Diane Nash plays a key role in the Nashville sit-ins.
Nash and the Sit-Ins [Teachers' Domain] includes a biographical
profile of Nash and a video clip of an interview with Nash.
Access note: although access is free, registration is required.
Kennedy is elected President.
Eleanor Roosevelt, John
Kennedy, and the Election of 1960, a mini-edition from the Eleanor
Roosevelt Papers project, includes letters to and from Roosevelt,
excerpts from her "My Day" newspaper column, and audio from three JFK
1960 The drug company G.D. Searle
receives FDA approval to sell "the
Experience: The Pill [PBS] for a program transcript, timeline,
interviews with women, and much more.
1960 Ruby Bridges becomes the
American child to integrate a Southern elementary school.
Class of One [PBS}, Ruby Bridges Hall recalls her first day at the
school in New Orleans. Hall is interviewed by Charlayne Hunter-Gault,
whose role in the integration of a Southern university is noted in the
Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes enter the University of Georgia with
police escort after a ruling by the Federal court in Athens, Georgia.
Georgia Integration [National Archives, Southeast Region]
includes primary documents and a photograph of Hunter and
Holmes as they walked to University of Georgia Registrar's Office.
The Civil Rights Digital Library offers a television
clip of Hunter and Holmes arriving on the campus.
Relevant books include Hunter-Gault's autobiography, In
My Place, Calvin Trillin's An
Education in Georgia: Charlayne Hunter, Hamilton Holmes, and the
Integration of the University of Georgia, and Robert Pratt's
Shall Not Be Moved: The Desegregation of the University of
1961 Freedom Riders test a recent
Supreme Court decision prohibiting
on interstate buses.
and the Albany Movement In Music of Social
Change. Atlanta: Emory University, .
Joan Browning was among the SNCC workers who were jailed in Albany,
Georgia for demonstrating at bus and train stations.
This site features letters and notes that Browning wrote on
papers towels and tissue while in jail.
1961 Jane Jacobs publishes The
Death and Life of Great American
Visionary Jane Jacobs Dies [National Public Radio]. This segment
Jacobs' ideas transformed field of urban planning.
Mercury 13': Training U.S. Women for Space [Audio; 8 min., 19
Listen to the NPR interview with Martha Ackmann, author of The Mercury
13: The Untold Story of 13 American Women and the Dream of Space
1961 Peace Corps is established.
Digital Collection [Youngstown State University] includes interviews
with two women who were Peace Corps volunteers in the 1960s. Select "Peace
Corps" from the list of headings.
History [25 May 2000] includes the segment, "A History of the Peace
Corps. Eileen Dugan interviews Elizabeth Cobbs-Hoffman, author of
You Need is Love: The Peace Corp and the Spirit of the 1960s (Harvard
University Press, 1998).
1961 President John F. Kennedy
establishes the President's Commission on
the Status of Women.
the Archives: Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson Addresses the
President's Commission on the Status of Women (1962) [Talking History,
27 January 2005]
1961 Women Strike for Peace is
The Triptych digital
collection includes over 100 images of Women Strike for Peace buttons from
the Swarthmore College Peace Collection.
Constance Baker Motley successfully argues in Meredith v. Fair
that James Meredith should be admitted to
the University of Mississippi.
Baker Motley [Teachers' Domain; registration required] includes a
transcript of an interview in which Motley describes the Meredith case in
1962 Dolores Huerta plays a major
role in the formation of the National Farm
Huerta: For Our Children [Pacifica Radio Archives; time: 59 min.]
Movement: 1962-1993 [Si Se Puede Press, 2005] includes photos of
Huerta (Online Gallery
Search) and numerous essays by women and men who volunteered in the
Unsung of Civil Rights [National Public Radio; 8 min, 39 sec]
offers a brief report on Huerta.
1962 Rachel Carson's Silent
Spring is published.
Limited preview of Silent
Spring: 40th Anniversary Edition is available from Google Book
Listen to the Talking
History interview [15 April 1999] with Linda
Lear, author of Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published.
Daniel Horowitz discusses his book,
Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique, in a Talking
History interview [9 December 1999].
