suggestion for graduate training for future anthropology teachers. Specific
allusions are made as to how graduate training affects the teaching of anthropology,
and several implications for teacher training are presented.
- THE CAMP SITE BENEATH THE CRAVENS HOUSE PORCH. Jeffrey
L. Brown. III(1):6-13. 1978. Archaeological investigations beneath the porch of the
Cravens House on the Lookout Mountain Battlefield revealed the presence of a camp
site apparently occupied by newspaper writers and artists. The camp site and its
contents are described.
- TRADE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL STATUS AND RANK
IN DALLAS SOCIETY. John B. Sabol, Jr. III(1):14-30. 1978. Recent analyses of
the Dallas archaeological culture (Hatch 1974; Hatch and Willey 1974) have
concluded that Dallas social organization was composed of a hierarchical structure of
status and rank positions similar to a ramage. Hatch and Willey (1974) further
suggest that pre-eminent statuses were related on a pan-regional basis via kinship
affiliations in the pre-eminent ramage at various Dallas sites. This interpretation is
questioned here. The development and importance of trade at particular Dallas sites
is shown to lead to local status and rank positions, differing from the general status
and rank structure proposed by Hatch and Willey (1974).
- HISTORIC FISH TRAPS ON THE LOWER HOLSTON RIVER. James E.
Cobb. III(1):31-58. 1978. Three well-preserved fish trap sites on the lower Holston
River are defined and described. An historical sketch of each trap is presented to
document its period of operation. The historical, descriptive, and ethnographical data
suggest these traps were operational from the early 1800's to ca. 1940. Based on this
primary research, two fish trap types are proposed for the lower Holston River.
Research suggest these trap types, identified as "frame-pole" and "platform-slat"
types, may have historical and functional validity throughout upper East Tennessee.
- RECOVERY SYSTEMS FOR SUBSISTENCE DATA: WATER
SCREENING AND WATER FLOTATION. David H. Dye and Katherine H.
Moore. III(1):59-69. 1978. Two of the most important means of recovering
subsistence data from archaeological sites are water screening and water flotation.
These two systems are described as they were used in the Middle Tennessee Valley
during the 1977 summer and 1978 winter field seasons of the Tennessee River
Archaeological Project. They were designed as mutually complementary systems for
the recovery of "micro" data such as small zoological and botanical remains. Their
efficiency is indicated by recovery of very small material.
- INFANT MORTALITY AND FAMILY STRUCTURE AMONG BLACKS
IN MEMPHIS. Carol L. Jenkins. III(1):70-78. 1978. Examination of recent
epidemiological data reveals a peculiar pattern of infant mortality among Blacks in
Memphis. Although several factors may underlie this patterning, family structure
appears to be strongly indicated.
- PLANT FOOD UTILIZATION DURING THE MIDDLE WOODLAND
OWL HOLLOW PHASE IN TENNESSEE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT.
Gary D. Crites. III(1):79-92. 1978. Analysis of carbonized plant remains from Owl
Hollow phase sites in the upper Duck and Elk River valleys in south-central
Tennessee indicates seasonal exploitation of a broad range of wild plant species
representing two major vegetational zones: (1) a lowland zone with concomitant
flood plain and terrace species and (2) an upland zone exhibiting upland forest and
forest edge species. Most recently, analysis of water-floated fill from large earth
ovens and storage pits has produced evidence for utilization of indigenous "semi-
cultigens" such as goosefoot (Chenopodium spp.) and maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana
Walt.), the indigenous cultigen, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), as well as two
introduced cultigens, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize (Zea mays). Significantly,
maize has been recovered from three late Owl Hollow sites dating A.D. 465-A.D.
500. This is the earliest non-problematical maize reported in the Southeast.
- THE PALEN FENCE: AN EXAMPLE OF APPALACHIAN FOLK
CULTURE. E. Raymond Evans. III(1):93-99. 1978. The palen fence was
introduced in North America by the earliest English colonists in the seventeenth
century and has continued in its original form throughout the Appalachian regions
into the latter half of the twentieth century. This largely neglected item of material
folk culture will be documented, and the necessary data to provide an understanding
of its historic background will be presented.
- CHEROKEE AND DALLAS DOG BURIALS FROM THE LITTLE
TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Paul W. Parmalee and Arthur E. Bogan.
III(1):100-112. 1978. Skeletons of eight dog burials from Dallas and Cherokee sites
situated along the Little Tennessee River in Blount and Monroe counties, Tennessee,
were measured and described. One aged male dog from the Chota-Tanasi site was
especially noteworthy because of its unusually small stature. The remaining seven
adult animals approximate those which have been reported from other late prehistoric
sites in eastern North America.
- SEASONAL NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN A LATE WOODLAND
POPULATION: SUGGESTIONS FROM SOME EASTERN KENTUCKY
COPROLITES. C. Wesley Cowan. III(2):117-128. 1978. Pollen and macrofossil
components of human paleofeces from a small, dry Late Woodland Newtown Focus
rock shelter in the Red River drainage of eastern Kentucky are described. These data
suggest that the occupants of the site may have been experiencing seasonal nutritional
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE ALONG THE
CUMBERLAND RIVER IN THE OUTER NASHVILLE BASIN AND THE
WESTERN HIGHLAND RIM. Robert L. Jolley. III(2):129-144. 1978. The
Cumberland River region is a rich archaeological area that has received very little
scientific attention. A brief, but systematic survey along the Cumberland yielded 41
previously unrecorded sites and recollections from 17 recorded sites. The small
sample size, which inhibited the reconstruction of prehistoric settlement systems and
patterns, was found to be adequate to reconstruct a tentative cultural history of the
- BRAKEBILL MOUND, NEAR KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE: A HISTORY
OF THE MOUND AND DESCRIPTION OF TWO RECENTLY DISCOVERED
SKELETONS. P. Willey, Mark F. Guagliardo, and William M. Bass. III(2):145-
167. 1978. In September, 1975, two burials were discovered and excavated in the
basement of a house built atop Brakebill Mound (40Kn55), a late Mississippian
mound in East Tennessee. This paper reviews the historic events which occurred
concerning the mound and its contents, and reports the recovery and analysis of the
- THE AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY FARM LABOR SYSTEM AS AN
ADAPTIVE MECHANISM FOR AFRO-AMERICANS. Ira E. Harrison.
III(2):168-186. 1978. Providing caretaker services (day care, education, health,
legal, etc.) for Afro-American migratory farm workers is frequently a frustrating
affair for professionals. This paper offers explanations for this bewilderment by
viewing Afro-American farm workers from a cultural-historical perspective: they are
the contemporary end products of the slave-plantation system. Types of migratory
farm workers are described and their potential for rehabilitation is evaluated.
- CERAMICS OF THE OWL HOLLOW PHASE IN SOUTH-CENTRAL
TENNESSEE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT. Charles H. Faulkner. III(2):187-
202. 1978. The ceramic assemblage of the Middle Woodland Owl Hollow phase is
briefly described and compared to other Middle Woodland ceramic assemblages in
the Southeast and Midwest. The Owl Hollow ceramics are closely related to the La
Motte ceramics of the lower Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois. It is
suggested that the Owl Hollow - La Motte relationship may be due to an adaptation
to, and interaction across the southern extension of the Prairie Peninsula.
- KARST TOPOGRAPHY: A FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH PALEO-
INDIAN SETTLEMENT IN CERTAIN AREAS OF KENTUCKY. Thomas W.
Gatus and David R. Maynard. III(2):203-210. 1978. Reconnaissance level, county-
wide archaeological surveys in Kentucky have revealed an inordinately high
frequency of Paleo-Indian projectile points in or near areas of karst topography. It is
suggested that there is a correlation between Paleo-Indian sites and their physical
proximity to such karst features as sinkholes or sinks.
- THE GRAYSVILLE MELUNGEONS: A TRI-RACIAL PEOPLE IN
LOWER EAST TENNESSEE. E. Raymond Evans. IV(1):1-31. 1979. Located
approximately 30 miles north of Chattanooga, the community of Graysville,
Tennessee contains one of the most stable Melungeon settlements in the state. Field
work in the community conducted in conjunction with archival research demonstrates
that the Melungeons, who now compose more than half of the local population, came
from Hamilton County during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Census
records and other archival sources indicate that prior to coming to Hamilton County
they had lived in Virginia and North Carolina. In Graysville, the Melungeons
strongly deny their Black heritage and explain their genetic differences by claiming to
have had Cherokee grandmothers. Many of the local whites also claim Cherokee
ancestry and appear to accept the Melungeon claim. The racist discrimination
common in Hancock County and n most other Melungeon communities is absent in
Graysville. Here, the Melungeons interact in all phases of community life, and
exogamy with local Whites is a common practice. The group is called after the most
common surname present - Goins - and the term "Melungeon" is not used by the
people or by their neighbors. Recent field observations have led to the conclusion
that the culture and social activities of the Graysville Melungeons differs in no way
from that of any small Southern Appalachian community.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE IN THE HEADWATERS OF
THE CANEY FORK RIVER IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Robert L. Jolley.
IV(1):32-62. 1979. A semi-intensive survey was conducted along portions of the two
principal streams in the Caney Fork headwaters; the Collins and the Calfkiller. A
total of 156 previously unrecorded sites was located. The data obtained enabled a
brief, tentative cultural history of the region to be constructed. This cultural history
appears to be similar to other neighboring headwater areas in Middle Tennessee,
specifically the upper Elk and Duck Rivers. The survey was also successful in
delineating settlement patterns through time and in determining how select
environmental resources were exploited.
- THE KANAWHA TRADITION: A REVIEW AND RE-EVALUATION.
Gary R. Wilkins. IV(1):63-81. 1979. Recent archaeological work in the Kanawha
Valley of West Virginia has permitted a re-evaluation of the cultural context and
affinities of the Charleston area moundworks. The Kanawha tradition as originally
defined by McMichael is reviewed, and then re-interpreted in light of more recent
evidence. The Charleston mounds are placed back within an Adena context and
McMichael's definition of Armstrong Middle Woodland is significantly changed.
- PALEOETHNOBOTANY OF THE DUCKS NEST SITE: EARLY
MISSISSIPPI PLANT UTILIZATION IN THE EASTERN HIGHLAND RIM.
Gerald W. Kline and Gary D. Crites. IV(1):82-100. 1979. Analysis of
paleoethnobotanical remains from the Ducks Nest site (40Wr4), a small
Mississippian site in the Eastern Highland Rim section of Middle Tennessee dating
ca. A.D. 1120, revealed the utilization of wild and domesticated indigenous plants
including Chenopodium, Polygonum, Phalaris caroliniana, and domesticated Iva (Iva
annua var. Macrocarpa). Maize and squash were also recovered, thus indicating the
use of a diverse suite of plant foods.
- THE ACCEPTANCE OF EUROPEAN DOMESTIC ANIMALS BY THE
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CHEROKEE. Robert D. Newman. IV(1):101-107.
1979. European contact during the late 17th and early 18th centuries introduced the
Overhill Cherokee to the horse, the pig and the cow. The horse and the pig were
accepted by the Overhill Cherokee in response to the economic pressure of the
deerskin trade, diminishing deer populations and European encroachment on Overhill
land. The Federal Indian policy of the late 18th and early 19th centuries converted
the Overhill Cherokee to full-time farming, a prerequisite for keeping cattle. The
trends of acceptance of European domestic animals can be amplified by patterned
variability in the archaeological record.
- A MISSISSIPPIAN CERAMIC SEQUENCE FOR WESTERN
KENTUCKY. Rudolf Berle Clay. IV(2):111-128. 1979. Evidence is presented for
change through time in Mississippian ceramics from the Tennessee and Cumberland
Valleys in western Kentucky. Dates from Kentucky suggest that a Mississippian
occupation began as early as A.D. 1000 and that it lasted as late as A.D. 1600,
perhaps later. It is suggested that these dates are consistent with dates from southeast
Missouri, southern Illinois, and southern Indiana.
- VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATION PARTICIPATION. Annie S. Barnes.
IV(2):129-139. 1979. This paper examines the role of two churches and social
organizations in the Atlanta, Georgia black subsociety. They are seen as having
purposes with adaptive significance for effective functioning. Decision making, self-
expression, and prestige elements in the churches and social groups are analyzed as
functions employed in black adaptation.
- THE LATE ARCHAIC IN THE UPPER DUCK RIVER VALLEY. William
R. Bowen. IV(2):140-159. 1979. Recent archaeological research of non-shell
midden Late Archaic sites in the upper Duck River Valley of Middle Tennessee has
raised questions concerning the validity and widespread applicability of certain
previously constructed settlement/subsistence models for the Late Archaic in the
Middle South. In this paper, the Late Archaic Ledbetter phase in the upper Duck
River valley is defined, the data are used to evaluate other subsistence/settlement
models, and a new subsistence/settlement model applicable to the Late Archaic
Ledbetter phase of the Upper Duck Valley is proposed.
- BUTTON SNAKEROOT SYMBOLISM AMONG THE SOUTHEASTERN
INDIANS. Robbie F. Ethridge. IV(2):160-166. 1979. With the recent revival of
interest in medicinal herbs and natural healing, it follows that there would be
increased investigation into the American Indians' use of plants as curatives.
However, their use of plants extended far beyond the practical aspects of curing and
food. They often placed symbolic functions on plants which then projected them
from the world of the mundane into that of the spiritual. By imbuing these plants
with symbolic meaning, the Southeastern Indians extended their use into various
associated functions. Button snakeroot serves as an example of such plant symbolism
by the Southeastern Indians.
- PREHISTORIC SPOT FINDS, LOCALITIES, AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL
CONTEXT: A CAUTIONARY NOTE FROM KENTUCKY. Robert L. Brooks.
IV(2):167-174. 1979. A large number of archaeological survey reports have been
produced in recent years. Most of these reports contain information and descriptions
of sites discovered, and also contain documentation on archaeological resources
defined as spot finds and localities. These smaller concentrations are usually only
cursorily treated in the analysis of the reported resources. It is argued that the use of
these terms is only an attempt to define a hierarchy in the archaeological resource
base and biases our perception of these smaller artifact concentrations. Analogies
and case examples from Kentucky illustrate the problems created by the
inappropriate use(s) of terms such as spot find and locality. It is recommended that a
resource considered an archaeological site regardless of the site extent or the quantity
of artifacts recovered.
- A LATE WOODLAND SHAFT-AND-CHAMBER GRAVE IN THE
NORMANDY RESERVOIR. Major C.R. McCollough, Glyn D. DuVall, Charles H.
Faulkner, and Tracy C. Brown. IV(2):175-188. 1979. A Late Woodland shaft-and-
chamber grave in the Normandy Reservoir, upper Duck River Valley is described.
The distribution of this grave type in the Southeast and the significance of this
Middle Tennessee discovery are also discussed.
- MULTIVARIATE DENTAL SEXING: DISCRIMINATION OF THE
SEXES WITHIN AN EAST TENNESSEE MISSISSIPPIAN SKELETAL
SAMPLE. Gary T. Scott and Kenneth R. Parham. IV(2):189-198. 1979.
Discriminant function statistical techniques have been a useful aid to physical
anthropologists in sexual assessment of skeletal remains. In this study, a multivariate
discriminant analysis (BMDP07M, Stepwise Jackknife Discriminant Analysis) of
dental remains is utilized to aid in the assessment of sex in a large skeletal series of
Late Mississippian (Dallas) Amerinds from the site of Toqua (40Mr6) in the eastern
Tennessee Valley. The functions are determined on the basis of skeletally sexed
individuals and then applied to subadults and poorly preserved material. Derivations
of the functions are examined as well as application of the techniques to otherwise
unsexed individuals. It is suggested that the functions provided in the text should be
applicable to other archaeological samples of similar spatial and temporal
- PATTERNS OF LATE ARCHAIC EXCHANGE. Sharon I. Goad. V(1):1-
16. 1980. Two exotic raw materials, copper and marine shell, were the characteristic
exchange items of the Late Archaic period. This article discusses the patterns of
distribution of these two materials and the exchange mechanisms responsible for such
- THE MARK THRASH HOUSE SITE, CHICKAMAUGA NATIONAL
MILITARY PARK, WALKER COUNTY, GEORGIA. Mary A. Wilson. V(1):17-
25. 1980. In 1975, archaeological excavations were undertaken at the north Georgia
home of Mark Thrash, a former slave who lived at the house from 1915 until his
death in 1943, at the age of 123. This paper concerns the artifacts found, their
possible implications about his lifestyle, and how the Mark Thrash site fails to fit
certain current classifications regarding the archaeological inference of socio-
- THE ADOPTION AND USE OF THE HORSE AMONG
SOUTHEASTERN INDIANS. Jared Vincent Harper. V(1):26-33. 1980.
Numerous books and articles have been written concerning the acquisition and use of
the horse by the Plains Indians, but little has been written about the acquisition and
use of the horse by Indians of the Southeastern United States. An examination of the
literature on Southeastern Indians shows that like the Plains Indians the Southeastern
Indians obtained most of their horses from the Spanish settlements in New Mexico by
way of Indian middlemen. Horses in lesser numbers were obtained from Spanish
settlements in Florida and English settlements in the Carolinas and Virginia.
Probably because of ecological factors the Southeastern Indians never developed a
complex horse culture like that associated with the Plains Indians. They did,
however, use horses for a variety of purposes, including carrying game back from the
hunt, moving camp, packing trading supplies, as a symbol of wealth, for food and
- CERAMIC DIVERSITY AS AN INDICATOR OF CULTURAL
DYNAMICS IN THE WOODLAND PERIOD. Roy S. Dickens, Jr. V(1):34-46.
