Anna Mae McCabe Hays becomes the first woman general in the U.S. Army.
See the Hat
worn by Anna Mae McCabe Hays when she became the first woman general in
the U.S. Army, June 11, 1970, part of the Smithsonian's Legacies
1970 Bella Abzug wins election to
U.S. House of Representatives.
The Women of Valor: Bella
Abzug from Jewish Women's Archive includes a section on her Passionate
1970 Disabled in Action, a
grassroots disability rights group, is founded by
Judith Heumann in New York City.
Disability Rights and Independent
Living Movement includes transcipts (and
selected audio clips) from oral history interviews with Heumann and
in Action members.
1970 Kent State University
Shootings: Oral Histories includes 69 oral histories related to the
4 Collection [Kent State University Libraries]
Talk of the Nation (4 May 2005) offers The
Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later. Writer Philip Caputo returns
to Kent State 35 years after he covered the shootings there. The site also
includes an excerpt from Caputo's book, Thirteen Seconds.
1970 Loretta Lynn's "Coal Miner's
Coal Miner's Daughter is part of The NPR
100, National Public Radio's selection of the 100 most important
American musical works of the 20th century.
The audio clip includes an interview with Lynn and short clips from the
Anna Nieto Gomez, in the first issue of the Chicana
newspaper, Hijas de Cuauhtemoc, calls
for the elimination of sexism in Chicano families and in the Chicano
Feminists section of The Virtual Oral/Aural History Archive
State University, Long Beach] includes oral history interviews with
Nieto Gomez, additional activists in Hijas de Cuauhtemoc
(Corinne Sanchez, Leticia Hernandez and Sylvia Castillo), Yolanda Nava,
and Consuelo Nieto.
New Ground - Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971) [Supreme Court
1971 Mary Lasker's intense lobbying
efforts contribute to the passage of the
National Cancer Act.
Lasker is featured in Notable
New Yorkers [Oral History Research Office, Columbia University
Libraries]. The site includes streaming audio and the transcript from the
oral history interview, a biographical profile, and a small photo gallery.
1971 The National Women's
(NWPC) is founded by Gloria Steinem, Betty Friedan, and Bella Abzug.
Listen to a brief audio clip from Gloria
Steinem's address to the National Women's Political Caucus [History
The Equal Rights Amendment is passed by the Senate and submitted to the
states for ratification.
Rights Amendment [Florida Memory Project] includes four examples of
constituent letters for and against the ERA.
1972 Ms. magazine is
CUNY TV offers digital archive that includes three interviews each with Letty
Cottin Pogrebin and Gloria
Letter from Lucy Lippard to Gloria Steinem is part of Smithsonian
Archives of American Art's online exhibit, Fifty
for Fifty: Documents from the Last Fifty Years. Lippard expressed her
desire to write about women artists for the magazine.
Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African American woman to run for
Watch a video
clip of Chisholm announcing her candidacy [New York City
Department of Records].
'72: Unbought & Unbossed, the companion site to the PBS film, includes
a brief overview of 1972, an excerpt from Chisholm's Unbossed and
Unbought, and the text from Gloria Steinem's 1973 article on the
impact of Chisholm's candidacy.
supporting Shirley Chisholm for president, 1972, part of the
Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign includes photographs and
commentary by Jo Freeman.
1972 Title IX of the Education Act
Amendments of 1972 bans
discrimination in most federally assisted educational programs.
University of Oregon's Response to Title IX traces the history of
women's sports at the university, profiles leading advocates, and details
how the university has adapted to Title IX.
in Sports includes a concise overview of Title IX, a timeline of Title
IX cases, federal and state legislation, and more.
Title IX: 25 Years of
Progress (U.S. Department of Education, 1997)
1973 Frontiero v. Richardson Supreme Court decision.
Double Standard for Benefits - Frontiero v. Richardson from the
Supreme Court Historical Society.
1973 In Roe v. Wade, the United
States Supreme Court rules that women have a
right to abort a fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy.
overview of the case, oral arguments (in Real Audio format), and a link to
the written opinions of the court.
Also see CNN's special report, Roe vs. Wade 25 Years
Listen to Barbara Jordan's Statement
at the U.S. House Judiciary Committee Impeachment Hearings, part of
It Plain: A Century of Great African American Speeches from American
A Tribute to Barbara Jordan and Shirley Chisholm [WGBH Forum
1974 Ella Grasso is elected governor
Connecticut. She becomes the first
woman in the United States to be elected governor without the benefit of a
husband's previous incumbency.
Digital Collections includes a few photographs of Ella Tambussi when
she attended Mount Holyoke, as well as a campaign flyer from 1972.
Ella Giovanna Oliva
(Tambussi) Grasso [Connecticut State Library] offers a biographical
profile and portrait of Grasso.