1963 Bombing at a Birmingham church
kills four African-American girls.
Street Baptist Church Bombing [Birmingham Public Library] includes
photographs, newspaper clippings, and a bibliography.
Listen to National Public Radio's segment, 16th
Street Baptist Church Bombing: Forty Years Later, Birmingham Still
Struggles with Violent Past.
1963 The Equal Pay Act requires
equal pay for men and women performing the same job duties.
The American Presidency Project includes Kennedy's Remarks Upon
Signing the Equal Pay Act.
1963 Julia Child's public television
program The French Chef began
on Boston's WGBH.
See Julia Child's
Kitchen at the Smithsonian, and the Archive of American
Television interview with Child that is available on Google Video.
1963 Katharine Graham becomes
president of the Washington Post.
Graham: A Life Remembered [National Public Radio]
Graham Remembered [Washington Post]
1963 March on Washington
Were There: Dorothy Height [Tavis Smiley Show; time: 8 min.],
Height recalls her role in planning the event, the
experience of being close to Martin Luther King during his historic
speech, and the meeting of National Council of Negro Women the day after
Janus Adams recalls the experience of attending the March as a little girl
in Commentary: Remembering
the Speech [Tavis Smiley Show, August 27, 2003; time: 3 min., 54
Another relevant program: 1963
March on Washington: 'Medgar Evers Ballad'
Ten Leaders and a Tribute to Women [WGBH Forum]
1963 Vivian J. Malone and James A.
Hood become the first African-Americans
to sustain enrollment at the University of Alabama.
Vivian Malone Jones is on the panel that discusses
Integrating the University of Alabama [WGBH Forum].
1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in public
accommodations and in employment.
1964 Fannie Lou Hamer appears before
the credentials committee of the 1964
Democratic National Convention. She relates the difficulties that she
faced in registering to vote in Mississippi.
Listen to Hamer's Testimony
Before the Credentials Committee, Democratic National Convention, part
It Plain: A Century of Great African American Speeches from American
The Civil Rights in
Mississippi Digital Archive includes an
audio enhanced transcript of an oral history
interview with Hamer.
Kay Mills, author of This Little Light of Mine: The
Life of Fannie Lou Hamer, discusses Hamer's life with Brian Lamb in
1964 Free Speech Movement at
The Online Archive of California
includes hundreds of images that document the free speech movement. Many
of these photos include images of women (e.g., Joan Baez, Bettina
Aptheker recalls the period in an interview
(Bancroft Library) from 2001.
1964 Freedom Summer
Blewen, John. Oh
Freedom Over Me [online]. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota
Public Radio, 2000 [cited 18 June 2002]. Available
Listen to this engaging program about Freedom Summer. Topics include
activist strategies, freedom songs, and Fannie Lou Hamer. The site also
includes transcripts of selected interviews and a slideshow of
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that
Connecticut's ban on the distribution of contraceptive devices
or information is a violation of married couples' right to privacy.
Listen to oral arguments from OYEZ.
Dickey Chapelle is killed while covering the Vietnam
War Photographs by Dickey Chapelle [Wisconsin Historical Society].
Press Club: Dickey Chapelle, 1964 [audio; 46 min.]
Chapelle received the Award for Gallantry in News Coverage from the
Overseas Press Club in 1964.
1965 Selma-to-Montgomery march for
Mark 40th Anniversary of Selma March [National Public Radio; 8 min.,
19 sec.] includes an interview with march organizer and participant Ameila
Visual Journey: Photographs by Lisa Law
1965 Voting Rights Act
Historical Documents: The Voting Rights Act
1966 The first African American women students enter
Black Women at Virginia Tech
Oral History Project [Virginia Tech University Libraries]
1966 The National Organization for
Women is established.
Part III of The
Feminist Chronicles, 1953-1993 includes the text of numerous early NOW
Dare We Not Discriminate?, a Harvard Law School Forum (18 February
1966), includes speakers Betty Friedan, Mary I. Bunting, and Pauli Murray.
1967 Diane Arbus' Identical Twins photograph.
Listen to Diane
Arbus' Identical Twins, part of National Public Radio's "Present at
the Creation" series.