1980. A large body of literature in both the social and natural sciences suggests that
diversity plays a major role in human adaptive processes. In an interacting
population (society), the diversity of collective ideas -- what might be called the "idea
pool" -- can be important in determining the threshold of culture change. Idea pools
will be expanded in relation to increased inter-areal exchange -- what might be called
"idea flow." How can archaeologists measure the relative diversity of ideas
(homogeneity or heterogeneity of idea pools) in past societies? In this paper, a simple
mathematical measure (index) of diversity is applied to ceramic assemblages of
several societies spanning the Early Woodland to Early Mississippian periods in the
South Appalachian province. Surface finish, a variable and easily recognized
attribute, is used. The results demonstrate that the most diverse expressions of
ceramic surface finish occur in societies occupying the time interval A.D. 200-600,
during and immediately following the apogee of Hopewellian interaction. These
findings suggest that the late Middle Woodland period was a highly dynamic time in
Southeastern prehistory. Trade contacts, and possibly other mechanisms for idea
exchange, probably were at a peak level. If the ceramic idea pools were more diverse
at this time, it is possible that other ideas -- e.g. those concerned with social
relationships and ideological concepts -- also were in a more dynamic state.
- THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE VANDALIZED GRAVES OF TWO
HISTORIC PERSONAGES: OSCEOLA, SEMINOLE WAR CHIEF, AND
COLONEL WILLIAM M. SHY, CIVIL WAR HERO. John T. Dowd. V(1):47-
72. 1980. Historic burials, even those on historic sites being excavated, are often left
undisturbed out of respect for the feelings of the living relatives and to avoid law
entanglements. Occasionally unusual circumstances arise that do call for the
excavation of a historic burial In recent years two separate cases of grave vandalism
necessitated the excavation and evaluation of the graves of two famous historic
personages. In 1966 the grave of Osceola, a great Seminole War Chief, was
vandalized. No apparent damage was believed done to the burial, but when a Miami
businessman claimed he had Osceola's bones in his possession an investigation by
the National Park Service was undertaken. This investigation proved the
businessman's claim untrue. In 1977 the grave of Civil War hero Colonel W.M. Shy
was disturbed. Upon examination a body was discovered that was thought to have
been a recent murder victim. After a thorough examination, the body was identified
as that of Colonel Shy.
- GEOPHAGY IN FAYETTE COUNTY, TENNESSEE: A SYMBOLIC
INTERPRETATION. Carol L. Jenkins. V(1):73-91. 1980. This paper reviews the
literature on geophagy and evaluates three major etiological hypotheses. Data are
presented from Fayette County, Tennessee, to illustrate the author's suggestion that
geophagy is retained as a reassuring symbolic act among those ethnic groups who
experience relatively high infant and maternal mortality rates.
- 40SL29: ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA FROM A SHALLOW
DISTURBED SITE IN SULLIVAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Harry M. Piper and
Jacquelyn G. Piper. V(2):95-121. 1980. The thesis has been advanced that small,
surface and disturbed sites can yield important data by controlling for the known
disturbance variables, and considering them in the resulting artifact distribution and
other site interpretations. The primary purpose of the test excavations carried out at
40SL29 was to determine what useful, scientific data could be recovered from a small
site which had been subjected to five known types of disturbance. Recognizing the
disturbance variables to the extent possible, the observed data from the investigation
permits statements about areas of more intensive site utilization, the type of site, raw
material used through time, site depth, certain topographic and ecological
observations as to site location, and the chronology of intermittent site
- PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON ALCOHOLIC CLIENTS IN AN
EAST TENNESSEE DETOXIFICATION REHABILITATION INSTITUTE.
Ira E. Harrison, Kay Paris, and Patricia A. Weed. V(2):122-136. 1980. This
presentation discussed the social (age, sex, education, employment marital,
residential) and cultural (family, pattern of drug use) characteristics of clients at
Knoxville's first non-medical detoxification-rehabilitation institute. The "average"
client has approximately 10.5 years of formal education, is unemployed, but is a
skilled construction laborer, with a family history of alcoholism. These observations
are discussed in terms of East Tennessee cultural heritage and current socio-
- LOG HOUSES IN GRAINGER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John Morgan and
Joy Medford. V(2):137-158. 1980. This paper examines the log houses of Grainger
County, located in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of upper east
Tennessee, where relatively dense distributions of log structures remain on the
landscape. The log dwellings in the county are typically single-pen structures rather
than double-pen dogtrot houses as various writers have suggested. Temporal trends
were discerned for the number of stories and timber types in the log structures. Other
characteristics of log house form and construction techniques are revealed.
- NOTES ON THE ANIMAL FOOD RESOURCES OF AN INDIAN
FAMILY IN EASTERN OKLAHOMA. Paul W. Parmalee. V(2):159-165. 1980.
A large trash pit discovered on an Indian ,probably Choctaw homestead site in eastern
Oklahoma provided an opportunity to study a large series of faunal remains that
reflected the animal resources used by one family during the period of ca. 1840-1850.
In addition to quantities of Indian artifacts and European trade goods, approximately
3,100 bones representing at least 20 species were recovered. The use of native
animals was minimal compared with domestic stock; pigs and cattle provided the
major source of meat in the diet of this family.
- THE CULTURE HISTORICAL PLACEMENT OF FAYETTE THICK
CERAMICS IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY. R. Berle Clay. V(2):166-178. 1980.
The position is argued that a Woodland ceramic complex represented at present by
Fayette Thick can be identified in central Kentucky probably as early as 1000 B.C. or
earlier. It more accurately contains at least two ceramic types rather than the single
type in use. Reexamination of the published sources from the state suggests that this
complex is not associated with burial mounds which have been called Adena. By
contrast, burial mounds, associated with a quite different ceramic complex, probably
do not appear until c. 500 B.C. The nature of what are here called the Fayette and
Adena ceramic complexes does not support the reconstruction that the earlier is the
ancestor of the later and that Fayette Thick contexts can be considered "early Adena."
At this point, given our inadequate understanding of the early Woodland ceramic
sequence in the region, the origins of burial mounds and the Adena ceramic complex
in central Kentucky remain open questions.
- RECOLLECTIONS OF AN EARLY FISH TRAP ON THE HOLSTON
RIVER. William J. McCoy, Jr. V(2):179-184. 1980. A brief, selective history of
the fish traps privately operated at Monday's Island on the lower Holston River,
Mascot, Tennessee precedes William J. McCoy's detailed account of the 1915
Monday Island fish trap and his vivid description of his childhood vacation spent on
Monday's Island in June 1915.
- TWENHAFEL ARCHAEOLOGY: THE SOUTHEASTERN
CONNECTION. Jack L. Hofman. V(2):185-201. 1980. Artifacts of southeastern
origin or inspiration recovered from the Twenhafel site in southern Illinois are
described and discussed. Non-local sherds with stamped decorations and sherds with
tetrapodal feet may be derived from Copena or related complexes in the Middle
South. Additional material indicating southeastern contact includes greenstone celt
fragments and Copena projectile points. The specific nature of the exchanges which
resulted in the presence of southeastern Middle Woodland artifacts at Twenhafel is
- A STUDY OF STONE BOX GRAVES IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA.
Ian W. Brown. VI(1):2-26. 1981. This paper is a descriptive study of stone box
graves, a late prehistoric form of burial in Eastern North America. This type of
grave, so typically associated with the Mississippian cultural tradition, was most
popular in the Middle Cumberland region of Tennessee. It is believed that stone box
graves developed in this region early in the second millennium A.D., spreading
rapidly to peripheral areas and continuing in the latter regions into historic times,
long after they had disappeared in the Middle Cumberland. The dispersal of this
grave type represents the spread of an idea, rather than migrations, as the grave form
was often modified to accommodate local burial forms. The decline of this burial
trait in late prehistoric/early historic times is consistent with the general breakdown
of Mississippian ceremonialism.
- THE MELUNGEONS OF UPPER EAST TENNESSEE. PERSISTING
SOCIAL IDENTITY. Anthony P. Cavender. VI(1):27-36. 1981. A Melungeon can
no longer be identified simply in terms of distinctive physical appearance. The
definitional criteria used by the local populace in Hancock County for purposes of
ascribing or assuming Melungeon identity are not uniform, but vary in relationship to
socio-economic status. The Melungeon identity persists in spite of near complete
racial dissolution because it serves as a symbolic marker of low socio-economic
status and also because members of the local elite are economically exploiting tourist
interest in the "mysterious" Melungeons.
- SELLARS: A SMALL MOUND CENTER IN THE HINTERLANDS.
Brian M. Butler. VI(1):37-60. 1981. The Sellars site in Wilson County, Tennessee, is
a small fortified Mississippian Mound center of approximately 10 acres in area. The
site was first described and investigated over 100 years ago, but still remains one of
the least known and best preserved examples of this type of site in Middle Tennessee.
After its acquisition by the state in 1974, limited test excavations were conducted at
the site in 1974 and 1977. The results of the test excavations are presented along
with radiocarbon dates and a discussion of the site's possible role in the larger
Mississippian settlement system.
- THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL RECORD: EARLY ARCHAIC PERIOD
TO CONTACT IN THE LOWER LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY.
Jefferson Chapman and Andrea Brewer Shea. VI(1):61-84. 1981. Analysis of over
22 kilograms of carbonized plant remains from archaeological contexts in the lower
Little Tennessee River valley has yielded an important record of plant use over the
past 9500 years. This paper reviews the evidence for wild plant foods, and native and
tropical cultigens in each of the cultural periods. Clues to vegetation composition
and man's impact on that vegetation are offered by wood charcoal samples.
- TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT SIZE ADAPTATIONS IN
PREHISTORIC TENNESSEE INDIANS. Robert J. Hinton. VI(2):89-111. 1981.
Measurements approximating the size of the temperomandibular joint or TMJ
(mandibular condyle, mandibular fossa) in prehistoric Tennessee Indians show a
gradual decrease from the Archaic through the Woodland to the Mississippian.
Current understanding of the biomechanical response of joint structures to forces
transmitted to the joint during mastication suggests that the observed reduction in
TMJ size is most likely due to decreased functional stress on the dentition over time.
Ethnographic and paleofecal evidence, which indicates that substantial differences in
food preparation techniques may have existed between the Archaic and Mississippian
periods, is presented in support of this contention. Also, joint size dimensions in the
Tennessee Indian samples are discussed in the context of similar data for other New
World aboriginal peoples and for American White and British samples.
- THE INTRODUCTION AND EARLY USE OF AFRICAN PLANTS IN
THE NEW WORLD. Mark Wagner. VI(2):112-124. 1981. This paper is a study
of historical factors that influenced the introduction of African cultigens into the New
World. Foremost among these factors was the African slave trade. African cultigens
were selected for use as provisions on the slave ships based largely upon two factors:
their availability in mass quantities along the African coast and their ability to
withstand spoilage. Cultural food preferences of the African slaves sometimes also
influenced what cultigens were used as provisions. The early history of these plants
in the Americas and their role in New World subsistence economies is also
- ANALYSIS OF SURFACE MATERIAL FROM COLUMBIA
RESERVOIR SITE 40MU272, MAURY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Mark A.
Smith. VI(2):125-143. 1981. Site 40Mu272 is an upland Archaic camp near the
Duck River. The physiographic setting of the site, located within an abandoned
meander where both riverine and upland species could be exploited, may have been a
principal factor in its selection by Archaic peoples. Material from two controlled
surface collections made in 1978 and 1980 and methods for obtaining the material
are reported. The 1978 collection made in 50 meter squares is compared to results of
the 1980 collection using 10 meter squares. The smaller grid allowed (1) better
definition of site boundaries, (2) the possibility of defining activity areas and separate
components within the site. An Early Archaic Kirk component(s) has been
recognized as well as at least one later Archaic component. Hypotheses about site
function and activities as means for evaluating them are presented, as well as future
plans for the site.
- BANNERSTONES AS CHRONOLOGICAL MARKERS IN THE
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. Mary L. Kwas. VI(2):144-171. 1981. The
purpose of this paper is to examine the different physical shapes or types of
bannerstones, and to determine if these shapes can be used as chronological markers
in the southeastern United States.
- CHRONOLOGICAL TRENDS IN THE PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT
OF THE YELLOW CREEK UPLANDS IN NORTHEASTERN MISSISSIPPI.
Jay K. Johnson. VI(2):172-179. 1981. Settlement system data resulting from an
upland survey in northeastern Mississippi are viewed from a chronological
perspective. Major trends are integrated with an ecological model of Eastern
Woodland subsistence and the resulting implications are evaluated using regional
- ON THE GENDER OF THE WINGED BEING ON MISSISSIPPIAN
PERIOD COPPER PLATES. Catherine Brown. VII(1):1-8. 1982. Copper plates
are a type of artifact associated with the more elaborate Mississippian period cultures.
The exact function of these plates or plaques of copper, most of which are embossed
with designs, is not clear. It is generally assumed that the "winged being" depicted
on some of the plates, such as those from Etowah, is a masculine figure. This
assumption, however, is at least questionable in light of some of the anatomical
features of these figures and also in light of ethnohistorical evidence from the
sixteenth century and later. This paper discusses evidence that some of these plates
may depict a feminine being.
- SOME OBSERVATIONS ON WOMEN AND RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP
IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA. Anthony P. Cavender and Jacqueline Peters
Stroh. VII(1):9-13. 1982. Contrary to the existing stereotype, women in southern
Appalachia have historically made contributions to the maintenance of their society
that fall outside the realm of domestic life. This paper explores the diversity of roles
that women in southern Appalachia have traditionally occupied by focusing on the
topic of women pastors and evangelists.
- RECENT RADIOCARBON DETERMINATIONS FOR THE PINSON
MOUNDS SITE. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr., John B. Broster, and Karen M. Johnson.
VII(1):14-19. 1982. The Pinson Mounds site in Madison and Chester counties,
Tennessee is a large mound complex occupying an area of approximately 600 acres.
Limited test excavations conducted at the site in the early 1960s have led to some
inaccurate interpretations of the site's temporal placement. A series of 10
radiocarbon dates from samples obtained during fieldwork in 1975 and 1981 is
presented. These dates clearly establish the site as a major Middle Woodland
- SOCIAL HISTORY OF TWO APPALACHIAN COMMUNITIES. Susan
S. Brown. VII(1):20-37. 1982. The history of two communities only 20 miles apart
in Tazewell County, Virginia, illustrates how the interaction of environment,
economy, and historical circumstances can create different patterns in Appalachian
community development. The interaction of geography and government policy
provided the basis for settlement by farmers, agricultural entrepeneurship, and social
mobility in the town of Tazewell, whereas in the town of Pocahontas, the
physiography, mineral deposits, and mining company control produced a settlement
of wage laborers, coal company hegemony, and an impermeable class structure.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS IN
THE LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Arthur E. Bogan. VII(1):38-50.
1982. The Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
conducted archaeological excavations in the Little Tennessee River Valley, East
Tennessee, during the period from 1967 to 1979. A large quantity of vertebrate and
molluscan remains from the Middle Woodland through historic Federal Period was
recovered. The Little Tennessee River Valley material provides a rare opportunity to
examine culture change in a restricted research universe. Analysis of these faunal
samples has provided information about the species utilized and about changes in
subsistence patterns. In addition, the historic Cherokee samples provide an insight
into native subsistence change in comparison to local Euro-American diets.
- CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN LATE PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT
PATTERNS IN AN APPALACHIAN NORTH CAROLINA LOCALITY:
SOME PRELIMINARY INTERPRETATIONS. Burton L. Purrington. VII(1):51-
61. 1982. Between 1970 and 1979 more than 200 prehistoric archaeological sites
were recorded in the watershed of the upper Watauga River, a remote feeder of the
Holston-Tennessee River system in the Appalachian Summit region of northwestern
North Carolina. Both continuity and change in local settlement patterns from
Archaic through Protohistoric times are evident. Archaic, Woodland, and late
prehistoric (Pisgah phase) sites exhibit a continuous pattern of utilization of a very
broad range of environmental zones. However, by early Middle Woodland times
(Pigeon phase) a trend toward more intensive use of main valley bottomland sites,
increased sedentism, and more specialized use of the uplands is evident. This trend
culminates in the Pisgah phase with the emergence of relatively small main valley
villages with outlying farmsteads on the valley margins and limited activity sites in a
variety of valley and upland settings. During the Protohistoric early Qualla phase the
valley may have been abandoned by permanent populations, but specialized use
- A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MISSISSIPPIAN HUNTING PATTERNS
AND THEIR ANTIQUITY. Neil D. Robison. VII(1):62-74. 1982. Mississippian
hunting patterns were most likely a continuation of those practiced by earlier cultural
groups. The adoption of maize agriculture by eastern North American Indian groups
should not have caused any major selection changes in the overall types of animal
species exploited. This proposal is in opposition to hypotheses that contend the
introduction of agriculture caused a shift from a diffuse hunting and gathering
economy, one that relied on numerous animal species for meat resources, to a focal
economy where only a few of the larger game species that yielded greater amounts of
meat were being exploited. It is proposed that Indian hunters learned the most
efficient means of exploiting the fauna around them by at least the Middle Archaic
period. Those faunal resources which could maintain large populations and had high
meat yields per individual were utilized most frequently. Small game animals and
larger species with low reproductive rates seem never to have been used to their full
- DUGU VISIBILITY: THE ROLE OF A RELIGIOUS CEREMONY IN
STATUS POLITICS. Marilyn McKillop Wells. VII(1):75-88. 1982. The visibility
of dugu, a complex religious ceremony, has increased in a poly-ethnic settlement
during the last fifteen years. Visibility, a consequence of location and frequency, is
interpreted as a response to the changing social environment. The ceremony that was
formerly a hidden aspect of Carib life has been brought into public view and has
become an instrument of status politics. This is part of an oppositional process that
continues between two ethnic groups in Belize, the Black Carib and the Creole.
