American Women Through Time
1910-1919
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I. TIMELINE

1910 Chicago garment workers' strike.
Chicago garment workers' strike, Sep. 22 1910 - Feb. 18 1911 from the Women Working collection.

1910 Jane Addams' Twenty Years at Hull-House is published.
An excellent guide to studying this work is part of the Teachers' Resources section of Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963 (Jane Addams Hull-House Museum).

1910 Madam C.J. Walker sets up a factory and beauty school in Indianapolis.
The Madam C. J. Walker Collection [Indiana Historical Society] includes digital images of Walker, advertisements, and examples of hairstyles.
Preview A'Lelia Bundles' On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker (Simon and Schuster, 2002). A'Lelia Bundles discusses the life of Madam C. J. Walker in a Library of Congress Symposium, "Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History."

1911 The Triangle Factory Fire, March 25, 1911 [Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives] The "Sources" section of this site includes documents, photographs and illustrations, and audio files of oral histories.
Preview Dave Von Drehle's Triangle: The Fire That Changed America (Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003).

1911 Virginia Gildersleeve becomes dean of Barnard College.
Rosalind Rosenberg explores Gildersleeve's long career at Barnard in Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates, part of Columbia University's Living Legacies series.

1912 The Bread and Roses Strike begins in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
Bread and Roses Strike Begins ["Mass Moments," Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities]
Lawrence Strike of 1912 [Women Working, 1800-1930, Harvard University Library] provides an overview of the strike, primary sources in digital format, and links to additional web resources.

1912 Harriet Monroe founds Poetry, the first periodical in the United States devoted exclusively to verse.
The Poetry site includes a slideshow of the December 1936 issue that included remembrances of Monroe by Ezra Pound, Carl Sandburg, Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore, and others.
Preview Dear Editor: A History of Poetry in Letters: The First Fifty Years, 1912-1962 (W. W. Norton, 2002). This collection includes letters to and from Monroe.

1912 Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927) founds the Girl Scouts of America.
Women Working, 1800-1930 [Harvard University Library] offers online access to early books about the Girl Scouts, including Low's How Girls Can Keep Their Country (1917).
A biography of Low appears in the New Georgia Encyclopedia.

1912 Oregon's Equal Suffrage Proclamation
See Feminist Voices & Visions: Proclamation of Woman's Suffrage in Oregon (University of Oregon Library and the Center for the Study of Women in Society)

1912 U.S. Children's Bureau is formally created.
Kriste Lindenmeyer's presentation [video; 19 min.] on the role of women in formation and work of the Children's Bureau was part of the Library of Congress Symposium, Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History [2003].
See also Lindenmeyer's "A Right to Childhood": The U.S. Children's Bureau and Child Welfare, 1912-1946 (University of Illinois Press, 1997). [H-Women Review] [Find in a Library]

1913 Mary Harris "Mother" Jones is arrested after leading protest of conditions in West Virginia mines.
Mother Jones. This segment is from the Talking History radio program (note date: 2 September 2002).

1913 White goods workers of New York strike.
Read Rose Schneiderman and the White Goods Workers of New York, taken from Chapter 2 of Carrie Brown's Rosie's Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War (Northeastern University Press, 2002).

1913 The woman suffrage parade in Washington, D.C. draws more than 5000 marchers.
Sheridan Harvey's essay, Marching for the Vote: Remembering the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913, is part of the Library of Congress guide, American Women.

1914 Elsie De Wolfe's The House in Good Taste is published.
The House in Good Taste is part of the University of Wisconsin's Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture.

1914 Margaret Sanger publishes the first issue of The Woman Rebel. See Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel [Model Editions Partnership].

1914 Nina Allender becomes the official cartoonist for the National Woman's Party.
Sewall-Belmont House and Museum Catalog offers images of more than 130 of Allender's political cartoons.

1915 Edith Bolling Galt marries President Woodrow Wilson.
View the Booknotes Interview with Phyllis Lee Levin, author of Edith and Woodrow: The Wilson White House.

1915The International Congress of Women at The Hague adopts a plan for continuous mediation with belligerent nations.
How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals? [Women and Social Movements in the United States]
This site documents the experiences and influence of three American delegates (Jane Addams, Emily Greene Balch, and Alice Hamilton) during their tour.

1915 The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom is founded.
The Swarthmore College Peace Collection's online exhibit on the history of the WILPF includes about 100 photographs.

1916 Suffrage activist Inez Milholland collapses while speaking on stage in Los Angeles, and dies a month later.
Listen to the Talking History interview, Linda Lumsden on the Life and Times of Inez Milholland [26 August 2004].

1916 Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to the United States Congress. See Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women's Rights, and Democratic Government [Suffragists Oral History Project, UC Berkeley, Regional Oral History Office].
See Christy Jo Snider's H-Women online review of Norma Smith's Jeannette Rankin: America's Conscience (Montana Historical Society Press, 2002).