1967 In Loving v. Virginia, the
Supreme Court rules that Virginia's
miscegenation statute is unconstitutional.
The online journal History Now
provides an overview of the case.
Construction Guides at the WTC, 1968-1971 (Lost & Found Sound,
National Public Radio; 21 minutes).
1968 The "Catonsville Nine" protest
against the Vietnam War by burning
several hundred draft records that they had taken from the
Selective Service Offices in Catonsville, Maryland. Marjorie
Melville and Mary Moylan are among the participants.
Fire and Faith: The Catonsville Nine
File [Enoch Pratt Public Library] provides profiles of the
participants, an audio file of an interview with draft board
employee who witnessed the event, and footage of the group as they burn
the draft records and recite the Lord's Prayer in unison.
1968 Diahann Carroll becomes the
first African American to star in a
television situation comedy. She plays a widowed nurse in
The Encyclopedia of Television provides a good overview of Julia.
The Archive of American Television interview with Carroll is available
on Google Video.
1968 The Jeannette Rankin Brigade
marches on Washington,
D.C. to protest the Vietnam War.
Rankin relates how the Jeannette
Rankin Brigade was formed in a oral
history interview (Suffragists Oral History Project, Regional Oral
History Office, Bancroft Library).
Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union (CWLU).
Learn more about the Chicago
Women's Liberation Union Herstory Project.
1969 President Richard Nixon creates
the Task Force on Women's Rights and
Responsibilities to recruit and train women for upper-level governmental
A Few Good
the Cause for Women in the U.S. Government, 1969-1974
[online]. University Park: University Libraries, The Pennsylvania State
University, 2003- [cited 11 March 2005]. Available
1969 Roxcy Bolton successfully
challenges "men only" sections in
Bolton, Pioneer Feminist [Florida Memory Project] includes an overview
of Bolton's work for women's rights, pro and con letters about the "men
only" lunch sections, photographs of Bolton, and lesson plans for grades
1969 Stonewall Riots in New York
City mark the starting point of the modern
gay rights movement.
Listen to the documentary Remembering
Stonewall from Sound Portraits (23:03 min.).
See the online exhibit, Stonewall
and Beyond: Lesbian and Gay Culture, from Columbia University
Adflip.com offers 6,000 print
advertisments published from 1940 to the present. Search by year or browse
Peterson, Kelsy. The Glory
of Woman: Prescriptive Literature in the
Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture
[online]. Durham, NC: Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and
Culture, Duke University, 2003 [cited 21 November 2005]. Available
Researchers can browse this extensive, annotated bibliography by
The Florida Memory Project
[State Library and Archives of Florida] offers several historic films from
the 1960s, including "The Road to Beauty" and "Florida Cinderella."
Television News of the
Civil Rights Era, 1950-1970 [online]. Charlottesville,
Va.: University of Virginia, Virginia Center for Digital History, 2005-
The Whole World Was
Watching: An Oral History of 1968
[online]. Providence, RI: Scholarly Technology Group, Brown University,
[1998- ]. Available from: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/1968/.
Most of the interviewees at least touch upon civil rights. Naomi Craig, an
African American, discusses race relations and the assassination of Martin
See the Public Opinion section for
citations to print and electronic sources.
Researchers can examine state and county topics for individual census
years and over time, as well as generate maps of selected data.
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to
1970. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975.
Also available online in two parts: Part
1 and Part
Statistical Abstract of the United States [online]. Washington,
DC: Government Printing Office, 1879- .
America: History & Life [online]. Santa Barbara, CA : ABC-Clio,
Inc., 1998- .
A valuable online tool for locating historical statistics for a given
This database offers a simple option
for limiting a search for articles and other sources to a specific time
Linden-Ward, Blanche, and Carol Hurd Green. Changing the
Future: American Women in the 1960s. New York: Twayne, 1992.
Sigerman, Harriet, ed. The Columbia Documentary History of American
Women Since 1941. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
[online]. Otto G. Richter Library, University of Miami, 2004. Available
Includes a section on Gender
American Women Through Time
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132