1976 Lesbian Herstory Archives
Jewish Women and the Feminist
Revolution [Jewish Women's Archive] includes a video clip of Joan
Nestle, co-founder of Lesbian Herstory Archives.
1976 The Jewish women's magazine
Lilith is launched.
Weidman Schneider discusses her
experiences as editor of Lilith in a Library of Congress webcast
[video; 47 min.].
Paul Memorial March, Washington, D.C. 1977 [Jo Freeman]
'77, a companion site to the film about the National Women's
Conference in 1977.
The first home pregnancy tests start appearing on drug store shelves.
Blue Line: The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit [Office of NIH
History] includes an overview, a timeline of
pregnancy testing, examples of advertisements, and transcripts of
with medical researchers Judith Vaitukaitis and Glenn Braunstein.
1978 The Pregnancy Discrimination
Act is passed.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offers the text of the Pregnancy
Discrimination Act of 1978.
Mariel boatlift results in a wave of immigration from Cuba to Florida.
Mañana Details Cuban 'Exodus' [Weekend Edition, National
includes an interview with Mirta Ojito, and an excerpt from her book,
Finding Mañana: A Memoir of a Cuban Exodus.
Stems from Cuban Boatlift [32 minutes] features Terry Gross' interview
Collaboration between Georgeanna Jones and Howard Jones results in the
first child conceived by in-vitro fertilization in the United States.
Vitro Fertilization Pioneer Jones Dies [All Things Considered, March
Medicine Pioneer Georgeanna Seegar Jones Dies at 92 [Eastern Virginia
1981 First medical reports to
describe Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
[UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library] includes digital images of
more than 600 posters from 44 countries. "Browse" the collection for
United States posters.
Their Own Words ...: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years of AIDS
[online]. [Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health, 2001]. Available
See the transcripts of interviews with Ms. Barbara Fabian Baird, R.N., and
Christine Grady, R.N., Ph.D.
1981 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the
first woman appointed to the United
O'Connor discusses her book, Lazy
B: Growing Up On a Cattle Ranch in the American Southwest, on Booknotes.
on the Rehnquist and O'Connor Legacies [Princeton; video]. This
(1 hour, 30 min.) panel discussion of O'Connor's legacy is moderated by
Professor Neil Siegel.
Brenda Berkman begins her career as a New York City firefighter after
winning a federal sex discrimination lawsuit.
the Heat: The First Women Firefighters of New York City, the companion
site to the PBS film, Berkman and three other women talk about the life of
a female firefighter. The site also includes a Women Firefighters
the Heat': Fighting to Join the NYFD (National Public Radio; 11 min.),
Berkman discusses the lawsuit, her early experiences as a firefighter, and
1982 The Equal Rights Amendment is
Leslie W. Gladstone's essay, The Long Road
to Equality: What Women Won from the ERA Ratification
Effort, is part of the Library of Congress guide, American Women.
of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, designed by Maya Lin.
See the Booknotes and Academy of
Achievement interviews with Maya Lin.
Maya Lin's Vietnam
Veterans Memorial proposal is featured on the American Treasures of
the Library of Congress site.
Barbara McClintock wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Papers, part of the National Library of Medicine's Profiles in
Science site, includes correspondence, lecture notes, and numerous
1985 How and Why
Did the Guerrilla Girls Alter the Art World
Establishment in New York City, 1985-1995? [Women and Social Movements
in the United States] This site offers an introduction, more than 20
examples of Guerrilla Girls posters, and a bibliography.
1985 Wilma Mankiller becomes the
woman principal chief of the Cherokee
Watch Mankiller's lecture, Context Is Everything:
History and Culture in Contemporary Tribal Life [University of Oregon;
1 hour, 19 min.].
Preview Mankiller's autobiography, Mankiller:
A Chief and Her People (St. Martin's Press, 2000).
1986 In Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, the Supreme Court
recognizes that sexual harassment is a violation of Title VII of the
Civil Rights Act.
overview of the case, as well as audio of the oral argument.
1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini and
Stanley Cohen are awarded the Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of nerve growth factor and
epidermal growth factor.
The Nobel Foundation provides an autobiography
Levi-Montalcini's Nobel lecture, "The Nerve Growth Factor: Thirty-Five
Washington University's Women in Health Sciences online exhibit includes
a biographical profile of
Year in the Life: Beginning the Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Rights in
Albany New York, 1987-88 [Talking History, 29 June 2000].
Women of Valor: Gertrude
Elion [Jewish Women's Archives].
Elion (1918-1999) helped develop treatments for childhood leukemia, the
herpes virus, immunity disorders, arthritis, and other diseases. She
won the Nobel Prize in 1988.
1989 Wendy Wasserstein wins the Pulitzer Prize for The Heidi
in Theatre: Wendy Wasserstein [Video; 30 min.] features an interview
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Rights and Independent Living Movement [University of California,
Berkeley] includes audio and/or video clips from an impressive oral
history collection. See in particular
Mayerson ("On defining disability for the
Americans with Disabilities Act"), and Mary
Lou Breslin ("On the impact of disability civil rights legislation").