1916 Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 [100 Milestone Documents]

The National Woman's Party is founded.
Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party [Library of Congress] documents the wide range of tactics that the NWP used in its push for ratification of the 19th Amendment.

1917 Callie House, the driving force behind the Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty and Pension Association, begins serving a one-year sentence in the Missouri State Prison in Jefferson City.
Watch Mary Frances Berry's lecture, Callie House: My Face is Black is True.

1917 Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are sentenced to two years in prison for conspiracy to obstruct the draft.
The Emma Goldman Papers site includes the text of Goldman's speeches against conscription.

1917 Georgia O'Keeffe's first one-person show is held at the 291 gallery New York.
The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum includes a biographical profile and a detailed chronology.
The National Gallery of Art's Radio Programs offers a brief interview (3 min., 31 sec.) with Barbara Buhler Lynes, co-curator of the O'Keeffe on Paper exhibition.
The Timeline of Art History includes an overview of O'Keeffe's life and examples of her work.

1917 Segment 2: From the Archives: "Ernestine Hara Kettler Recalling Her Imprisonment after the National Woman's Party March on Washington of 1917 (Recorded 1-29-1973)." [online]. Talking History, August 26, 2004. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2004july-december.html.

1917 The United States enters World War I.
Carrie Brown offers excerpts from her book, Rosie's Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War.
Several digital collections are cited in the World War I section of American Women's History: A Research Guide.

1918 The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: A Digital Encyclopedia (University of Michigan Center for the History of Medicine)
"I Remember When: What Became of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918." (The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 in Philadelphia) [online]. Talking History, 24 March 2005. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2005jan-june.html.
Originally broadcast on WUHY-FM in Philadelphia on 18 January 1983.
Several women and men recall the epidemic in this segment.

1919 Julia Morgan begins work on the Hearst Castle.
Guide to the Julia Morgan Architectural Drawings, 1907-1929 includes over 30 digital images of drawings for the Hearst Castle and other projects.

1919 Mary Pickford, D. W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks, and Charlie Chaplin form United Artists to produce and distribute their own films.
Preview Eileen Whitfield's Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood (University Press of Kentucky, 2007).


II. RESEARCH SOURCES

Advertising

Ad* Access [online]. [Durham, NC]: Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, c1999.
Images of over 7000 advertisements from U.S. and Canadian newspapers and magazines between 1911 and 1955. "Beauty and hygiene" is one of the five areas of concentration.

Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920 [online]. [Durham, NC]: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, 2000 [cited 12 March 2001]. Available from: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/.

Medicine and Madison Avenue [online]. Durham, NC: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, 2002 [cited 28 September 2002]. Available from: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma/.
Images of 600 health-related advertisements that appeared in newspapers and magazines from the 1910s through the 1950s.


Advice Literature

Peterson, Kelsy. The Glory of Woman: Prescriptive Literature in the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture [online]. Durham, NC: Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture, Duke University, 2003 [cited 21 November 2005]. Available from: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/women/prescriptive-lit/.
Researchers can browse this extensive, annotated bibliography by date.

Women Working, 1800-1930 [online]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Library Open Collections Program, 2004- [cited 21 November 2005]. Available from: http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/.
Select "Browse the Collection," then "Conduct of Life" to retrieve digital editions of books published from 1800 to 1930. Results display in reverse chronological order.


Artifacts

Digital Dress Costume Collections allows researchers to search four collections simultaneously. Enter 1910-1919 to search for items from the 1910s.

Wisconsin Historical Museum Children's Clothing Collection [online]. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, updated 26 June 2001 [cited 10 December 2001]. Available from: http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/collections/online/.
Tour the collection by decade (then by gender and type of clothing).

Browse the Quilt Index by time period (e.g., "1901-1929").


First-Person Accounts

For Our Mutual Benefit: The Athens Woman's Club and Social Reform, 1912-1920 [online]. Digital Library of Georgia, 2006. Available from: http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/athenswomansclub/.

From Pi Beta Phi to Arrowmont [online]. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Libraries, [2006]. Available from: http://www.lib.utk.edu/arrowmont/index.html.
The Letters section of the site includes letters (and a diary) by Ruth Sturley from 1919. The Scrapbooks section includes photographs from this period.

Lillian Schoedler (1891-1963) [online]. In Women Working, 1800-1930. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Library, 2005. In her 1914 diary, Schoedler describes her work as a secretary in New York City, her social life, and her athletic activities.


Newspapers

Statistics

Historical Census Browser
Researchers can examine state and county topics for individual census years and over time, as well as generate maps of selected data.

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975.
Also available online in two parts: Part 1 and Part II.

Statistical Abstract of the United States [online]. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1879- .
A valuable online tool for locating historical statistics for a given year.


Preview David Blanke's The 1910s (Greenwood Press, 2002), part of Greenwood's American Popular Culture series.




American Women Through Time

Ken Middleton
kmiddlet@mtsu.edu
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132