- PALEO-INDIAN HABITATION AT THE PIERCE SITE (40CS24):
CHESTER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John B. Broster. VII(2):93-104. 1982. The
Pierce site, located in Chester County, Tennessee, was first recorded in 1973. This
site contained some 140 Paleo-Indian artifacts dating from Clovis to late Paleo-Indian
times. This paper attempts an initial analysis of this body of data, and is strongly
centered upon a functional interpretation of both the artifacts and the site. Little has
been professionally reported concerning the Paleo-Indian occupation of West
Tennessee, and it is hoped that this study will help fill the gap in our knowledge of
- AN OUTSIDE VIEW OF MIDDLE WOODLAND CHRONOLOGY IN
THE NORMANDY RESERVOIR AREA. Eugene M. Futato. VII(2):105-113.
1982. The validity and chronological position of the Neel phase in the Normandy
Reservoir area (Faulkner 1977) is evaluated on the basis of cross cultural
comparisons with the Middle Woodland sequences of the Bear Creek watershed of
Northwest Alabama and of the upper and central Tombigbee River Valley.
Developmental parallels among the three areas are then noted.
- THE BINARY NATURE OF THE HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH:
DOCUMENT AND ARTIFACT. William B. Hunt and Nicholas Honerkamp.
VII(2):114-125. 1982. In this paper the authors discuss some of the characteristics of
photographic evidence as it applies to historic archaeology and examine several
implied and explicit concepts involved in the manipulation of photographic images
by archaeologists. By way of example, the results of archaeological and documentary
research at the site of a mid-nineteenth century blast furnace in Chattanooga,
Tennessee, will be reviewed. Also examined is the binary nature of historic
photographs, which exist as documents and as artifacts, and the relationship that
these document-artifacts have to archaeological sites as they undergo successive
- BLACK FAMILY RELATIONS. Annie S. Barnes. VII(2):126-150. 1982.
This paper examines the influence of socioeconomic factors on parent and child,
stepparent and stepchild, sibling, and grandparent and grandchild authority,
cooperative, and affective relations in a black neighborhood, known here as Golden
Towers, in northwest Atlanta, Georgia. Age, sex, education, occupation, and income
are seen as major determinants of interaction in the black family.
- SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS AT ADAMS AND RIVERSIDE DRIVE,
MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. Charles H. McNutt and Gerald P. Smith. VII(2):151-
175. 1982. In August, 1977, the authors were informed by a newspaper article that
early brick foundations had been unearthed beneath the southwest corner of Adams
Avenue and Riverside Drive by construction activities for a pedestrian bridge linking
Mud Island to downtown Memphis, Tennessee. Plans were hastily made to examine
the location and to determine the nature of the foundations. Three construction
phases, spanning approximately one century, were isolated. Archival work, of
necessity done after the emergency excavations, has provided sound clues if not
positive identification of the establishments responsible for each construction
- STRUCTURAL DATA RECOVERED FROM THE BANKS III SITE
(40CF108) AND THE PARKS SITE (40cF58), NORMANDY RESERVOIR,
COFFEE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Willard S. Bacon. VII(2):176-197. 1982.
This paper presents structural data from sites in the Normandy Reservoir, Coffee
County, Tennessee. Structural remains from the Late Archaic, Early Woodland and
Middle Woodland periods are reported. A date of 220 B.C. + 185 years was obtained
for an unusual assemblage of artifacts associated with Structure 6 on 40Cf58. The
date and the artifacts confirm Faulkner's (1977) tentative definition of the Early
Middle Woodland Neel phase.
- THE SAGA OF JEROME BOYATT: A MIRROR OF ATTITUDES
TOWARD LAW AND LAWLESSNESS. Benita J. Howell. VIII(1):1-19. 1984.
Social historians concerned with plain folk increasingly turn to oral history to
augment documentary sources of "fact," but oral narratives also illuminate grassroots
attitudes that conflict with establishment versions of events. A case in point is the
saga of Jerome Boyatt, who shot two lawmen and subsequently was lynched in Scott
County, Tennessee in 1933. Discrepancies between contemporary newspaper
accounts and narratives collected in 1979-1980 from Boyatt's contemporaries
highlight attitudes toward law and lawlessness that justify folk interpretations of the
underclass outlaw as a victim of "bad law" perpetrated by the local elite.
- HUMAN BONES FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT: AN
IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INFORMATION. Douglas W. Owsley. VIII(1):20-
27. 1984. Studies of human burials are invaluable for explaining and understanding
the human past. A wealth of information pertaining to human biology and social
organization can be gained from the study of human bone. Research on human
skeletal material includes all earlier populations, not only Native Americans. These
facts are relevant in light of recent efforts to have skeletal collections reinterred.
- FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE HISTORIC CHEROKEE
OCCUPATION AT CITICO (40MR7), MONROE COUNTY, TENNESSEE.
Arthur E. Bogan. VIII(1):28-49. 1984. Faunal remains recovered during
archaeological excavations in 1978 at the historic Cherokee town of Citico are
examined. The comparisons of faunal remains from tightly dated contexts provides
an opportunity to examine the changing roles of animals in the historic Cherokee diet.
A shift from a heavy reliance on deer during the Colonial period to an increased
utilization of Euro-American domesticates in demonstrated. The use of freshwater
mussels is documented into the Federal Period.
- AN ANALYSIS OF THE SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE BROWN
SITE (40Mu260), MAURY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr., Patti
A. Driscoll, and Steven A. Symes. VIII(1):50-66. 1984. The skeletal remains of 47
individuals from 33 graves excavated at the Brown site (40Mu260), a Middle
Cumberland site near Columbia, Tennessee, are discussed in terms of their age, sex,
pathologies and stature. Of the adults, 18 are male, 10 are female, and seven are of
indeterminate sex. Also, 65.7% of the adults and 58.3% of the subadults manifest
pathologies. The average age at death (23.3 years) is similar to that of the individuals
from Arnold, Ganier and Averbuch sites. The mean stature for males (167.34
centimeters) and females (157.35 centimeters) are very similar to the mean adult
stature estimates for the other Middle Cumberland sites. Finally, the mean number of
individuals per grave (1.2-1.4) is similar to the mean number of individuals per grave
for the Arnold, Ganier and Averbuch cemeteries.
- A PROPOSED PREHISTORIC CULTURAL SEQUENCE FOR A
SECTION OF THE VALLEY OF THE WEST FORK OF THE WHITE RIVER
IN SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. VIII(1):67-94. 1984. This
paper summarizes a proposed cultural sequence for a portion of the White River
Valley in Indiana. The prehistoric occupations of the area from Paleo-Indian through
Late Woodland and Mississippian are discussed, a number of cultural phases are
presented, and a projectile point series for the area is included. This paper is based
upon data accumulated over many years by an ongoing archaeological research
program of mine and upon other available information. The cultural framework
presented herein in to be continually refined and elaborated, and other studies are to
be integrated with it.
- CHERT AVAILABILITY IN THE LOWER CUMBERLAND AND
LOWER TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEYS IN WESTERN KENTUCKY.
Thomas W. Gatus. VIII(2):99-113. 1984. Two seasons of work with the Lower
Cumberland Archaeological Project has produced data indicating that 18 chert
bearing deposits occur in the Lower Cumberland and Tennessee River Valleys. Of
these, about half contain deposits suitable for prehistoric tool manufacturing. Due to
the geologic nature of the area, chert bearing bedrock could only provide limited
supplies of chippable stone for lithic manufacturing purposes. However, data
collected for this study indicate that most major deposits produce abundant residuum
which became incorporated into stream gravels and was subsequently available to
aboriginal knappers. Apparently both alluvial gravels and residuum were
- SOME ASPECTS OF MARITAL MOVEMENT IN KNOXVILLE,
TENNESSEE. Daniel S. Amick. VIII(2):114-122. 1984. Marital distance and
magnitude parameters are determined for a Knoxville population sample.
Comparison of the Knoxville data with data from nearby rural Hancock County
(Kirkland and Jantz 1977) suggests greater mobility for the Knoxville gene pool.
Differences in mating patterns between the two populations are also suggested to
influence marital movement parameters. Additionally, the importance of sex on
migration into Knoxville appears insignificant. Spatial exogamy patterns for
Knoxville residents show a sharp decrease of marriage frequencies between 0 and 20
km. Marriage frequencies increase at the 50 km range with a gradual decrease
beyond this distance. This result appears to be due to local patterns of population
density and aggregation.
- CRIBRA ORBITALIA AND POROTIC HYPEROSTOSIS IN AN
OVERHILL CHEROKEE SKELETAL POPULATION. Douglas W. Owsley.
VIII(2):123-132. 1984. This research reports the frequency of cribra orbitalia and
porotic hyperostosis in a historic Cherokee population of the Little Tennessee River
Valley. Contact and Colonial period Overhill Cherokee Indian skeletons from five
archaeological sites in East Tennessee were examined for the presence and severity
of these bone pathologies. Both types of lesions were observed with total sample
frequencies being 30.4 percent and 7.3 percent for cribra orbitalia and vault porotic
hyperostosis, respectively. The data are subdivided by age and sex for comparative
analysis and are contrasted with data for Late Mississippian Dallas skeletons from the
same area. Archaeological data for Late Mississippian and historic Cherokee faunal
and botanical utilization, as well as socio-cultural differences, are considered in the
interpretation of apparent population differences in nutritional sufficiency.
- EXCAVATION OF A MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY TRASH PIT,
WYNNEWOOD STATE HISTORIC SITE, SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE.
Samuel D. Smith. VIII(2):133-181. 1984. In 1981, during monitoring of construction
activity, an unusually large trash pit was discovered at the Wynnewood State Historic
site, Sumner County, Tennessee. Subsequently, this feature was completely
excavated and yielded an important collection of mid-nineteenth-century artifacts.
This paper discusses the historic context and nature of this feature, its probable
specific date (with a revised approach to use of the Mean Ceramic Date Formula), its
site-specific function, and its broader socioeconomic and sociocultural implications.
Efforts to extract useable comparative data from other nineteenth-century Tennessee
sites indicate a pressing need for some degree of standardization of artifact
- AN ANALYSIS OF FAUNAL REMAINS FROM WYNNEWOOD STATE
HISTORIC SITE, SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE, AND ITS
IMPLICATIONS TO TENNESSEE PLANTATION SITE ARCHAEOLOGY IN
THE CENTRAL BASIN. Emanuel Breitburg. VIII(2):182-199. 1984. Faunal
remains recovered from Feature 12 at the Wynnewood State Historic Site are
examined. Seasonal placement of Feature 12 use is proposed, and the dietary patterns
of site occupants evaluated. The results of the data analysis are evaluated against
documentary evidence (U.S. Census Schedules, Productions of Agriculture). The
patterned nature of the archaeological and archival data for three other examined
Central Basin plantation sites (the Hermitage, Belle Meade, and Woodlawn) resulted
in the proposal of a model for Middle Tennessee plantation site domestic mammal
- THE 1882 INVESTIGATIONS BY COLONEL P.W. NORRIS AT THE
POWERS FORT SITE, 23BU10, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. Timothy K. Perttula
and James E. Price. IX(1):1-14. 1984. An important aspect of research on the
Mississippian Power phase concerns the socio-political integration of this society and
the relationship between Powers Fort, the civic and ceremonial center, and the other
contemporary Powers phase settlements. Powers Fort has received only limited and
sporadic investigations since Colonel Philetus W. Norris of the Bureau of (American)
Ethnology first described the site in 1882. What he found in this fortified mound
center is described in this paper from unpublished letters and journals submitted to
the Bureau. As a legacy, his work still provides most of what is known about the
nature of Powers phase ceremonial activities - a key element in gaining a
comprehensive understanding of the phase's internal composition.
- FRACTURE PATTERNS AND STATUS AT CHUCALISSA (40SY1): A
BIOCULTURAL APPROACH. Craig H. Lahren and Hugh E. Berryman. IX(1):15-
21. 1984. Biocultural analysis of Mississippian mortuary practices has led to an
increased awareness of the integrated ecological, cultural, and biological systems
affecting behavioral activities. In this study, fracture patterns are used as an
interpretive device to investigate the activity patterns of high and low status
individuals from the Chucalissa site in western Tennessee. The frequency, type and
location of fractures will be discussed in regards to these two groups.
- INDIVIDUAL VERSUS CORPORATE ADAPTATIONS IN URBAN
CONTEXTS. Nicholas Honerkamp and R. Bruce Council. IX(1):22-31. 1984. The
introduction of municipal services in metropolitan areas represents a major adaptive
shit in addressing problems basic to the maintenance of life in urban situations. It is
argued that the archaeological and documentary study of municipal services
(centralized water supplies, sewer systems, lighting and power, roads, etc.) may hold
greater promise for informing on urban adaptations than other, more traditional
approaches. Examples from urban sites in the Southeast are presented in support of
- POSTHOLE TESTING AND PATTERN RECOGNITION AT
WHITEHAVEN, 15McN65. Kit W. Wesler. IX(1):32-47. 1984. The Whitehaven
mansion, near Paducah, Kentucky, is a Civil War-era landmark being restored as a
tourist information and rest facility associated with Interstate 24. The
Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Transportation, sponsored a brief
archaeological testing project at the mansion, intended to recover as much
information as possible on the early occupation of the house. Posthole testing on a
five-meter grid provided spatial data regarding use of the houselot, and also identified
deep deposits for further testing. Comparison of posthole and excavation data
demonstrates the usefulness of the former for preliminary assessment of spatial and
- SAMUEL BROWN ON SALTPETER FROM SANDSTONE CLIFFS IN
EASTERN KENTUCKY IN 1806. Fred E. Coy, Tom Fuller, Larry Meadows, Don
Fig, Jim Rosene, and Garland Dever. IX(1):48-65. 1984. Samuel Brown, a chemist
at Transylvania University, prepared a paper for presentation before the American
Philosophical Society in 1806 which proved of importance in brining to Jefferson's
attention the possibility of obtaining much needed potassium nitrate for the
manufacture of gunpowder from the State of Kentucky. A portion of this paper deals
with the obtaining of potassium nitrate directly from the bone dry rock houses or
shelters in the sandstone cliffs of eastern Kentucky. This paper discusses the remains
of these works and correlates the present day information with some of the data
presented by Brown.
- THE PHARMACOLOGY OF FOLK MEDICAL USE OF PANAX IN THE
SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS: AN OVERVIEW WITH SUGGESTED
APPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY. Charles Wm. Logsdon. IX(1):66-79.
1984. Panax quinquefolium and P. Ginseng have been noted to be adaptogenic.
Chemical properties within the root are reputed to enhance the body's ability to
overcome disease and aging. Because of the presence of these properties many non-
Western ethnomedical practices utilized Panax as an integral constituent in their
pharmacopoeia. Western folk medicine also includes "sang" (ginseng) as an
important component in herbal remedies. The folk economies of the Southern
Appalachians have long procured ginseng as a source of barter for cash or
manufactured goods. Most of the existing literature concerning the pharmacology of
P. quinquefolium and P. Ginseng deals primarily with pharmaceutical research in
non-Western cultures. Little evidence exists that describes similar research in
Appalachian folk medicine. The evidence of Western folk herbal uses of ginseng can
be extracted from diaries, biographies, and the journals of early botanists,
ethnographers, physicians, and settlers. This paper attempts to combine both
pharmacological and ethnographical sources to provide a basic pool of data for folk-
- THE LOG BARNS OF BLOUNT COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John Morgan
and Ashby Lynch, Jr. IX(2):85-103. 1984. This paper examines the log barns of
Blount County in East Tennessee, where hundreds of nineteenth century log
structures remain on the landscape. The dominant log barn type found in Blount
County is the double-crib barn with a cantilevered overhanging frame loft. The most
prevalent variant of the double-crib barn has the cantilevered overhang on all four
sides of the structure, but barns with only front and rear overhangs are also common.
The study also reveals the cantilevered overhang to be present on a great majority of
the county's non-double-crib log barns. The concentration of cantilevered barns in
Blount County is puzzling because such barns are only rarely found in several East
Tennessee counties. Future research should seek to accurately determine and explain
the geographical variation of East Tennessee log barn types.
- MORRIS PLAIN: AND OTHER WEST KENTUCKY CERAMIC
SMOKING GUNS. R. Berle Clay. IX(2):104-113. 1984. The culture historical
significance of an obscure Mississippian period ceramic type, Morris Plain, is
reviewed. Tempered with crushed shell tempered pottery as "grog", it was once
interpreted as a Woodland product using Mississippian shell tempered sherds for grog
temper. This led to interesting culture historical reconstructions for two sites in
western Kentucky, Tinsley Hill and Morris Village. Reevaluated, the type becomes
an acceptable variation in Mississippian ceramic production, the earlier
interpretations beside the point. Using this type as an example, the interpretation of
grog tempering in the development of Mississippian ceramics from Woodland
antecedents is considered. Other "Morris Plain situations" are discussed and, finally,
it is suggested that a persistence of grog tempering from Woodland to Mississippian
need not indicate stylistic continuity. More pressing questions of ceramic history
must be addressed, important, what ever happened to Yankeetown Incised and the
Late Woodland floruit it represents?
- THE CHANGING ROLES OF CHILDREN IN THE ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL LIFE OF THE RURAL SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS DURING
THE 20TH CENTURY. Max E. White. IX(2):114-128. 1984. This paper
examines the changes which have occurred in children's roles in the family and the
community in the rural Southern Appalachians during the twentieth century.
Children's roles in the traditional culture are discussed, along with events which led
to the disruption of traditional life throughout the study area. The years about 1920
to about 1950 are seen as the period of most dramatic change. The experience of one
community during this transitional period is presented as being more or less typical of
communities through the Southern mountains.