1990 Darlene M. Iskra becomes the
woman to take command of a U.S. Navy
M. Iskra is featured on the Library of Congress site, Experiencing
War: Stories from the Veterans History Project. The site includes a
(video; 62 min.) with Iskra, clips of interview highlights, and five
1990 Hodgson v. Minnesota tests the
constitutionality of Minnesota's abortion notification statute.
an overview of the case, Oral arguments (Real Audio), and a link to the
written opinions of the court.
1991 Persian Gulf War
War: Stories from the Veterans History Project includes a video clip
from an interview with Rhonda Cornum, a medical officer
who was held by the Iraqis for seven days, and an audio clip from an
interview with medic Wendy Wamsley Taines.
Voices of Andrew
[University of Miami] is an
online archive of 70 oral history interviews with
people who experienced the hurricane and the subsequent recovery process.
1992 Mae Jemison becomes the first
woman of color to go into space.
Space and Beyond [audio; 10 min.], Jemison
discusses her career, her experiences in space, and her
passion for science education.
Ruth Bader Ginsburg becomes the second female member of the Supreme
An interview with
Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg [Audio; 59 min.], from Only In
America: Celebrating 350 Years of the American Jewish Experience,
offers a rare personal glimpse into Ginsburg's struggles against gender
discrimination and her judicial philosophy.
Court Nominations - Confirmed [Law Library Reading Room, Library of
Congress] includes floor debates (Senate debate while in Executive
Session), votes, hearing transcripts and Senate statements (statements
made about the nominees outside of Executive Session) concerning Ginsburg
and other Supreme Court Justices.
Against Women Act of 1994
Movements Shape Civil Rights Legislation
for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act [Women and Social
Movements in the United States]
Collection [online]. Seattle, Wash. : University of Washington
Libraries, n.d. [cited 28 November 2004]. Available
In addition to photographs of protesters, this collection also includes
oral histories of women who helped organize protests during the World
Trade Organization (WTO) meeting in Seattle in 1999.
In United States v. Morrison, the Supreme Court rules that part
Violence Against Women Act is unconstitutional.
concise overview of the case, the oral
argument [RealAudio], and the written opinion.
In Arguing the Violence
Against Women Act: Two Views [video; 1 hr., 56 min.], Charles Fried
and Catharine MacKinnon discuss their views about United States
v. Morrison. This event was held at the Berkman Center for
Internet & Society in 2000, less than four months after the case was
argued before the Supreme Court.
2001 September 11
See Susan Watts (New York Daily News) on
Library of Congress program, Capturing
History: Photojournalists and 9/11.
The September 11 Digital
Archive offers a wealth of sources, including stories contributed by
individuals and groups, still images, video, audio, and documents.
Witness and Response: September
11 Acquisitions at the Library of Congress
Adflip.com offers 6,000 print
advertisments published from 1940 to the present. Search by year or browse
Peterson, Kelsy. The Glory
of Woman: Prescriptive Literature in the
Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture
[online]. Durham, NC: Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and
Culture, Duke University, 2003 [cited 21 November 2005]. Available
Researchers can browse this extensive, annotated bibliography by
Statistical Abstract of the United States [online]. Washington,
DC: Government Printing Office, 1879- .
A valuable online tool for locating historical statistics for a given
The U.S. Census Bureau offers census data from
1980, 1990, and 2000.
Women in the
Labor Force: A Databook [online]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005. Available
Although this document focuses on current statistics, some of the tables
include statistics from the 1970s and
Women's Letters & Diaries: 1970-1999
WorldCat records for books that include letters or diaries written
during this time period.
The Ten O'Clock News
[online]. WGBH Educational Foundation, c2003.
The WGBH Media Archives and Preservation Center has preserved and
described 523 tapes from The Ten O'Clock News, WGBH's in-depth nightly
news program. Dating from 1974 to 1991, this collection focuses on news
stories relating to Boston's African American community.
Women's Movement Oral History Project Collection
[online]. Atlanta: Georgia State University Library, n.d.
Includes audio clips from interviews with more than 40 women.
[online]. Arlington: The University of Texas at Arlington, c2002 [cited 25
February 2003]. Available from:
See the Public Opinion section for
citations to print and electronic sources.
This site includes transcripts and audio files of oral history interviews
with 21 women and 56 men.
Most academic libraries offer access to
America: History & Life, a commercial database that offers a
for limiting a search for articles and other sources to a specific time
period. If you are searching for articles that cover the 1980s or 1990s,
enter 1980d or 1990d in the "Time Period" row of the advanced
screen. See Searching
America: History & Life by Time Period for an example using another
American Women Through Time
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132