Alice Freeman Palmer becomes president of Wellesley
Ruth Bordin's book, Alice Freeman
Palmer: The Evolution of a New Woman [University of Michigan Press]
is available online. Chapter 6,
covers Palmer's presidency at Wellesley.
1881 Atlanta Baptist Female
Seminary is founded by Sophia B. Packard
and Harriet E. Giles. The institution is renamed Spelman Seminary in
1884 and Spelman College in 1924.
Education in the Jim Crow South [Rockefeller Archive Center]
Packard's letter to John D. Rockefeller from 1883 in which she asks
for the institution.
Alice Fletcher begins a six-week camping
trip on the Sioux Reservation in Dakota Territory.
1881 Clara Barton founds the
American Red Cross.
The Clara Barton National Historic
Site [National Park Service] provides a small collection of primary
sources, including photographs and the 1878 publication The Red Cross of the
Convention: What It Is.
Preview Elizabeth Brown Pryor's Clara
Barton: Professional Angel (University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1988).
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, forerunner of the American Association
of University Women, is formally organized.
Association of University Women's Online Museum features a
timeline that includes the minutes
from the organization's first meeting, photographs, and other sources.
1882 The Chinese Exclusion Act
restricts Chinese immigration to the
Exclusion Act, part of Immigration to the United
States, 1789-1930 [Harvard University Library], offers an overview of
the act and access to
more than 60 relevant documents.
The ARC database from
the National Archives includes Chinese Exclusion Acts Case Files, 1880
- 1960 and Immigration Investigations Files Relating to the
Enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Acts 1882 - 1943. See the Search
Hints before using the site.
1882 Helen Hunt Jackson's A
Century of Dishonor details the
mistreatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
Hunt Jackson [Tutt Library, Colorado College] includes transcriptions
of Jackson's letters and diaries, photographs, and a short biography.
1884 M. Carey Thomas becomes Dean of Bryn Mawr College.
Bryn Mawr College Library offers two fascinating online exhibits: The Sargent
Portrait: M. Carey Thomas and John Singer Sargent and "The
Very Best Woman's College There Is": M. Carey Thomas and the Making of the
Bryn Mawr Campus.
Sharpshooter Annie Oakley begins touring with "Buffalo Bill" Cody's Wild
Preview Glenda Riley's The
Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley (University of Oklahoma Press,
Experience: Annie Oakley includes information about the film, a
gallery of posters from the Wild West Show, a timeline, and more.
Ohio Memory includes digital
copies of a few photos
of Oakley and a letter from Cody.
1886 Mormon women protest the pending Edmunds-Tucker bill.
Women's Protest 1886 (Gilder Lehrman Institue of American History)
includes background information and a transcript of the
pamphlet, "Mormon" Women Protest: An Appeal for Freedom, Justice and
1887 Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller.
Anne Sullivan Macy: Miracle
Worker [American Federation for the Blind offers an illustrated
overview of Sullivan's life and work. See in particular Sullivan's letters
in which she describes her work with Keller.
1887 The Dawes Severality Act
subdivides Indian reservations into
individual plots of land.
E. Jane Gay
(1830-1919) [Women Working, 1800-1930, Harvard University Library]
offers online access to Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce, which
provides a first-hand account of the effects of the Dawes Act.
New Perspectives on the
West [PBS] includes a profile of
Alice Fletcher and Selections
from With the Nez Perces:
Alice Fletcher in the Field, 1889-92 by E. Jane
1887 Susanna Salter is elected mayor
of Argonia, Kansas, thus becoming the
first woman mayor in the country.
See Monroe Billington's article, Susanna Madora
First Woman Mayor in Kansas Historical Quarterly (Autumn 1954).
1889 Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House in Chicago.
Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963
[online]. Chicago: Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the College of
Architecture and the Arts, the University of Illinois at Chicago,
n.d. [cited 14 February 2003]. Available
1889 Johnstown (Pennsylvania)
Johnstown Flood National
1889 Nellie Bly travels around the
world in 72 days.
See Around the World in 72
Days, the companion web site to the American Experience film.
La Flesche Picotte becomes the first Native American woman medical
General Federation of Women's Clubs is organized by Jane Croly.
Women Working, 1800-1930
provides an overview of the General
Federation of Women's Clubs, reports from early conventions, and
1890 National American Woman
Suffrage Association is formed.
See Votes for
Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association
1890 Williamina Paton Stevens
Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra.
Paton Fleming (1857-1911) includes a biographical profile, Fleming's
journal from 1900, and a small selection of photographs from 1891.
1891 Lili'uokalani becomes queen of Hawaii.
Hawaii's Last Queen
provides an overview of the PBS program, a timeline, and a brief look at
Lili'uokalani's musical legacy.
Anna Julia Cooper's A Voice from the South is published.
An Electronic edition of A Voice from the
South is available from Documenting the American South.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton delivers her "Solitude of Self" address to the
Congressional Judiciary Committee.
The text from Solitude
of Self is part of the PBS site, Not for Ourselves Alone: The
Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
1892 Ellis Island opens on January
1. Fifteen year old Annie Moore is the
immigrant to pass through Ellis Island. The Famous
Island Passenger Arrivals.
1892 Ida B. Wells' antilynching
articles in the Memphis Free
See the Booknotes
Interview with Linda McMurry, author of To Keep the Waters
Troubled: The Life of Ida B. Wells.
1892 Mary Elizabeth Garrett's gift
of $306,977 enables the medical school of
Johns Hopkins University to open the following year.
the Philanthropy of Mary Elizabeth Garrett.
1892 Senda Berenson introduces the
first rules for women's basketball.