- HUNTER-GATHERERS IN THE NASHVILLE BASIN OF TENNESSEE,
8000-5000 B.P. Jack L. Hofman. IX(2):129-192. 1984. Interpretation of the
diversified economy and social organization of mid-Holocene hunter-gatherers in the
Southeast presents a complex archaeological problem and a variety of explanatory
models have been offered. Contemporary archaeological and ethnographical research
continue to expand awareness of the intricacies and variations of hunter-gatherer
adaptations, and this results in a recurrent need for reevaluation of ideas and
explication of deficiencies in available information. This paper provides a summary
of some interpretations about Archaic adaptations and change in the Southeast and in
Middle Tennessee in particular. A simplistic working model of the regional Middle
Archaic adaptive system is presented. This discussion is intentionally speculative and
is intended to provide a scenario for future testing and evaluation using
archaeological information now being generated by research along the Duck River
- EXPLORING DIMENSIONS OF ILLEGAL LIQUOR MANUFACTURE:
MOONSHINING AS A COTTAGE INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS. Robert A. Pace and Jeffrey W. Gardner. X(1):1-26. 1985. The
manufacture of moonshine in the Southern Appalachians can be perceived as a
unique form of locally specialized production operating within a milieu of social,
economic, and political forces. This paper deals with economic aspects of
moonshining and examines the material cultural remains of moonshining activity in a
rural Appalachian setting. Aspects of site content and situation are discussed with
respect to their research potential for the analysis and interpretation of local
- THE POTENTIAL FOR EARLY-MAN SITES AT BIG BONE LICK,
KENTUCKY. Kenneth B. Tankersley. X(1):27-49. 1985. The ancient marsh and
spring environments at Big Bone Lick, Kentucky attracted animals and early Paleo-
Indians, as evidenced by projectile points and the remains of Pleistocene megafauna.
The depositional environment around the springs probably restricted the movement
of the megafauna, thereby creating a natural trap from which Clovis hunters could
have ambushed large game. Buried Clovis sites are predicted to occur, based on a
paleogeomorphological and geochronological study of the alluvial deposits.
- A STUDY OF A MAGICAL FOLK CURE. Hector Qirko. X(1):50-54. 1985.
An East Tennessee folk cure of hanging a mole's foot around an infant's neck to
soothe teething pain is discussed as one link in a long chain of mole-lore dating back
through the Middle Ages to Indo-European tradition. This practice is also seen as
one of many different folk cures that deal with problems in dentition.
- LITHIC MANUFACTURE AND HUNTER-GATHERER TECHNOLOGY
AT A WOODLAND SITE IN TENNESSEE. Sherri L. Hilgeman. X(1):55-75.
1985. In a recent paper on hunter-gatherer technology, Robin Torrence has suggested
that the tools used to procure animal resources should be more complex than those
used for plant resources. This idea has been applied to the study of the lithic
assemblage of the Hurricane Branch site, 40Jk27, in north-central Tennessee. The
analyzed sample of flakes from the main Woodland occupation at the site indicated
that primary flaking was the primary lithic manufacturing activity, and these results,
when compared to the chipped stone assemblage, suggested that the primary flaking
tools conformed to Binford's characterization of an expedient technology, while the
secondary flaking hafted bifaces, "projectile points," conformed to a curated
technology. The results of a usewear analysis suggest that these two classes of tools
were generally used as predicted by Torrence's model but the way in which other
artifacts were used indicated that other considerations, besides time input into
manufacture, were operating when a tool was selected for a task.
- AN INSTANCE OF MIDDLE ARCHAIC MORTUARY ACTIVITY IN
WESTERN KENTUCKY. Stephen T. Mocas. X(1):76-91. 1985. Feature 72 at the
Lawrence site (15-Tr-33) in western Kentucky was chosen for special attention
because the Middle Archaic burial combined a variety of elements of mortuary ritual
which are common in subsequent sites in the Lower Tennessee and Cumberland
drainages but thus far are not represented on any site of this antiquity in this area.
Additional data are also provided concerning the occurrence and status of the
domesticated dog at this site.
- A GOURD BOWL FROM SALTS CAVE, KENTUCKY. Kenneth B.
Tankersley, John L. Bassett, and Samuel S. Frushour. X(2):95-104. 1985. A gourd
bowl, recently discovered in Upper Salts Cave, Kentucky, was shown through
mineralogical analysis and experimental study to contain powdered gypsum. The
results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of this type of container in the
procurement of powdered gypsum from the Mammoth Cave system.
- THE HOEING FACTOR: AN HISTORICAL FOOTNOTE ON ADENA
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CENTRAL KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS. Sherri L.
Hilgeman. X(2):105-117. 1985. A review of the site information on file at the
Kentucky Office of State Archaeology has revealed that many of the "Adena
mounds," especially those along the southern and eastern margins of the Bluegrass,
are the result of Funkhouser and Webb's use of a series of county maps produced by
the Kentucky Geological Survey in the 1880s and attributed to Joseph B. Hoeing,
Survey cartographer. The history of the Survey's involvement in local and state
archaeology is outlined, as is the repercussions on Adena archaeology that have
resulted from Funkhouser and Webb's rather uncritical use of the site locations
depicted without the accompanying written commentaries by William N. Linney.
- A MIDDLE ARCHAIC BANNERSTONE "HOLE" FROM MIDDLE
TENNESSEE: SOME IMPLICATIONS. Jack L. Hofman. X(2):118-122. 1985.
The core removed during the process of drilling a Middle Archaic bannerstone is
reported from the Ervin site in Middle Tennessee. This item represents one aspect of
a prehistoric lapidary industry which is rarely documented through artifactual
remains. Recognition and documentation of bannerstone "holes" will enhance
evaluation of site functional variability and potentially the definition of activity loci.
The discard and recovery contexts of bannerstone "holes" should be distinct from that
of the actual bannerstones. This brief note is intended to increase awareness of this
artifact type, which has only rarely been recovered or recognized in the past.
- AN EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY LOG STRUCTURE IN
WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Donna C. Boyd and C. Clifford Boyd,
Jr. X(2):123-133. 1985. An early nineteenth-century two-story log dwelling is
described. The structure, probably built in the 1820s, was constructed of poplar and
oak logs fitted together by V-notching. The dimensions and methods used in the
construction of this dwelling compare favorably to other contemporary dwellings
surveyed in Washington and Grainger counties, Tennessee.
- PREVALENCE RATE OF DOUBLE TEETH IN DECIDUOUS
DENTITION AT AVERBUCH (40DV60). David R. Stevenson. X(2):134-155.
1985. The author surveyed 301 subadults from the Late Mississippian site of
Averbuch (40Dv60), near Nashville, Tennessee, to determine the prevalence of
double teeth in the deciduous dentition of a well documented archaeological skeletal
series and the affect of this anomaly on anterior succedaneous dentition. The
literature suggests that double teeth, sometimes referred to as fused or geminated
teeth, follow a familial pattern and are correlated with other development anterior
dental anomalies, such as oligodontia. Of the 301 subadults surveyed, 153 were
selected for prevalence rate assessment. All anomalies were confined to the
mandible, and the sample yielded seven cases of double teeth, two cases of
oligodontia and one case of a double tooth and oligodontia in the same mandible.
The prevalence rate for double teeth was estimated at 5.23% for double teeth and
oligodontia, 6.53%. Permanent teeth succeeding deciduous double teeth or
oligodontia followed a normal pattern or lacked an incisor. It is hypothesized that a
clustering of the trait at the site led to this high prevalence rate.
- PLANT REMAINS FROM THE WESTMORELAND-BARBER AND
PITTMAN-ALDER SITES, MARION COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Kristen
Johnson Gremillion and Richard A. Yarnell. XI(1):1-20. 1986. Plant remains from
two sites in the eastern Tennessee River Valley provide a record of plant use from
Late Archaic through Mississippian times. Evidence from Late Woodland deposits
indicates that chenopod was harvested; maize was also grown, but on a small scale.
Mississippian period samples illustrate the increased importance of maize and the
introduction of the common bean. Evidence is offered for the initially minor role of
maize as a crop which was incorporated into a gardening system based upon
indigenous small grains. Comparisons are made with Late Woodland and
Mississippian subsistence trends in other parts of eastern Tennessee.
- AN OUTLET FOR MALE AGGRESSION: THE SECRET FRATERNITY
OF THE SOUTHERN COCKFIGHTER. Gary L. Parker. XI(1):21-28. 1986. The
analysis of aggressive sporting events such as boxing, football, or hockey reveals
much about the way in which people tend to channel their aggression through another
person or persons. Cockfighting, an almost totally male oriented event, is examined
here in terms of man's tendency to displace aggressive traits a step further -- from the
human into the animal realm. Watching aggressive encounters of men and animals is
a favorite pastime of many people in the United States. The fighting cock is seen as
possessing many of the male characteristics, such as courage, tenacity, etc., that are
deemed important to men in Western society. Since physical aggression between two
humans is frowned upon in this country, the men of the cockfighting fraternity tend to
displace this behavior from the human into the animal realm by the fighting of and
betting on gamecocks. This article is an attempt to show that the sport of
cockfighting should be viewed as only another type of sport concerned with
ventilating unacceptable human physical aggression in the United States.
- THE JOHNSTON SITE: PRECURSOR TO PINSON MOUNDS? Mary L.
Kwas and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XI(1):29-41. 1986. Recent archaeological research
has demonstrated that large platform mounds were constructed in the Midsouth
during the Middle Woodland period. Located only several kilometers northwest of
the substantial Pinson mound group, the Johnston site includes two platform mounds
and a small, conical mound that can be attributed to the Middle Woodland period on
the basis of morphology and surface collections. The available data suggest that the
Johnston site dates to the first century B.C.
- SECULAR CHANGES IN HEIGHT AMONG THREE EASTERN
CHEROKEE POPULATIONS. Kenneth P. Cannon. XI(1):42-54. 1986.
Comparison of three populations of Eastern Band Cherokee Indians representing
three separate time periods -- the eighteenth century, the nineteenth century and the
twentieth century -was conducted to determine if significant secular changes in height
had occurred. The results indicate that a general trend of height increase was present,
but statistical variations complicate the results.
- PLANT MEDICINE OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS, I,
HEMATIC HERBS ("THE TONICS OF SPRING"). Charles W. Logsdon.
XI(1):55-68. 1986. Hematic tonics have long been used as remedial applications in
Southern Appalachian folk medicine. The herbal constituents in such "tonics"
include a number of plants with bioactive ingredients. While the majority of these
plants induce a dialysis effect through their diuretic properties, other properties are
also deemed important in so-called "blood cleansing." A survey of ethnographic and
pharmacologic literature notes some correlation between the stated purpose and the
actual effect of hematic plant tonics. These results point toward a valid use of the
"spring tonic" in folk medical practices.
- MIDDLE WOODLAND PANPIPES. Willard S. Bacon. XI(2):73-99. 1986.
Panpipe data lists complied by Griffin et al. (1970), Young (1976), and Seeman
(1979) are revised with data on very early and recent finds. The social status studies
of burials associated with panpipes by Greber (1979) and Jefferies (1976) are re-
examined. A review of available radiocarbon dates from panpipe producing sites
suggests they were popular for about two hundred and fifty years. Hypotheses to
explain the distribution of panpipes, and their role within the context of Hopewell
Interaction Sphere activities, are presented.
- EURO-AMERICAN PETROGLYPHS ASSOCIATED WITH PINE TAR
KILNS AND LYE LEACHING DEVICES IN KENTUCKY. Charles D.
Hockensmith. XI(2)100-131. 1986. Pine tar extraction and lye leaching are Euro-
American activities represented archaeologically by distinctive petroglyphs. These
historic stone carvings were named circle and line petroglyphs because of their
circular outline and associated linear grooves. The present study focuses on recorded
specimens in Kentucky and has three main objectives. The first objective is to
present an overview of pine tar and lye production which integrates data from historic
accounts, oral history, place names, and historic photographs. A second objective is
to describe all known circle and line petroglyphs in Kentucky in order to document
their individual characteristics and to facilitate future research efforts. Finally, the
circle and line petroglyphs in Kentucky are discussed as a whole, then compared with
those in adjacent states.
- ZIMMERLE BRICK KILN. Samuel D. Smith and Charlotte A. Watrin.
XI(2):132-144. 1986. Some categories of historic period archaeological sites
continue to rank among those rarely excavated. This is only the second reported
excavation of a brick kiln site in Tennessee, which must contain at least several
thousand such sites. The Zimmerle Brick Kiln remains were exposed by the
landowner, who then granted permission for an archaeological recording of what he
had found. The structural remains are interpreted as probably representing a mid-
nineteenth century home-use kiln. The find is important because of the paucity of
information concerning such sites. A full understanding of the Zimmerle Kiln
remains will not, however, be possible until a much larger body of comparative
archaeological data has been collected.
- CARIES FREQUENCY AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE DALLAS
SKELETAL REMAINS FROM TOQUA (40MR6), MONROE COUNTY,
TENNESSEE. Maria O. Smith. XI(2):145-155. 1986. The frequency and location
of carious lesions were examined on the dentition of the skeletal series from the
Dallas Phase site of Toqua (40Mr6), located on the Little Tennessee River south of
Knoxville. The subsistence strategy of the Dallas Phase was agriculture, and the
cariogenic cultigen cultivated was maize. The results obtained from examining the
caries experience of the Toqua sample are in agreement with results obtained from
other agriculturalist samples. Specifically, the sample is characterized both by a
dramatic increase in the frequency of caries and by a greater proportion of caries
located on the tooth crown. These two features are in contrast with observations
made on hunter/gatherer samples, including an Archaic sample from the Tennessee
Valley area. Hunter/gatherers have a low incidence of caries and exhibit caries
almost exclusively at the tooth cervix. Cervical caries are considered to be the
consequence of advanced periodontal disease which, by denuding the cervix of bone,
exposes the vulnerable cervix to demineralizing acids. Although proportionately only
about half of all carious lesions in the Toqua sample, the large number of cervical
caries suggests that periodontal disease was a significant contributing factor to the
high incidence of caries for the sample.
- THE WHITE CAPS OF SEVIER COUNTY: ECONOMIC AND
CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. Joseph C. Lewelling. XI(2):156-172. 1986. The
story of the Sevier County White Caps, a group of "moral vigilantes" operating in a
mountainous region of East Tennessee in the 1890s, is related. The group is
examined in historical and cultural contexts. Its' relationship with American
vigilante traditions and with Appalachian attitudes toward law and order is discussed.
In addition its' role as a conservative reaction to changing social and economic
conditions is explored.
- LITHIC ARTIFACTS FROM THE ANDERSON SITE, 40WM9. Bruce
Lindstrom and Kenneth W. Steverson. XII(1):1-50. 1987. This report represents a
portion of the archaeological research resulting from excavations in 1980 and 1981 at
the Anderson site in Williamson County, Tennessee. Archaeological fieldwork on
this Middle Archaic shell midden was performed by the authors and Mr. John Dowd
of Nashville, Tennessee. The stone artifacts from the Anderson site were carefully
excavated and recorded, and they reveal an interesting sequence of Middle Archaic
projectile points. This report describes that sequence and provides details on the
other stone artifacts from the site.
- THE KITTRELL MOUND AND AN ASSESSMENT OF BURIAL
MOUND CONSTRUCTION IN THE SOUTHERN RIDGE AND VALLEY
PROVINCE. Jefferson Chapman. XII(1):51-73. 1987. The Kittrell Mound is the
earliest dated (A.D. 485 and 655) mound in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley
of eastern Tennessee. Limited test excavations revealed a central burial pit, earthen
mound, and limestone cap. Utilizing dated mound sites and an evolutionary sequence
of pipe forms, a chronology of mound construction, from stone to earthen, is
proposed for the area of the southern Ridge and Valley. Data suggest that burial
mounds were constructed for a period of at least 1000 years.
- JUAN PARDO'S EXCURSION BEYOND CHIAHA. Charles Hudson.
XII(1):74-87. 1987. In 1567/68 Juan Pardo led a contingent of about 150 men into
the Tennessee Valley to the principal town of Chiaha, Olamico, located on
Zimmerman's Island. From here Pardo and his men made a brief excursion to
Chalahume and Satapo on the Little Tennessee River. Linguistic evidence indicates
that these were Muskogean place names which later underwent regular sound
changes when they were adopted by Cherokee speakers.
- INTEROBSERVER ERROR IN THE ANALYSIS OF NOMINAL
ATTRIBUTE STATES: A CASE STUDY. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr. XII(1):88-95.
1987. Five groups of lithic artifacts were analyzed by three lithic analysts using a
nominal variable analysis system. Interobserver agreement between the three
analysts for each nominal variable was calculated in order to evaluate and correct for
coding errors in the nominal system. Interobserver agreement on the raw material
and working edge attributes states was high. However, agreement on technological
stage or projectile point type was much lower, indicating the need for closer
monitoring of these attributes.
- THE CROCKETT COUNTY LITHOGLYPH. Charles H. McNutt.
XII(2):99-106. 1987. A figure etched into a small siltstone slab is described. The
artifact was found in Crockett County, Tennessee, on a terrace above the South Fork
of the Forked Deer River. Although it has no cultural associations, there is no reason
whatsoever to doubt its authenticity. Comparisons include a combination of traits
found on East Tennessee shell gorgets and a group of figures found in or near the
Mississippi Valley. The figure described in interpreted as late Mississippian and
relevant to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.
- THE USE OF NEWSPAPERS AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR
ASSESSING LOCAL FOODWAYS. Patricia A. Quiggins. XII(2);107-114. 1987.
In an attempt to determine the extent to which newspapers could be used as source
material for describing local foodways, a series of newspapers from Campbell
County, Tennessee, were surveyed. The period of the survey, from the turn of the
century until the 1940s, was a time in which there were significant changes in food
preparation and storage, transportation, and distribution, in part due to rural
electrification brought about by construction of Norris Dam. The newspaper data
were contrasted with data from household surveys undertaken by the Tennessee
Valley Authority. It was found that although household surveys are better sources of
data on individual household consumption, newspapers can be valuable sources for
information on how food is used in the community, what foods are potentially
available, the social uses of food, and how certain foods are valued. Local newspaper
can thus be a valuable data source for anthropologists.
- LYE LEACHING STONES IN VIRGINIA. Howard A MacCord, Sr.
XII(2):115-118. 1987. Prompted by the recent report on grooved stones in Tennessee
and Kentucky, the writer reports three such stones found or reported for the Piedmont
of Virginia. One is in Albemarle County, one in Bedford County, and one in Prince
Edward County. Others will no doubt come to light as additional surveys are done in
the region. The three reported are almost certain to have been used in lye-leaching.
Of the three, two were on isolated stones (too big and heavy to carry) and the third is
cut into the surface of an outcrop of bedrock.
- THE HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF TWO RURAL BLACKSMITH
SHOPS IN COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA. David S. Rotenstein. XII(2):119-127.
1987. In 1986 the Georgia Department of Transportation identified two rural
blacksmith shops during an archaeological survey. Both shops possessed standing
architecture and were investigated archaeologically. The analyses of the two shops
indicated consistencies with other blacksmith shops recorded archaeologically, yet
both shops possessed the evidence of automobile and tractor repair. These results,
and interviews with the blacksmith who built, operated, and abandoned one of the
shops provide an interesting perspective into the persistence of traditional culture in
our mass-produced mechanized society.
- PATTERN OF ANTEMORTEM TOOTH LOSS BETWEEN SELECTED
ABORIGINAL POPULATIONS OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AREA.
Maria O. Smith. XII(2):128-138. 1987. Antemortem tooth loss is caused by a variety
of factors. By far the most significant of these are caries, attrition and periodontal
disease. Since the incidence of the aforementioned conditions varies demonstrably
between subsistence strategies, it is often hypothesized that antemortem tooth loss
also varies between populations of contrasting subsistence economies. However, for
various reasons, simple or distinct patterns have not routinely emerged from previous
studies. An in-depth examination of antemortem tooth loss is undertaken for a
sample of hunter/gatherer and agriculturalist Tennessee Valley aboriginals. The data
reveal that discernible differences in antemortem tooth loss between the two
subsistence strategies are restricted to the molar teeth.
- PUBLIC EDUCATION IN ARCHAEOLOGY: AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL
PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS. Wayne D. Roberts. XII(2):139-
145. 1987. There is a pressing need for public education in archaeology. Because of
the public's fascination with archaeology, it is crucial that we reach people at a young
age, so that their interest and activities in the discipline can be channeled along
productive lines. This article describes a successful program developed by the author
for elementary students in Maryville, Tennessee.
- BURIAL PATTERNS FOR THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD IN MIDDLE
TENNESSEE. John B. Broster. XIII(1):1-15. 1988. The destruction of
Mississippian sites in the Nashville area has become a major concern for professional
archaeologists in the region. Extremely important data are being lost daily. This
study, based upon salvage excavations of twenty years ago, will hopefully draw
attention to what needs to be done for further work. The data have been drawn from
the Arnold Village and Ganier sites, and the analysis concentrates on information
from the cemeteries from both sites. An attempt to use burial information to
understand social and political organization is attempted with this preliminary study.
It is hoped that this may stimulate additional investigations of this very important and
disappearing cultural resource.
- "THEY'RE PEOPLE YOU CAN COUNT ON": A MISSOURI OZARKS
WORK ASSOCIATION. Burton L. Purrington and Jane Owen. XIII(1):16-34.
1988. Social relations in rural American communities are based on a variety of
factors including kinship, geographical proximity, mutual values, shared experiences,
and friendship. These variables typify an informal, voluntary, all-male work group in
a rural Ozarks neighborhood in southwest Missouri. For more than 50 years
participants have socialized, exchanged work, and provided assistance and emotional
support during crises in a network that offers not only economic advantages but the
social and psychological benefits of friendship as well. However, as the area's
agricultural economy declines, there are few, if any, young farmers left to carry the
association into the next generation.
- MIDDLE WOODLAND MORTUARY PATTERNING AT HELENA
CROSSING, ARKANSAS. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XIII(1):35-50. 1988. The
Helena Crossing site has been cited by previous researchers as representing the
product of a "stratified" Middle Woodland society. A formal analysis was
undertaken to explicate the nature of sociopolitical organization of the society
responsible for the earthworks at the site. The data are shown to be incompatible
with notions of a chiefdom level society.
- ABORIGINAL SKELETONS AND PETROGLYPHS IN OFFICER CAVE,
TENNESSEE. P. Willey, George Crothers, and Charles H. Faulkner. XIII(1):51-75.
1988. In 1987 two cavers discovered human skeletal remains and petroglyphs in
Officer Cave, Tennessee. The petroglyphs are four human heads or faces scratched
into the limestone wall of the cave. They are similar in style to glyphs and other art
forms dating to the Mississippian period (AD 900-1500). The glyphs may or may not
be associated with the skeletons. At least 15 skeletons (2 infants, 3 children, 1
adolescent, and 9 adults) are represented. Officer Cave is one of two caves now
known in the Southeast to contain both aboriginal skeletons and petroglyphs.
- THE BAT CREEK INSCRIPTION: CHEROKEE OR HEBREW? J.
Huston McCulloch. XIII(2):79-123. 1988. The Bat Creek inscription was found in
1889 in an undisturbed burial mound in eastern Tennessee. Its text was originally
identified as Cherokee by Cyrus Thomas, and later as a Paleo-Hebrew Judean
inscription of Roman era by Cyrus Gordon. Recently, Marshall McKusick has
reconfirmed Thomas's original identification. In the present paper, the inscription is
compared letter by letter to both Cherokee and to Paleo-Hebrew. Contrary to
McKusick, the latter fits significantly better, even when we use an early version of
Cherokee proposed by McKusick. When we invert the tablet from its purportedly
Cherokee orientation to improve its Cherokee fit, Hebrew still fits substantially
better. Cherokee fits only slightly better than English, either way up. Despite some
disagreement over details, we basically concur with Gordon's choice of the first or
perhaps second century A.D. as a paleographically and historically likely context for
this contact. We show that the brass bracelets found with the inscription, if of ancient
Mediterranean origin, are indicative of the narrow period 45 B.C. to 200 A.D. A new
radiocarbon date is consistent with the first or second century A.D., and rules out a
post-Columbian date for the burial.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT HIGH KNOB (40MO82), AN
EARLY ARCHAIC SITE IN MORGAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Joseph L.
Benthall and Mary Kathleen Manning. XIII(2):124-148. 1988. This paper presents
the results of test excavations conducted at site 40Mo82, situated at the summit of
High Knob in Morgan County, Tennessee. Testing of the site was prompted by
threatened destruction by coal mining operations. Test units excavated at random on
the site disclosed the presence of an Early Archaic Kirk Phase habitation floor with
associated artifacts within a natural depression on the mountain summit. Purrington
(1983) has proposed a model of relatively intensive use of uplands for the Early
Archaic Kirk Phase in the Appalachian Summit area. Such a land use pattern has
implications in terms of resource emphasis in the subsistence pattern. Still other
problems to be considered involve site function, seasonality, and interaction of
permanent residents with transient groups.
- A COMPARISON OF INFANT MORTALITY BETWEEN
PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS AND EARLY
AGRICULTURALISTS IN TENNESSEE: IMPLICATIONS FOR GENERAL
HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS. Rick R. Richardson. XIII(2):149-162.
1988. Although there is general agreement among many researchers concerning the
decline in health and nutrition which accompanied the shift from hunting and
gathering to agriculture, few studies have directly addressed the differences in infant
mortality between these two distinct cultural adaptational strategies. Data from the
present study indicate that an increase in infant mortality through time also
accompanied the corresponding changes in subsistence health and nutrition.
- A BLACK SKELETAL SAMPLE FROM A WASHINGTON, D.C.
CEMETERY IN THE CONTEXT OF NINETEENTH CENTURY URBAN
GROWTH. Robert W. Mann and James J. Krakker. XIV(1):1-32. 1989. During
residential construction in Washington D.C. in 1959, the incomplete skeletons of 13
blacks and one white were recovered from an unmarked cemetery. Based on
historical records and date of the site (ca. 1850-1900), the cemetery was in use during
a time of rapid black migration to the city. It is likely that some of the older
individuals once served as slaves. Pathological conditions include a very low
incidence of dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and the complete absence of
enamel hypoplasias. Also present is one case of scaphocephaly and a severely
ulcerated tibia. This small group appears to have been in relatively good health in
comparison with other black skeletal samples dating after 1900.
- CULTURAL CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN THE LATE WOODLAND
AND MISSISSIPPIAN OCCUPATIONS OF THE MOUSE CREEKS SITE.
Lynne P. Sullivan. XIV(1):33-63. 1989. In addition to the Mouse Creek phase
component, WPA-era excavators investigated the remnants of a Hamilton burial
mound and an Early Mississippian habitation area at the Mouse Creeks site. This
study describes these earlier components, reinterprets the sequence of site
occupation, and evaluates this sequence with a regional perspective. In situ
development is suggested as well as subregional variation in Late Mississippian
- A REVIEW OF THE TENNESSEE STATE CEMETERY LAW AND ITS
EFFECT UPON ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RECOVERY AND SITE
PRESERVATION. Michael C. Moore. XIV(1):64-76. 1989. This article presents
past and present interpretations of the Tennessee state cemetery law. Recent
legislation extends prehistoric graves the same legal protection as historic interments.
Under the new law, such prevalent events as looting of Indian graves and haphazard
destruction of prehistoric cemeteries are now illegal. Termination of land use as
cemetery procedures are used to excavate and relocate known prehistoric graves prior
to site destruction. One unfortunate consequence of this statute has been an
excessive loss of valuable non-mortuary archaeological information.
- CROOKED CREEK POINTS, LONE TREE POINTS, AND A
TERMINAL ARCHAIC-EARLY WOODLAND BURIAL FROM
SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XIV(1):77-84. 1989. The
Crooked Creek and Lone Tree projectile points have been identified as Terminal
Archaic artifacts in the White River Valley of Indiana. This identification is based on
the occurrence of Lone Tree points with a burial dating from this time period. [SEE
REPRINT OF ARTICLE IN 1990].
- SEASONALITY ANALYSES OF CATFISH PECTORAL SPINES FROM
A SOUTHEASTERN ARCHAEOLOGICAL FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE. Rob
Hoffman. XIV(1):85-92. 1989. A technique for determining seasonality from catfish
pectoral spines was applied to archaeological specimens from a Louisiana. Site. The
results of the analysis were relatively successful in spite of the poor state of
preservation in the overall assemblage, the site's southerly location, and the burned
condition of the specimens. Analysis of catfish pectoral spines appears to offer a
potentially valuable tool for the assessment of seasonality from certain types of sites
in the Southeastern United States.
- THE QUAD SITE REVISITED: AN INTRODUCTION. Charles H.
Faulkner. XIV(2):97-101. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT, THE FOLLOWING IS THE
FIRST PARAGRAPH OF THE ARTICLE]. When David Hulse and Joe Wright
contacted me in January, 1988 and inquired if the Tennessee Anthropological
Association would be interested in publishing the personalized reminiscences of the
senior author's research at the Quad and closely related sites on the Tennessee River
in the vicinity of Decatur, Alabama, I was delighted. The Quad site is probably one
of the best known Paleo-Indian sites in eastern North America, and any additional
information about the work there would be enthusiastically received by our readers.
Since the first article on the Quad site was published in the Tennessee Archaeologist
(Soday 1954), and subsequent articles on this other near-by Paleo-Indian sites were
published in that journal (Cambron 1955, 1956; Cambron and Hulse 1960), David
and Joe wanted to continue the tradition and published their article in another
Tennessee journal. Fortune continued to smile on the TAA when a few months later
Charles Hubbert called and said he was submitting an article on a reinterpretation of
the Paleo-Indian settlement pattern at the Quad site. Thus, it was decided to devote
this entire issue to what Hulse and Wright call the "Pine Tree-Quad-Old Slough
Complex", a series of early man sites in the Middle Tennessee River Valley.
- THE PINE TREE-QUAD-OLD SLOUGH COMPLEX. David C. Hulse and
Joe L. Wright. XIV(2):102-147. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT].
- PALEO-INDIAN SETTLEMENT IN THE MIDDLE TENNESSEE
VALLEY: RUMINATIONS FROM THE QUAD PALEO-INDIAN LOCALE.
Charles M. Hubbert. XIV(2):148-164. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT, THE FOLLOWING
ARE THE FIRST TWO PARAGRAPHS OF THE ARTICLE]. During the winter of
1986-1987, the Alabama State Museum acquired Special-Use Permit 05-AL-2-87
from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the purpose of doing archaeological site
reconnaissance at the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is protected, by
law, from all forms of collecting and other archaeological activity except those
authorized under a Special-Use Permit. This gave me an opportunity to re-examine
the Quad site, the Pine Tree site, and the Stone Pipe site. These are well-known
Paleo-Indian sites located on the Tennessee River in the Wheeler National Wildlife
Refuge. It was a rare opportunity to visit these famous sites, and to ponder the nature
of the human events which occurred there. It seemed a good time for me to
reappraise the evidence for Paleo-Indian in the area in an effort to make the
distribution of sites understandable. This discussion is a synopsis of my thoughts on
- LOG HOUSES IN OVERTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. W. Calvin
Dickinson. XV(1):1-12. 1990. The log houses in Overton County were constructed
between the 1790s and the 1930s. They still exist in large numbers and generally
follow the design characteristics of log houses in other areas of eastern Tennessee
and the eastern United States. Overton County houses are different from those in
many other areas, however, in that Overton County builders did not use pine timbers,
and because most Overton County log houses were not originally single pen; most
were double pen or dogtrot. They were usually story-and-a-half structures with gable-
end chimneys, and they were generally built on a hill, oriented in a south-north
direction. Some of these houses are now (1989) beyond repair, and some are being
dismantled and reconstructed on other sites. Others are in the process of restoration
because of the popularity of log houses at the present time.
- MELUNGEONS: COMPARISON OF GENE FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTIONS TO THOSE OF WORLDWIDE POPULATIONS. James L.
Guthrie. XV(1):13-22. 1990. Worldwide gene frequency distributions in five major
blood group systems were searched for similarity to those of the Melungeons.
Calculations of the Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) identified populations from
the Mediterranean region and from coastal Europe that do not differ significantly
from the Melungeons. All others, including Amerindians, differ widely.
Hybridization with Indians or with Blacks is not required for the data to fit
Mediterranean populations. However, if it is assumed that the Melungeons are
basically English, a considerable black component is required. These results are
consistent with the Melungeon tradition that they are Portuguese, and are in
substantial agreement with the findings of Pollitzer and Brown, whose 1969 data
provided the basis for the present calculations.
- PREHISTORIC CAMPSITES IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN
MOUNTAINS: THE INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AT
HIGHER ELEVATIONS. Harry M. Piper and Jacquelyn G. Piper. XV(1):23-33.
1990. Data gathered at 123 prehistoric sites in the mountains of southwest Virginia,
including data from 12 sites which were test excavated, provided information on the
pattern of utilization of the higher elevations. Statistically tested results suggest that,
in the rugged mountain terrain, the desirability of level land for campsites outweighed
the fact that these locations were often distant from water. Other topographic site
locational variables are examined including the importance of prehistoric pathways.
A testable hypothesis for locating culturally stratified ridgetop sites is presented,
together with examples from the test excavations. Should the suggested hypothesis
prove reliable, it may increase the probability of locating culturally stratified upland
sites with the very few test excavation units characteristic of initial-level CRM
- "MY GREAT GRANDMA WAS A CHEROKEE INDIAN PRINCESS:"
ETHNIC FORGERY OR DARWINIAN REALITY. Michael H. Logan.
XV(1):34-43. 1990. There is a remarkable thing about many Anglo-Americans here
in the Southeast... a surprising number possess some long-lost Indian ancestor,
notably a great grandmother who was typically not only Cherokee, but a princess as
well. While many of these self-proclaimed ties with Native American peoples are
valid, an equal number, or even more, are suspect. This paper examines the question
of professed Indian ancestry from historical, social, and legal perspectives. Finally,
by drawing upon a well-known hypothesis in evolutionary biology, the suggestion is
made that there may be, in fact, a very good reason why so many maternal Indian
ancestors lie hidden in the family closes of non-Indian America.
- CROOKED CREEK POINTS, LONE TREE POINTS, AND A
TERMINAL ARCHAIC-EARLY WOODLAND BURIAL FROM
SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XV(1):44-52. 1990. This paper
discusses Crooked Creek points, Lone Tree points, and a burial from the Benjamin
site in the White River Valley of southwestern Indiana. The point types are thought
to be related and to be affiliated with the Terminal Archaic-Early Woodland period.
Lone Tree points, related points, and bone and antler artifacts were found with the
burial. The burial is informative in that it provides an associated group of artifacts
pertaining to an occupation about which little is known. [The following editor's note
was appended: This article, which appeared in the Spring 1989 issue of the journal is
being reprinted due to errors that I made in setting up the figures which mis-identified
the artifacts. I apologize for the error (C.H.F.)].
- A REVIEW OF THE RESULTS OF THE WATAUGA
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr. XV(2):57-81. 1990. A
summary of ceramic and lithic variability in the artifact collections from the Watauga
Reservoir is presented, as well as a chronology for the reservoir area. Predominant
Late Archaic and Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric period use of the reservoir area is
indicated by the frequencies of temporally diagnostic artifacts in these collections.
The attribute characteristics of artifacts suggest close prehistoric cultural
relationships between Native American groups in upper East Tennessee, Southwest
Virginia, and western North Carolina.
- THE ANDERSON SITE REVISITED: RESULTS OF RECENT
INVESTIGATIONS AT 40WM9, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE.
Michael C. Moore, C. Parris Stripling, John T. Dowd, and Richard D. Taylor, Jr.