The Five College Archives Digital
Access Project includes correspondence, lecture notes,
photographs, publications, and speeches from the Senda Berenson
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
Women, 1870-1930 (Harvard University Library) includes a brief
overview of the Exposition and links to sources that document women's
of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's The Woman's Bible, ca. 1895 (Library of
See Kathi Kern's Mrs. Stanton's Bible (Ithaca : Cornell
Press, 2001). Find
in a Library.
1895 Lillian Wald opens the Henry
Street Settlement in New
Wald is featured
in the Jewish Women's Archive online exhibit "Women of Valor."
a Sister: The Feminism of Lillian D. Wald (Feminist Press, 1989) by
1896 Amy Beach's "Gaelic" Symphony
Preview Adrienne Fried Block's Amy
Beach, Passionate Victorian: The Life and Work of an American Composer
(Oxford University Press, 1998).
1896 Fannie Farmer's Boston
Cooking-School Cookbook is
Boston Cooking-School Cookbook [Feeding America: The Historic American
Cookbook Project, Michigan State University Libraries] includes a digital
reproduction of the book and a publication history.
Cookbook Published [Mass Moments, Massachusetts Foundation for the
1896 Klondike Gold Rush begins.
[Alaska Department of Education] includes letters that Jesse Edgren and
Mae Bennett Edgren sent to their family from March 1898 to July
1899. Select "Edgren Saga."
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling
allows "equal but separate accommodations for
the white and colored races."
Documents: Plessy v. Ferguson from the National Archives.
1897 Clara Driscoll begins her third, and most creative, tenure
at Tiffany Studios.
Image Credit: Dragonfly Table lamp, c. 1900-1906 (Collection of the
New-York Historical Society, N84.113)
A search for Clara Driscoll in New York Historical Society's online museum
catalog retrieves more than 50 additional digital images of lamps
The New York Historical Society's exhibition,
A New Light on Tiffany, highlights
Driscoll's designs and the work of the Women's Glass Cutting
Department. Additional information about Driscoll and the exhibition is
available in the New York Times article, Out
of Tiffany's Shadow: A Woman of Light.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women and Economics is published.
See Women and
Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women as a
Factor in Social Evolution (University of California Press,
1898 Spanish-American War
See Mercedes Graf's article, Band
of Angels: Sister Nurses in the Spanish-American War, Part 1.
Carrie Nation begins her militant crusade against saloons.
See the online exhibit, Carry A. Nation:
The Famous and Original
Bar Room Smasher (Kansas State Historical Society).
Fran Grace, author of Carrie A. Nation: Retelling a Life, has
interviewed on Booknotes and
(Note date: 29 April 2002).
1899 Florence Kelley becomes head of
the National Consumer's League.
1870-1930 includes digital editions of Kelley's publications and a
brief overview of her life.
1899 Frances Benjamin Johnston
photographs students at the Hampton Institute
in Hampton, Virginia.
Johnston Collection [Library of Congress]
A search for Hampton Institute retrieves 78 images.
1899 Kate Chopin's The
Awakening is published.
Kate Chopin: A Re-Awakening
[PBS] includes a program transcript, a chronology, and online access to
The Awakening and other works.
See also: Newspapers
19th-Century American Trade Card [online]. Available
Emergence of Advertising
in America: 1850-1920 [online]. [Durham, NC]: Digital Scriptorium,
Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library,
Duke University, 2000 [cited 12 March 2001]. Available from:
Me! Victorian Trade Cards at Miami University [Miami University
Libraries, 2001. Available
Victorian tradecards were used to advertise such products
as patent medicines, thread, sewing
machines, food and beverages, and farm equipment. This collection includes
images of over 1400 cards.
Peterson, Kelsy. The Glory
of Woman: Prescriptive Literature in the
Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture
[online]. Durham, NC: Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and
Culture, Duke University, 2003 [cited 21 November 2005]. Available
Researchers can browse this extensive, annotated bibliography by date.
Women Working, 1800-1930
[online]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Library Open Collections
Program, 2004- [cited 21 November 2005]. Available
Select "Browse the Collection," then "Conduct of Life" to retrieve digital
editions of books published from 1800 to 1930. Results display in reverse
Researchers can examine state and county topics for individual census
years and over time, as well as generate maps of selected data.
Census of Population and Housing offers detailed reports from past
censuses, including 1880, 1890, and 1900.
The following digital collections group images of clothing by time period.
Bissonnette, Anne. Bissonnette on
Costume: A Visual Dictionary of Fashion [online]. c1999. Available
from: http://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/. Select "Time Search."
Historical Museum Children's Clothing Collection
[online]. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, updated 26 June 2001
[cited 10 December 2001]. Available
Print sources for the history of clothing/fashion during this period
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans
and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent, Ohio : Kent State University Press,
Manuscripts: Diaries & Letters
Johnson, Joan Marie, ed. Southern Women at Vassar: The Poppenheim
Family Letters, 1882-1916. Women's Diaries and Letters of the South
Series. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2002.
Review by Monica Tetzlaff.
Daily Eagle Online (1841-1902) [online]. Brooklyn: Brooklyn
Public Library, 2004 [cited 22 November 2005]. Available
Newspapers [online]. Salt Lake City: Marriott Library,
University of Utah, 2002 [cited 12 February 2003]. Available
The American Jewess
[1895-1899] was the first English-Language periodical to target American
of the Darlington Family, 1885-1888 [Archives Service Center at the
University of Pittsburgh].
This collection contains 114 photographs taken by Edith Dennison
Darlington Ammon and her brother, O'Hara Darlington. Most of the
photographs are taken in and around the family home in Pittsburgh.
Browse the Quilt Index by time period (e.g.,