XV(2):82-95. 1990. Investigations at the Anderson site were initiated in August of
1989 to assess the impacts of construction, looting, and land use changes upon the
site prior to preparation of a National Register nomination. Despite some damage to
the cultural deposits, the site was found to retain much of its integrity as an estimated
80% of the midden appears to be intact. The 1989 work affirms that the Anderson
site will continue to play an important role in future studies of Middle Archaic groups
in Middle Tennessee.
- BUTTONS AND BRICKS: SOME ARTIFACTUAL INFORMATION
FROM SMITH COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Samuel D. Smith. XV(2):96-114. 1990.
An artifact found on a farm in Smith County, Tennessee, is believed to be a mold for
making pewter buttons. The kind of buttons that would have been produced using
this mold suggests a similarity to eighteenth century examples from the northeastern
United States. An examination of the site where this mold was found led to the
discovery of a partially standing brick kiln that is a uniquely preserved example of
brick making technology as it existed during the nineteenth century. Both of these
artifacts have wide ranging implications for understanding two areas of past
technology that are frequently manifested in the historic archaeological record.
- LITHIC ANALYSIS AND PALEO-INDIAN UTILIZATION OF THE
TWELKEMEIER SITE (40HS173). John B. Broster and Mark R. Norton.
XV(2):115-131. 1990. An analysis of lithic artifacts from the Twelkemeier site was
undertaken by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology on this very important Paleo-
Indian locality. A total of 116 tools was examined which probably date between
11,500 and 10,000 years B.P. Important information on tool types and lithic resource
utilization was developed from this study.
- EPISODIC ZOOARCHAEOLOGY: INTRASITE VARIABILITY IN A
FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE FROM REELFOOT LAKE, WEST TENNESSEE.
Rob Hoffman. XV(2):132-143. 1990. Faunal assemblages from archaeological
contexts are often presented as monothetic sets, an amalgamation of data from
various locations within a single site. This allows for types of analysis that ultimately
focus on very general patterns of resource exploitation at the settlement level.
Analyses of intrasite variability in faunal assemblages are much less common. At the
Mississippian site 40Lk3 at Reelfoot Lake, faunal remains recovered from spatially
discrete pit features give a more mosaic view of the resource utilization at the site.
Comparisons of these features suggest that seasonal and geographic variability in
resource exploitation may produce contrasts that are as profound within sites as
between sites. Consequently, researchers may want to incorporate the intrasite
variability in faunal assemblages as a factor in generating multi-site comparative
- THE BAT CREEK STONE: JUDEANS IN TENNESSEE? Robert C.
Mainfort, Jr. And Mary L. Kwas. XVI(1):1-19. 1991. An inscribed stone reportedly
excavated by the Smithsonian Institution from a burial mound in eastern Tennessee
has been heralded by cult archaeologists as incontrovertible evidence of pre-
Columbian Old World contacts. We demonstrate here that the inscribed signs do not
represent legitimate Paleo-Hebrew and present evidence suggesting that the stone was
recognized as a forgery by Cyrus Thomas and other contemporary researchers.
- A MIDDLE WOODLAND SOLSTICE ALIGNMENT AT OLD STONE
FORT? James E. Pearsall and Clyde D. Malone. XVI(1):20-28. 1991. Evidence for
celestial alignment of Middle Woodland structures to the sun and moon has been
reported for both a hilltop enclosure (Essenpreis and Duszynski 1989) and for several
geometric earthworks (Hively and Horn 1982, 1984) associated with the Ohio
Hopewell. Research suggests that the Hopewell influence is evident not only in the
earthwork construction methods used by local Middle Woodland populations at the
Old Stone Fort in Coffee County, Tennessee, but also in the orientation of certain
features of this earth work toward the rise of the summer solstice sun.
- THE FENWICK MINE COMPLEX: A LACK OF PHYSICAL AND
CULTURAL IMPACT. Lori Barfield. XVI(1):29-45. 1991. The Fenwick mines
were operated by the Low Moor Company between 1900 and 1924 in Craig County,
Virginia. A sizable town comprised of three ethnic groups: native white, Italian
immigrants, and blacks, was associated with the mining complex. Very little physical
or cultural evidence exists today as testimony to the presence of the mine or the town.
Archival material and oral histories were used to reconstruct the mining activities and
the mining town of Fenwick. Although Appalachian communities are frequently
depicted as untouched by outside influences, the events surrounding the
disappearance of the Fenwick Mine Camp are not believed to be idiosyncratic.
- CHILD SEX RATIOS AMONG THE MICMAC AND THE PACIFIC
NORTHWEST TRIBES: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TRIVERS-WILLARD
HYPOTHESIS. S. Diane Robinette. XVI(1):46-68. 1991. The Trivers-Willard
hypothesis has been used extensively in recent years as an explanation for differential
parental investment and gender-biased child mortality rates. This paper will assess
the hypothesis using the Boas data for the Micmac of Maine and Eastern Canada and
several tribes within the Pacific Northwest culture area. Socioeconomic and ethnic
status will be examined to provide the foundations for the analysis of the child sex
ratios at birth and subsequent mortality rates. Based on the results of this analysis,
suggestions will be made as to why the Trivers-Willard hypothesis may hold true for
certain groups and not for others. A discussion of possible overriding factors will
also be provided.
- INVESTIGATIONS INTO EARLY PLANT DOMESTICATES AND
FOOD PRODUCTION IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE: A STATUS REPORT.
Gary D. Crites. XVI(1):69-87. 1991. Continuing paleoethnobotanical studies in
Middle Tennessee are producing important new data. Cucurbita remains from circa
7,000-4,000 year old contexts are among the earliest known north of Mexico.
Sumpweed (Iva annua) has now been recovered from third millennium B.C. context.
Domesticated sumpweed and sunflower have been recovered from human fecal
specimens dating to the third century B.C. Domesticated Chenopodium has been
recovered from circa 625 B.C. temporal context in the Duck River Valley. The
earliest known occurrence of maygrass has been pushed back approximately 2,300
years to circa 4,300 B.P., and a previously unidentified morphotype of knotweed
(Polygonum) has been identified in an Early Mississippian sample from the
- EARLY KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE RIVER FERRIES. Tony Holmes.
XVI(2):91-114. 1991. Knoxville has had at least 23 river ferries at eight different
crossings of the Tennessee, Holston, and French Broad Rivers. The ferries played
critical roles in the social and economic lives of the city between the 1790s and the
1930s. Nine of the ferries operated in the Forks of the Rivers area where the Holston
and French Broad rivers form the headwaters of the Tennessee River. Fourteen
additional ferries operated near the original "old" Knoxville. Several of the ferries
were owned by some of Knoxville's earliest merchants, landowners, lawyers, and
political leaders. Knoxville's "founder," James White, was a ferry owner. So was his
son, Hugh Lawson White, a U.S. Senator and presidential candidate. Revolutionary
War veteran Col. Francis A. Ramsey and his remarkable son, Dr. James G.M.
Ramsey, were also both ferry owners. Although Knoxville has no ferries today, the
city's heritage is richer for having so many in the past.
- PERSPECTIVES ON PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT IN THE
CUMBERLAND PLATEAU: THE VIEW FROM STATION CAMP. Robert A.
Pace and Christopher T. Hays. XVI(2):115-149. 1991. Recent archaeological
investigations at terrace sites on the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River have
resulted in the recovery of lithic, ceramic, and contextual data useful in
reconstructing aspects of late Archaic and Late Woodland settlement organization on
the Cumberland Plateau of north-central Tennessee. The results of these
investigations are discussed with reference to previous interpretations of Archaic and
Woodland lithic subsystem organization which have been based primarily on data
from upland and rockshelter locations (i.e. Ferguson 1988). Comparative analysis of
lithic data from the Station Camp components supports the conclusion that
characteristic patterns of assemblage variability can be broadly associated with
Archaic and Woodland occupations, with major points of divergence suggesting
change in lithic resource procurement and allocation practices. We cannot conclude,
however, that these trends represent fundamental changes in overall patterns of
- SPLASH DAMS USED TO MOVE TIMBER IN EASTERN KENTUCKY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO THE RED RIVER GORGE. Fred E. Coy,
Jr.; Tom Fuller, Larry G. Meadows, and Don Fig. XVI(2):150-179. 1991. The
construction and use of "splash dams" for moving timber to the sawmills in the Red
River drainage of Eastern Kentucky is described. The information on the
construction being primarily derived from oral histories obtained from men who,
early in the twentieth century, had been personally involved in the operations of these
unique structures. Photographs of "splash dams" and photographs of a reconstructed
model are included.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40LK3 AND
IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AT
REELFOOT LAKE, TENNESSEE. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And Michael C.
Moore. XVI(2):180-197. 1991. Archaeological investigations at mound site 40Lk3
under drought conditions discovered intact cultural features within an area submerged
during the New Madrid earthquake of 1811-1812. Associated ceramic vessel forms
suggest an occupation of post A.D. 1050 to 1150. The identification of intact
prehistoric features explicitly illustrates that recently proposed water level changes
pose a serious threat to archaeological sites below as well as above the current pool
- NEIGHBORHOOD REVITALIZATION AND HISTORIC
PRESERVATION: POTENTIAL HOUSING FOR THE URBAN AND RURAL
WORKING POOR. Deborah L. German. XVI(2):198-204. 1991. The focus of this
article is the anthropologist's role in using historic structures as housing for the
working poor. The usually-urban phenomenon of gentrification is discussed briefly.
A review of government agencies and housing finance programs is included. Habitat
for Humanity, a private, non-profit organization, is advanced as a potential model for
involving the working poor in historic preservation and urban revitalization. Case
examples include projects in the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of New York City;
Charleston South Carolina; and Savannah, Georgia.
- PLANTATIONS ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE OLD SOUTH:
MODELING A NEW APPROACH. Susan C. Andrews and Amy L. Young.
XVII(1):1-12. 1992. Most North American plantation archaeology has focused on
very wealthy antebellum plantations in the southeastern Coastal Plain. In addition,
the ethnohistoric data used by historical archaeologists in these studies have been
derived from late antebellum slave narratives published by abolitionists. As a result,
historical archaeologists attempt to fit such things as settlement patterns, artifact
patterns, and master-slave relations into models which may be inappropriate to
regions other than the Coastal Plain and temporal periods other than late antebellum.
A more regional and temporally sensitive approach to plantation archaeology is
advocated, to allow for analysis of variability between plantations of different
regions, sizes, and periods. Two plantations: Locus Grove in Jefferson County,
Kentucky and Brabson Ferry in Sevier County, Tennessee are used in developing a
model for the study of the plantations on the periphery of the Old South.
- 40HS200: THE NUCKOLLS EXTENSION SITE. Mark R. Norton and John
B. Broster. XVII(1):13-32. 1992. An assemblage of Paleoindian projectile points and
unifacial tools from a site on Kentucky Lake is analyzed. The material consists of
296 projectile points and 155 unifacial tools. A large number of these projectile
points are basal fragments, suggesting a rearmament locality.
- ARCHAEOASTRONOMY IN TENNESSEE: THE MOONSHADOW
SITE AND INDIAN SUNSHRINES OF THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU.
Richard M. Mooney. XVII(1):33-53. 1992. A concise description of the discovery
and evidence of archaeoastronomy sites in the mountains of Tennessee is presented. .
The Moonshadow site, of possible Woodland association, is featured for the
correlation of solar and lunar shadows with petroglyphs on a sandstone cliff wall at
the time of the winter solstice sunset and southerly, lunar standstill periods. Another,
much more extensive site, uses the shadow of a stick set into a drilled hole to mark
the solar equinox, as a shadow falls onto the center of a distinct petroglyph.. While
these features are first described here, explaining the alignments to assist the reader
in analyzing and preserving other sites in the primary purpose of this report.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40DV35: A MULTI-
COMPONENT SITE IN THE CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY, DAVIDSON
COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore, Emanuel Breitburg, John T. Dowd,
C. Parris Stripling, and John B. Broster. XVII(1):54-78. 1992. Despite years of
agricultural activity across 40Dv35, recent test excavations have determined that
intact cultural features are still present. Primary habitation of the area is suggested to
be Middle Archaic through Early Woodland based upon temporally sensitive artifacts
recovered from the site. Cut marks on a humerus from one of the burial features
provide the first direct evidence of the intentional disarticulation of an individual, for
the purpose of interment, found in Middle Tennessee.
- SMITH COUNTY HISTORICAL HOMES. W. Calvin Dickinson.
XVII(1):79-89. 1992. An architectural survey of Smith County, funded by the
Tennessee Historical Commission and conducted by the Upper Cumberland Institute
of Tennessee Technological University, found 1476 homes built before 1940. Most
of these are plain, traditional structures of little or no architectural significance, but
almost three hundred are of historical interest. Many are log structures built during
the settlement period of the county's history. Most of the other houses are frame, and
only 11 are brick. Some of the frame and brick structures are stylistically important,
and some have architectural embellishment related to historical styles.
- CHOCTAW BALL RACKET MANUFACTURE. Mitchell R. Childress.
XVII(2):93-119. 1992. Contemporary manufacture of Choctaw ballsticks (kapocha)
is described. The observations and data are used to consider the activity in
ethnoarchaeological perspective and an estimation of the time required to perform
analogous prehistoric craft work is offered. A general consideration of the behavioral
specifics and constraints associated with the work is provided and implications for
the interpretation of Mississippian period lithic assemblages are discussed.
- SECOND REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS AT THE JOHNSON SITE,
40DV400: THE 1991 FIELD SEASON. John B. Broster and Gary L. Barker.
XVII(2):120-130. 1992. Site 40Dv400 is a predominantly Early Archaic camp with
evidence of Paleoindian occupation. Intact features and cultural deposits associated
with the early prehistoric components are evidence in the stratigraphy of this river
bank site. Although some information has been lost to previous erosion,
archaeological excavations are warranted to recover important information
concerning Early Archaic and Paleo-Indian occupations in the Middle Tennessee
- UPLAND ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CENTRAL BASIN: RESULTS OF
LIMITED TEST EXCAVATIONS AT SITE 40DV256, DAVIDSON COUNTY,
TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore, Mark R. Norton, and Kevin E. Smith.
XVII(2):131-155. 1992. Tennessee Division of Archaeology personnel recorded
intact midden deposits and cultural features on an upland site that overlooks the
Cumberland River floodplain. Primary occupation of the site area was by Middle
Woodland groups. Evidence for Early Archaic through transitional Late
Archaic/Early Woodland components was also recovered. The site residents appear
to have used this locale as a seasonal camp for hunting/butchering and tool
- THE PREHISTORY OF THE OCOEE RIVER DRAINAGE AS
EVIDENCED BY RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE AND
LIMITED TESTING IN THE CHEROKEE NATIONAL FOREST. Donald M.
Thieme and Glyn D. DuVall. XVII(2):156-180. 1992. Recent archaeological
reconnaissance and limited testing in the Cherokee National Forest suggest that the
prehistory of the Ocoee River drainage is similar to that reported for the Great Smoky
Mountains and other portions of the Appalachian Summit region. In particular, nick
point exposures of quartzite were found to have been exploited as prehistoric quarry
areas. Results of testing one such quarry area with 1 x 1 meter test units are reported.
A summary of temporally diagnostic artifacts recovered during reconnaissance of a
proposed corridor for US 64 and proposed whitewater venues for the 1996 Olympics
are also provided.
- TRADITION, TOURISM, AND THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR
THE PRESERVATION AND PERPETUATION OF STORYTELLING:
WHAT A STORY! Steven Jackson. XVII(2):181-190. 1992. The National
Storytelling Festival will be conducting its twentieth annual session this fall in
Jonesborough, Tennessee. In this relatively short span of time, the festival and the
organization behind it, the National Association for the Preservation and Perpetuation
of Storytelling, have created a worldwide revival of a folk tradition. This revival has
brought about a tremendous amount of change upon the art of storytelling, its
participants, and its recipients. That is the story to be told.
- THE BAT CREEK STONE: A REPLY TO MAINFORT AND KWAS. J.
Huston McCulloch. XVIII(1):1-26. 1993. Mainfort and Kwas (Tennessee
Anthropologist 1991), in a comment on my own 1988 TA article, criticize the Bat
Creek stone and Cyrus Gordon's identification of the script on it as 1st or 2nd century
A.D. Paleo-Hebrew on several grounds. They argue 1. That the inscription is not
Paleo-Hebrew, 2. That the brass bracelets are in all probability modern trade items, 3.
That the radiocarbon date I reported is unreliable, 4. That Cyrus Thomas denounced
his own Mound Explorations report as containing fraudulent artifacts, including the
Bat Creek Stone itself, and 5. That the Smithsonian agent who found the stone was
particularly unreliable. The present reply refutes these arguments and adds new
information concerning the patina of the letters and the precedents for the word
- ARCHAEOLOGY AT OLD TOWN [40Wm2]: A MISSISSIPPIAN
MOUND-VILLAGE CENTER IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE.
Kevin E. Smith. XVIII(1):27-44. 1993. Tennessee Division of Archaeology
personnel have salvaged archaeological data from a privately-owned Mississippian
mound-village complex on the Harpeth River on two occasions over the past decade.
The results of these limited salvage projects, along with a review of antiquarian
observations of the site are presented and interpreted below. Primary occupation of
the site area is interpreted as occurring during the Thruston phase (ca. A.D. 1250-
1450) based on diagnostic artifacts and a single radiocarbon date.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE PUCKETT SITE
(40SW228): A PALEOINDIAN/EARLY ARCHAIC OCCUPATION ON THE
CUMBERLAND RIVER, STEWART COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Mark R. Norton
and John B. Broster. XVIII(1):45-58. 1993. This report presents the results of
limited testing of an intact Paleoindian/Early Archaic midden in Middle Tennessee.
Radiometric determinations for Dalton and Kirk Corner-Notched projectile points
were obtained from this midden deposit.
- SOCIAL STATUS DIFFERENTIATION IN A MODERN TENNESSEE
CEMETERY. Hugh B. Matternes. XVIII(1):59-82. 1993. Cemeteries are
important American status indicators. Sections in a large urban cemetery in
Knoxville, Tennessee are predominated by specific marker forms, suggesting that
gravestones indicated different social affiliations. Relationships between kinship,
social class, cemetery section and marker form indicated that family groups were
associated with stone marker dominated sections and non-family burials were related
to bronze marker sections. Near absence of lower class interments is evidence that
social distance between lower and higher classes is expressed by burial segregation.
The choice of a marker, section, or cemetery over others suggests that the social
values attached to each of these are important aspects of the community
- THE BAT CREEK FRAUD: A FINAL STATEMENT. Robert C. Mainfort,
Jr. And Mary L. Kwas. XVIII(2):87-93. 1993. [NO ABSTRACT, THE
FOLLOWING IS THE INTRODUCTION]. Debate over the so-called Bat Creek
stone and related issues has monopolized a substantial amount of journal space that
could have more profitably been used for scholarly articles in the field of
anthropology, rather than fantasy. Unfortunately the Tennessee Anthropologist now
has the dubious distinction of catapulting the stone into some degree of national
notoriety (McCulloch 1993b). We regret imposing again upon the editor and readers,
but the recent attack on us in this journal leave little choice. Since we would have
preferred not to publish additional commentary on this matter, we will simply cut to
the heart of the matter and refer readers to previous articles for background material
(Mainfort and Kwas 1991; McCulloch 1988).
- THE BRICK CHURCH BUSINESS PARK SITE (40DV301): SALVAGE
EXCAVATIONS AT A MISSISSIPPIAN HAMLET. Kevin E. Smith, C. Parris
Stripling, and Michael C. Moore. XVIII(2):94-116. 1993. Limited salvage
excavations at a small stone box cemetery and associated habitation area were
conducted by a private archaeological consulting firm and the Tennessee Division of
Archaeology. Under contract with a development firm, DuVall & Associates, Inc.
Archaeologically removed human burials (pursuant to Tennessee Codes Annotated
[46-4-101-104 et. Seq.]). During the course of stripping overburden to locate burials,
the remains of a burned Mississippian structure were exposed. Subsequently, Parris
Stripling of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology was able to partially investigate
the structure prior to its destruction. The results of these limited investigations are
presented, with analysis and interpretations of the placement of hamlets and small
villages within the local settlement hierarchy.
- TURPENTINE: A INTRIGUING ELEMENT OF SOUTHERN FOLK
MEDICINE. Nancy C. Peacock. XVIII(2):117-126. 1993. Turpentine has long
been part of the American folk medical repertoire. Everything from the common
cold to calluses seems to have a home remedy based on the use of turpentine. This
paper addresses the history of the turpentine industry, possible origins of turpentine
cures and turpentine as medicine.
- THE USE OF THE OPENING INTERROGATIVE IN BELIZE. Hector N.
Qirko. XVIII(2):127-130. 1993. The apparent reflex use of opening interrogatives in
conversation in Belmopan, Belize is discussed as potentially a means through which
inhabitants of multilingual societies obtain information regarding language-use
hierarchies, social status, and ethnic affiliation.
- A PROBABLE CASE OF DECAPITATION AT THE LATE ARCHAIC
ROBINSON SITE (40SM4), SMITH COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Maria O. Smith.
XVIII(2):131-142. 1993. Particular forms of perimortem violent trauma have been
associated with warfare. These data have been principally derived from Late
Prehistoric and Protohistoric sites. Recent examination of Archaic Period sites from
the Western Tennessee Valley has revealed that these perimortem violent trauma
have a considerable antiquity. An individual from the Late Archaic Robinson Site,
located in Middle Tennessee in the Cordell Hull Reservoir, exhibits a series of
cutmarks reflective of warfare related trophy taking. This case is of interest because
it provides important baseline information concerning the spatial distribution of
forearm trophy taking at this early archaeological horizon and it appears to be the
earliest example of decapitation trophy taking in Tennessee, if not the Southeast.
- NAILING DOWN THE PATTERN. Amy Lambeck Young. XIX(1):1-21.
1994. Three methods are developed for interpreting nail assemblages from 19th- and
20th- century contexts. All methods are based on ethnoarchaeology, experimental
archaeology, and direct observations of nails operating in their systemic contexts.
The first method discriminates between a nail assemblage from an ephemeral
structure site and an assemblage from a disposal site. The second enables the
archaeologist to identify whether a building was log, timber frame, or balloon frame
construction. The third method is designed to discriminate between a nail
assemblage in a structure torn down to recycle the lumber or structures dismantled
and materials discarded. These methods are used to interpret nails from two East
Tennessee archaeological sites. It is concluded that such middle-range research is an
effective aid for interpreting site formation processes on historic sites.
- THINGS THAT GO "BUMP" IN THE NIGHT. Susan R. Coleman.
XIX(1):22-27. 1994. Superstitions are prevalent in both Irish and Appalachian
societies. People use these superstitions to try to predict everything from what the
weather will be like to the death of a loved one. This gives them the feeling that
perhaps nature is not completely unpredictable, and they have time to prepare for
what is to come. Both Irish and Appalachian societies believe in omens that predict
the death of someone close. The Irish believe in banshees that wail before a death,
lights that appear, foxes that gather around the home of one who is about to die, and
other signs of death. In the Appalachian mountains, animals that appear to act
strangely before a death, odd cries, and globes of light are some of the omens in
which people believe. These omens of death in both the Irish and Appalachian
cultures are analogous in that they mistake oddities in nature for signs foretelling
death. Such can be explained because of the number of Irish and Scotch-Irish
immigrants into the Appalachian region. They brought with them their beliefs, which
they gradually adapted to reflect the influences of their new environment and the
traditions of other peoples, such as the Germans, who were immigrating into the same
- EXPERIMENTAL PINE TAR MANUFACTURE AT CUMBERLAND
FALLS STATE PARK, KENTUCKY. Charles D. Hockensmith. XIX(1):28-45.
1994. The manufacture of pine tar was an important historic industry in the
southeastern United States. While much has been written about the large commercial
pine tar kilns, very little has been published on the small kilns that utilized stone
bases. The experimental study reported in this paper provides several details about
this process that were not previously recorded. Consequently, this paper
demonstrates how experimental studies can aid our understanding of poorly
documented small scale industries such as pine tar manufacture.
- A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF MISSISSIPPIAN LITHIC
TECHNOLOGY AT WICKLIFFE MOUNDS (15BA4), BALLARD COUNTY,
KENTUCKY. Philip J. Carr and Brad Koldehoff. XIX(1):46-65. 1994. Recent
investigations at the Wickliffe site (15Ba4), a Mississippian town and mound
complex near the juncture of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, have defined three
phases: Early (AD 1100-1200), Middle (AD 1200-1250), and Late (AD 1250-1350).
Technological and raw material analyses of the chipped stone artifacts recovered
from the 1984 excavations at Mound A have determined that lithic procurement and
tool production strategies remained relatively constant. Both local and nonlocal raw
materials were exploited: local chert cobbles were worked into arrow points and
flake tools on-site, while most nonlocal cherts (e.g. Mill Creek and Dover) were
arriving as finished tools, usually as large bifaces. This pattern is believed to be
evidence of an exchange network that circulated goods produced by specialists.
Further evaluation of this interpretation and a full description of the organization of
Mississippian chipped stone technology at Wickliffe are in progress.
- CULTURE, HONOR AND VIOLENCE IN APPALACHIA. John H. Hamer.
XIX(1):66-87. 1994. This paper is concerned with how honor articulates with
property and kinship in the historic development of a culture of "personalized
individualism" in Appalachia. When honor is threatened, violence may result, though
not leading to what has classically been defined as feud, but to vengeance killings
which have occasionally escalated into small scale wars. Historical examples of the
process are drawn largely from Tennessee.
- POTASH FROM PYRAMIDS: RECONSTRUCTING DEGRAFFENREID
[40WM4] -- A MISSISSIPPIAN MOUND-VILLAGE COMPLEX IN
WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Kevin E. Smith. XIX(2):91-113. 1994.
While cataloguing miscellaneous collections curated by the Tennesse Division of
Archaeology, the author discovered two bags of artifacts salvaged by avocational
archaeologists from the DeGraffenreid site during its destruction in the late 1960s.
Although the site was virtually destroyed through potash mining, interviews of local
collectors and review of antiquarian observations yielded sufficient information to
provide a reconstruction of the site layout and a suggested chronological placement.
The results of these investigations are summarized and interpreted below.
- A LITHIC BASED PREHISTORIC CULTURAL CHRONOLOGY OF
THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU. Tom Des Jean and Joseph L. Benthall.
XIX(2):114-147. 1994. Southeastern archaeological research throughout the
twentieth century has focused on the prehistoric resources of the broad river valleys
to the exclusion of other areas. One of these areas is the Cumberland Plateau which
is assumed to possess little prehistoric interest since there are few recorded sites.
This paper attempts to nullify that misconception and establish that there is a
tremendous archaeological resource here, especially in the rockshelters of the Upper
Cumberland Plateau. The following lithic-based chronology illustrates that
practically every identified prehistoric culture recognized in the upper Mid-South was
- WEST TENNESSEE CERAMIC TYPOLOGY, PART I: TCHULA AND
MIDDLE WOODLAND PERIODS. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And J. Shawn
Chapman. XIX(2):148-179. 1994. Numerous problems attend attempts at
classifying ceramics of the Tchula and Middle Woodland periods in western
Tennessee. We present here the first explicit type and type-variety nomenclature for
such ceramics. Comments on the efforts of earlier researchers are also offered.
- AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROJECT AT SWAN'S
LANDING, A BURIED EARLY ARCHAIC SITE IN HARRISON COUNTY,
INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XIX(2):180-191. 1994. Swan's Landing is a large,
buried archaeological site which is exposed in the bank of the Ohio River. Features,
charcoal, bone, and a great quantity of chert debris are present, and a very large
number of artifacts including points, bifaces, unifaces, and drills have been
recovered. Almost all of the points are like Charleston Corner Notched and Pine
Tree Corner Notched points for which radiocarbon dates from elsewhere indicate an
age of approximately 9000 years. Swan's Landing appears to be a virtually single
component Early Archaic site which has the potential to make very significant
contributions to our knowledge of Early Archaic people in the Ohio Valley.
- INVESTIGATION OF THE FOLK ILLNESS Empacho AND ITS
ASSOCIATION WITH ENDOPARASITIC INFECTION. Charles T. Faulkner,
Benito Borrego-Garcia, Michael H. Logan, and Sharon Patton. XIX(2):192-201.
1994. Empacho is a Hispanic folk illness attributed to having food or saliva stuck in
one's stomach or intestinal tract. Researchers have suggests that it might be a useful
screening label for diagnosing clinical gastrointestinal illness in Hispanic
populations. However, few studies have attempted to isolate and identify biological
causes of the illness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential
association of empacho with parasitic infection because many of the symptoms
produced by empacho are similar to illness resulting from endoparasites like Giardia
lambdia and Ascaris lumbricoides. Fecal samples from 123 children were analyzed
for diagnostic products of endoparasitic protozoa and helminths. Structured
interviews from 17 households were used to obtain information on the folk etiology
and occurrence of empacho in the households, and knowledge of parasitic
acquisition, treatment, and prevention. These data were used to address the
hypothesis that households with a high frequency of empacho were associated with
high rates of endoparasitic infection. The results of this limited investigation indicate
that empacho and gastrointestinal parasitism can be viewed as etiologically distinct
illnesses despite the similarity of their symptoms. However, additional research
along these lines is needed to unequivocally clarify the relationship between empacho
and other biomedical correlates of clinical gastrointestinal illness.
- BORROW PITS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES: CASE STUDIES
AND A REPORT ON THE ARMES SITE (40DV444). Kevin E. Smith and
Michael C. Moore. XX(1):1-17. 1995. Borrow pits -- sites used for the extraction of
topsoil, clay, sand, rock, and similar materials -- represent a serious threat to
archaeological sites in Tennessee. While regulated on state and federal projects,
similarly substantial quantities of these materials are removed at the county,
municipal, and private level with no archaeological oversight. The nature of this
threat is demonstrated through a series of case studies, including the reporting of
materials recovered from a borrow site by an avocational archaeologist, and several
potential avenues to pursue solutions to this problem are proposed.
- SOCIAL RELATIONS AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES IN UNDERGROUND
COAL MINES OF NORTHERN APPALACHIA. Jack H. Ray and R. Glenn Ray.
XX(1):18-34. 1995. The environment of an underground coal mine provides a unique
workplace where attitudes and interpersonal relationships vary from camaraderie to
antagonism. This essay describes a wide range of behaviors experienced by Glenn Ray
as a coal miner in northern Appalachia in the 1970s and early 1980s. Firsthand accounts
detailing orientation of new miners, pranks played on fellow miners, established customs,
experiences of women miners, and high-risk behaviors are discussed. Recounted from
experiences as both union members and company supervisor, this article provides a
closer look at worker-supervisor relations and interactions in a fast-disappearing
- THE TWIN MOUNDS (15Ba2) SURFACE COLLECTION LITHIC
ASSEMBLAGE: INTRASITE AND REGIONAL INTERPRETATIONS. Jarrod
Burks. XX(1):35-57. 1995. This paper presents an analysis of the lithic artifacts from a
1992 surface collection at the Twin Mounds site (15Ba2) in Ballard County, Kentucky.
Chert and artifact types are identified for all lithic items with discussions of these type
categories. Comparisons are made between the frequencies of the different chert and
artifact types and potential explanations for their disparities are briefly explored. Finally,
the Twin Mounds surface collection is equated with the results of previous Twin Mounds
excavations, which uncovered a number of Mississippian structures, and then compared
with a variety of other Mississippian sites in the western Kentucky region.
- TEXTILE IMPRESSED CERAMICS FROM THE OLIVER SITE, OBION
COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Jamie C. Brandon and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XX(1):58-73.
1995. The Oliver site (40Ob161) is an upland Emergent Mississippian site dating
between approximately A.D 900 and A.D. 1000. In this paper, we describe the textile
structures represented on the sample of Kimmswick Fabric Impressed sherds from the
site. Comparisons with other textile impressed ceramic assemblages in the Midsouth are
- HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE PUBLIC: TIPS FOR
ARCHAEOLOGISTS DOING PUBLIC EDUCATION. Mary L. Kwas. XX(1):74-
78. 1995. Communicating with the public requires a different style from communicating
with other professional archaeologists. The following article offers tips for effective
- PINE TAR KILNS AND THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY OF EASTERN KENTUCKY.
Charles D. Hockensmith and Cecil R. Ison. XX(2):83-95. 1995. Recent
archaeological surveys have demonstrated that Kentucky's naval stores
industry was more significant and more widespread than previously thought.
This paper describes the archaeological remains associated with historic
pine tar kilns which characterize the naval stores industry in Eastern
Kentucky. These large earthen kilns were used for the commercial
production of pine tar in the Cumberland Plateau region of Kentucky from
the late 1700s to the early 20th century. The paper also discusses the
manufacturing process and various uses of pine tar. Brief comparisons are
made between the Kentucky kilns and those in other states.
- THE OLD STONE FORT SITE: A HISTORY OF THE EARLY DESCRIPTIONS AND MAPS
AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO MODERN RESEARCH. C. Ward Weems. XX(2):96-125.
1995. This paper appraises the extant historical documents and maps
relevant to an understanding of the Woodland cutlural tradition hilltop
enclosure called the Old Stone Fort (40Cf1). Maps, documents, and
previous research are examined in which insights may be found into the
features of the site. In particular, an opening in the back wall and a
long ditch parallel to this back wall are examined as possible prehistoric
features deserving further research and possible excavation. New maps and
documents, apparently the earliest in each category, are introduced to the
literature concerning the Old Stone Fort.
- WALTON ROAD. W. Calvin Dickinson. XX(2):126-137. 1995. Walton
Road, completed in 1801, was the superhighway connecting East Tennessee
and Middle Tennessee for one hundred years. Descriptions of this road can
be found in the literature of that century, and evidence of the old
right-of-way can be found on the ground in numerous locations.
- EXPLORING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF THE RELIGIOUS CAMP MEETING
MOVEMENT. Betty J. Duggan. XX(2):138-161. 1995. Beginning in 1800 the
religious camp meeting became a popular activity on the Western frontier,
one which soon spread throughout the East. Many scholars and theologians
have written about these multi-day events, yet camp grounds where they
occurred remain unexplored by archaeologists. This articles expands upon
an historic significance assessment of an early camp meeting site (40Gl66)
in Giles County, Tennessee, placing it within the broader literature.
Finally, it suggests potential contributions and problems that excavations
as such sites offer regarding symbolic, social, and economic uses of space
and material culture in a ritual context.
- AN EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION ON THE HARPETH RIVER, CHEATHAM COUNTY,
TENNESSEE. Andrew P. Bradbury and Henry S. McKelway. XXI(1):1-30. 1996.
Archaeological excavations at 40Ch162 documented the presence of
prehistoric cultural material occurring within buried Holocene age
alluvial deposits. The majority of recovered material was lithic debris
and modified lithic implements. A moderate density of cultural material
was contained within strata dating to the early Holocene. Excavation
strategies were developed to maximize the recovery of cultural materials
from these deposits while maintaining contextual control. Analysis of the
recovered artifacts focused on the examination of variation within and
between the various artifact classes recovered. Excavations and analysis
furnished information on a series of temporary, limited occupations at
- OSTEOLOGICAL CONTEXT AND BIOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION: A PRELIMINARY
EXAMINATION OF MOUND C'S CEMETERY, WICKLIFFE MOUND GROUP, KENTUCKY. Hugh
B. Matternes. XXI(1):31-43. 1996. THe interpretation that the MOund C
cemetery, from the Wickliffe Mound Group (15BA4), was used principally
during the final phases of the site's occupation (circa. A.D. 1325), has
brought about questions of the cemetery's relationship with Wickliffe's
other mortuary deposits. Unfortunately, historic exhibition of many of
the graves has compromised much of the cemetery's original context and
greatly reduced what would be learned about them. Can any of its data be
trusted and is there enough information present to draw any valid
conclusions? A sample of 55 graves was examined using a conservative
context validation method. Results indicated that while some critical
data have been lost, not all information has been compromised.
- A HOME IN THE HEARTLAND: NOTES OF THE DARKE COUNTY MESTIZOS ALONG THE
OHIO-INDIANA BORDER. Donald B. Ball. XXI(1):44-66. 1996. The Darke
County Mestizos, an enclave of White-Indian-Negro ancestry and one of
approximately 200 identified Indian remnant groups in the eatern United
States, established a particularly stable and long-lived community on the
Ohio-Indiana stateline in 1822. Despite their Native American ties, this
agriculturally based settlement has emicly and eticly long been identified
and perceived as "colored," although in terms of both physical appearance
and life style they are generally indistinguishable from the surrounding
population. A review of available literature in concert with limited
recent field work has facilitated preliminary study of this group's
diversified origins, it's history, social organization, and
built-environment, and mechanisms for the control of excess population.
Further study of this community may contribute to anthropological inquiry
into the nature of group identity while historically oriented research
might serve to better illuminate a little-known chapter in the
African-American experience. Specific recommendations for future research
- IDENTIFYING BERDACHE MATERIAL CULTURE: AN ANTHROPOMETRIC AND
STATISTICAL APPROACH. Michael H. Logan and Douglas A. Schmittou.
XXI(1):67-78. 1996. Identifying material culture used by berdache, males
who pursued the role of women, is a relevant, yet poorly developed, facet
of American Indian art history. However, anthropometric and statistical
data on adult stature provide a viable means of assessing the probability
that certian specimens, notably dresses, were once the property of
berdache males. This methodological approach was applied to a Lakota
(Sioux) dress recently on display at the Frank H. McClung Museum,
University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This size of this specimen, as well
as its elaborate artistic embellishment, suggest that it was worn on
formal occasions in the daily life of a Lakota berdache. Hopefully, other
researchers will find this methodology useful in analyzing museum and
private collections nationwide.
- ANTIQUARIANS' PERSPECTIVES ON PINSON MOUNDS. Mary L. Kwas.
XXI(2):83-123. 1996. References to Pinson Mounds were abundant in early
publications by travelers and antiquarians. Many of these works are now
obscure. This compilation of these accounts provides a thorough and
interesting background to the history of the site.
- THE SVEHLA EFFIGY ELBOW PIPE AND SPUD: MISSISSIPPIAN SACRA FROM THE
SUTTER COLLECTION. Thomas E. Emerson. XXI(2):124-131. 1996. This
article describes an effigy pipe and a long-stemmed spud from a
late-nineteenth American Bottom collection as examples of Middle
Mississippian sacra and discusses the insights they can provide into
understanding Cahokian iconography and symbolism.
- THE TOBACCO-STICK QUAIL TRAP: A LIVE TRAP OF THE UPLAND SOUTH. Gary
S. Foster. XXI(2):132-138. 1996. Traditional animal trapping, as an
aspect of folk economies, included kill, maim, and live traps. Live
traps, designed to hold animals unharmed until retrieved, were used for a
variety of reasons, and to trap all manner of fish, fowl, and mammal
species. The tobacco-stick quail trap, as one particular live-trap type,
through its construction and use, illustrates folk ethics of conservation
and environmental awareness.
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF AFRICAN-STYLE RITUAL AND HEALING PRACTICES
IN THE UPLAND SOUTH. Amy L. Young. XXI(2):139-155. 1996. There is
increasing evidence from the archaeological record of strong continuity
between ritual practices by slaves in the American South and West and
Central African ritual. Artifacts recovered from African-American
contexts at Locust Grove, a plantation in the Upland South, also suggest
that African-style healing and ritual might have been practiced there.
The material from Locust Grove is compared with ethnographic and
historical data from West and Central Africa, and with archaeological data
from other regions of the South, specifically the Carolina lowcountry. It
is suggested that African ritual traditions first coalesced in the coastal
region of South Carolina and Georgia, and through interstate slave trade
eventually diffused to the Upland South.
- THE MAIN SITE: RADIOCARBON AND CULTURAL CHRONOLOGY. Steven D.
Creasman, Jonathan P. Kerr, E. Arthur Bettis, and Albert M. Pecora.
XXI(2):156-180. 1996. In the spring of 1992, Cultural Resource Analysis,
Inc., conducted extensive data recovery excavations at the Main site
(15BL35) located on the south bank of the Cumberland River near the town
of Pineville in Bell County, Kentucky. The investigations included the
excavation of three large block areas, each measuring 100 square m or more
in area. These excavations identified and sampled buried Archaic and
Woodland age occupation horizons. The excavations resulted in the
documentation of over 180 cultural features, the recovery of over 700
lithic tools, 18,000 pieces of debitage, 380 ceramic sherds and thousands
of charred plant remains (primarily nutshell and wood charcoal). Thirty
radiocarbon dates, ranging from ca. 9150-2320 B.P. (uncorrected), serve to
date the occupations. A large sample of projectile points and ceramic
sherds allow the placement of the various occupations within a cultural
context. This paper provides a discussion of the radiocarbon and cultural
chronology of the Main site.
- AFRICAN ARCHITECTURAL TRANSFERENCE TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA LOW COUNTRY,
1700-1880. Fritz Hamer and Michael Trinkley. XXII(1):1-34. 1997. There
is growing historical and archaeological evidence that African style
housing was an integral part of slave communities on plantations in the
South Carolina Lowcountry. Besides the "shotgun" house, other African
house forms were built in North America before desdendants of African
slaves became acculturated to western construction techniques. The rarity
of historical and archaeological evidence of these structures can be
attributed to the culture bias of early white observers and the poor
preservation of these impermanent structures in the archaeological
- THE CULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL PATTERNING OF INFLUENZA. Mary J. Benedix.
XXII(1):35-51. 1997. Influenza is a viral infection that has made a
on the history of both Tennessee and the world. From influenza's origin
in animals to its inevtiable co-evolution among humans after
domestication, this disease has progressed along an erratic path. By
constructing a cultural and biological model for how influenza evolves,
spreads, subsides, and reappears, researchers can attempt to control the
disease through preventive measures such as immunization. This paper
explores the distinct patterns of influenza through a holistic examination
of the history, societal effects, and consequences that are representative
of influenza's unpredictable reputation.
- POLITICS AND PREHISTORY: THE MAKING OF THE PINSON MOUNDS STATE
ARCHAEOLOGICAL AREA. Mary L. Kwaas. XXII(1):52-71. 1997. This paper
the history of the development of the archaeological site of Pinson Mounds
into a state archaeological park. The story provides an interesting
insight into the workings of politics and the involvement of local
community in the process of park development. Also highlighted are the
contributions of noted archaeologists of the day.
- PUTATIVE POVERTY POINT PHASES IN WESTERN TENNESSEE: A REAPPRAISAL.
Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XXII(1):72-91. 1997. Baked clay objects
relatively common artifact class at archaeological sites in western
Tennessee. Very few specimens have been recovered from excavated contexts
in the study area. Some researchers claim that virtually all baked clay
objects in the study area date to the Poverty Point period and that
variations in the areal distributions of certain baked clay object
stylistic attributes indicate the presence of as many as ten identifiable
Poverty Point phases in western Tennessee. Drawing on a data base of over
260 sites that have produced artifacts of alleged Poverty Point age,
previous interpretations of Poverty Point in the study area are
systematically assessed. The results suggest that most previous
interpretations are seriously flawed.
- THE MAN IN THE CAST IRON COFFIN: A TALE OF HISTORIC AND FORENSIC
INVESTIGATION. Stephen T. Rogers, Douglas W. Owsley, Robert W.
Mann, and Shelly Foote. XXII(2):95-120. 1997. A Euro-American burial in
iron coffin was exhumed in southeast Nashville during a road improvement
project. A multi-disciplinary approach utilizing historic, forensic, and
clothing analysis was used to accurately identify the individual buried in
this coffin. These remains also offered a unique opportunity to study
bone pathology, burial customs, and mortuary practices during the late
- A STUDY
OF FRANKFORT BRICKS AND BRICKMAKING, FRANKLIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY.
Charles D. Hockensmith. XXII(2):121-176. 1997. During Phase III
the Kentucky History Center project area, a sample of the bricks were
studied. A total of 189 bricks was collected from several archaeological
contexts and from five structures demolished after the excavations. This
study has two major focuses. First archival research was conducted which
permitted a brief sketch of brick making in Frankfort between 1814 and
1914. Second, detailed analysis was conducted on recovered bricks which
provided systematic data on brick sizes and manufacturing techniques.
Since most bricks recovered did not have brand names, it was not possible
to attribute any specimens to Frankfort companies. However, it was
possible to suggest possible manufactures for certain time spans. Only a
few bricks with brand names could be traced to particular companies. This
study also discusses the types of bricks from the project area, how they
were made, and their origin when known. The report concludes with a
summary of Frankfort brick making, general comments, and suggestions for
- UPLAND MIDDLE ARCHAIC ADAPTATION IN TENNESSEE'S WESTERN HIGHLAND RIM,
A VIEW FROM THE AUSTIN CAVE SITE (40RB82). Gary Barker. XXII(2):177-224.
1997. This paper discusses the results of limited excavation of a
open habitation midden deposit at the Austin Cave site. Data compiled
from the study provide new information on the prehistoric chronology of
the Western Highland Rim, developments in lithic technology, and the
nature of animal resource and environmental use during the Middle
- NITER MINING
IN THE AREA OF THE BIG SOUTH FORK OF THE CUMBERLAND RIVER. Tom
Des Jean. XXII(2):225-239. 1997. Over the last few years numerous
have been written about mining for saltpeter. Much of this activity
occurred in natural limestone caves during the first sixty years of the
19th century. Niter mining also occurred on the Upper Cumberland Plateau
during this time and has been documented in and around Big South Fork of
the Cumberland River. Potassium nitrate occurs in the sandstone rock
here, and impacts to rockshelters and the presence of niter mining
artifacts help to identify sites associated with this industry.
- PALEO-INDIAN AND ARCHAIC SETTLEMENT AT KENTUCKY LAKE. Jonathan P.
Kerr and Andrew P. Bradbury. XXIII(1-2):1-20. 1998. In this paper, we
summarize Paleo-Indian and Archaic settlement in the Kentucky Lake area of
Tennessee and Kentucky. The results of a 20,000-acre archaeological
survey of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) lands at Kentucky Lake are used
as a first attempt at characterizing settlement of these periods in the
Western Valley. The settlement of this area, from its earliest evidence
of habitation to the period when ceramics were making their appearance,
exhibited increased populations and movement of people. A shifting
pattern of dispersing and coalescing settlements is evident in the form of
changes int he number and sizes of settlement. Their distribution on the
landscape points towards differential use of the valley through time.
- CASE METHOD OF TEACHING IN ARCHAEOLOGY: FOUR EXAMPLE CASES. Kit W.
Wesler. XXIII(1-2):21-28. 1998. The case teaching method presents
with real or true-to-life problems or dilemmas on which they must focus
their developing analytical skills. Well-prepared cases stimulate
thoughtful discussion in class and in written assignments. This paper
presents four cases that have been developed for upper level courses in
- NOTES ON TERMINAL ARCHAIC/POVERTY POINT CULTURE AND ITS TRANSITION
INTO WOODLAND IN WESTERN TENNESSEE (A Response to Mainfort 1997). Gerald
P. Smith. XXIII(1-2):29-35. 1998. Recent work by Mainfort (especially
1997) includes fundamental distortions of the nature of the Terminal
Archaic complexes defined for the area. Necessary clarifications include
noting that the geographic extent of those complexes falls within portions
of drainages, not within counties whose boundaries are formed by those
drainages as erroneously alledged byhim. When contrasts are examined
between complex areas as defined, they are clear-cut and often dramatic.
His dendrogram partially to the contrary is based on selected, undefined
data which permits no basis for evaluation of its validity. Comparison
of aspects of the local baked clay object complexes with the ceramic
complexes of neighboring and subsequent Early Woodland ceramic complexes
indicates that the issue of continuity of baked clay object usage into the
ceramic period must be solved on a local complex by complex basis rather
than blanket designation of some single form or another as the universal
Woodland period baked clay object form.
- THE SPENCER COLLECTION: ANALYSIS OF A PRIVATE LITHIC COLLECTION FROM
DAVIESS COUNTY, KENTUCKY. Patrick J. Lewis. XXIII(1-2):37-54. 1998.
Spencer collection is a private lithic colleciton from Daviess County,
Kentucky. The collection contains a wide variety of tool types and
represents several different cultural periods. The collection contains
primarily chipped stone artifacts, the majority of which are projectile
points. While the collection lacks reliable provenience, a basic
typological examination provides information on the morphology and type of
each artifact. From this data, cultural information can be gained.
- AN UPDATED REVIEW OF THE TENNESSEE STATE CEMETERY LAW AND OTHER
STATUTES REGARDING PREHISTORIC BURIAL REMOVAL. Michael C. Moore.
XXIII(1-2:55-64. 1998. Substantial changes in the laws and procedures
the treatment of human remains have been made since 1989. These changes
include a significantly revised state cemetery statute, as well as a new
law that requires all persons to report the discovery of human remains.
The "termination of land use as cemetery" statute is still used to remove
graves from one piece of land to another. However, procedures for the
removal of human remains have been revised for both private and state or
- THINGS MY PROFESSOR NEVER TOLD ME: THE LIGHTER SIDE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL
FIELDWORK. Donald B. Ball. XXIII:65-71. 1998. The following brief
of experiences "in the field" are likely neither more nor less than
exemplary of those of many professionally kindred spirits across the land.
Though we are most likely share such "war stories" with one another at
conferences or while visiting with old friends, seldom do we preserve
tales of our won humanity-foibles and follies alike-in the midst of doing
our "scientific" studies. Such asides are as much a part of the lasting
romance and appeal of archaeology as the finds great and small upon which
we labor to study, record, and understand. When charts and graphs and
long-detailed reports sometimes weight heavy, it is wise to remember the
lighter side of our profession and the experiences of the present that so
enliven studies of the past.
- WHO ARE THE PEOPLE IN THE COOL BRANCH CEMETERY (40HK9)? A
BIOANTHROPOLOGICAL CASE STUDY. Hugh B. Matternes. XXIII(1-2):73-85.
1998. Movement of five graves from the poorly documented Cool Branch
(40HK9) in Hancock County, Tennessee provided an occasion for
archaeological and biological data to be gathered and used to reconstruct
important aspects of the community responsible for developing the
cemetery. Three infant and two adult burials were examined. A variety of
artifacts indicate that deopsition occurred between 1800 and about 1830.
While poor skeletal preservation prevented extensive biological analysis,
the recovered data indicate that the adults lived to be middle aged and
probably consumed a diet high in carbohydrates. Craniometric analysis
suggested a "white" ethnicity. A demographic reconstruction of like
period graves from the Upland South indicated a pattern of high infant
mortality and relatively early adult death, this is reflected in the Cool
Branch cemetery's general age profile. The results of this investigation
demonstrate that even a small-scale data recovery can provide important
biosocial data on poorly documented historic populations in Tennessee.
- TENNESSEE RADIOCARBON DATES (List Version 1.00). Kevin E. Smith.
XXIV(1-2):1-45. 1999 (2002). This article presents basic information on
779 radio-carbon dates for archaeological sites in Tennessee. These dates
represent the majority reported for Tennessee through 1998 along with
published dates through 2002. The data is presented in two formats: (a)
by county and site number; and (b) in ascending age of radiocarbon age
- EXCAVATIONS AT A SMALL MISSISSIPPIAN SITE (40SW346) IN THE WESTERN
HIGHLAND RIM OF TENNESSEE. Andrew P. Bradbury. XXIV(1-2):46-59. 1999
(2002). Phase II excavations at 40Sw346 revealed a single component
prehistoric site. Diagnostic artifacts, consisting of Small Triangular
Cluster points and shell tempered ceramics, indicate a Mississippian
occupation. A radiocarbon date places this occupation in the early portion
of the Mississippian period (ca. AD 960). Artifact analyses suggest that
the site served as a short term, limited activity loci during the
fall/winter months. Activities represented at the site indicate a focus on
the procurement of animal resources.
- MIDDLE WOODLAND SETTLEMENT IN THE UPPER CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY: AN
EXAMPLE FROM JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore.
XXIV(1-2):60-77. 1999(2002). Tennessee Division of Archaeology
excavations at the historic Fort Blount-Williamsburg site between 1989 and
1994 uncovered evidence for long-term prehistoric use of the site area.
Radiocarbon assays of AD 395 and AD 440, along with a material assemblage
dominated by moderate-size triangular points, verify a substantial
occupation during the Middle Woodland period. The presence of microblades
and limestone temper ceramics supports the Middle Woodland designation.
One shallow, rectangular feature with extensively burned sidewalls and
floor has been tentatively defined as a crematory basin.
- INDEX FOR THE TENNESSEE ANTHROPOLOGIST AND MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS OF THE
TENNESSEE ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (1976-2000). Samuel D. Smith
(compiler). XXV(1-2):1-83. 2000 (2002).
- SELECTED CONTENTS OF THE TENNESSEE ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
NEWSLETTER (1976-1999). Kevin E. Smith (compiler). XXV(1-2):84-92. 2000