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Go to: II. RESEARCH SOURCES (Historical Overviews, Advertising, Manuscripts, Secondary Sources...)


America 1900 is the companion site to the PBS film of the same title.

Images of Early African American Life, David Levering Lewis and Deborah Willis discuss the collection of photographs that were featured in "The Exhibit of American Negroes" at the 1900 Paris International Exposition.

Remembering the Galveston Storm of 1900 is part of National Public Radio's Lost and Found Sound series. See also CNN's In-Depth Special, A Centennial Remembrance: The Galveston Hurricane.

Charlotte Hawkins Brown founds the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina.
The Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum web site offers a brief overview of Brown's life and information about the museum.

Mary Harris "Mother" Jones organizes West Virginia for the great anthracite coal strike of 1902.
The Mother Jones Collection [American Catholic History Center, The Catholic University Of America] includes the correspondence of Jones and John Mitchell and a small collection of photographs.

National Women's Trade Union League of America founded, 1903 Women Working, 1800-1930, Harvard University Library] provides an overview and numerous primary sources in digital format.

Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works, 1904 [American Memory, Library of Congress]
Includes scenes of women and men working at various Westinghouse plants.

Gerhard Sisters' Photographs [online]. In The 1904 World's Fair: Looking Back and Looking Forward. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 2004 [cited 26 September 2004]. Available from:

Gordon, Linda. Orphan Train [online]. Interviewed by Fred Nielsen. Talking History, 8 October 2001. Available from:
Gordon discusses her book The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, in which Mexican-Anglo relations play a central role.

Ida Tarbell's The History of the Standard Oil Company.
See Ida Tarbell Home Page.

Mary McLeod Bethune founds the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Girls, now Bethune-Cookman College.
The Mary McLeod Bethune, Educator site offers a history of Bethune-Cookman College, an interview with Bethune, photographs, and lesson plans.

The National Child Labor Committee is formed.

Sarah Breedlove Walker begins selling hair products designed for African Americans.
The Madame C. J. Walker Collection [Indiana Historical Society] includes digital images of Walker, advertisements, and examples of hairstyles.
A'Lelia Bundles discusses the life of Madame C. J. Walker in a Library of Congress Symposium, "Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History."

Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women.
Terry Gross interviews Ellen Dubois, author of Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage, on Fresh Air [11 March 1998].

Lewis Hine Photographs for the National Child Labor Committee, 1908 - 1912.
The National Archives' ARC database includes 483 of Hine's photographs.
Search hints are available.

Marian MacDowell founds the MacDowell Colony, an artists' retreat.
Robin Rausch's The House That Marian Built: The MacDowell Colony of Peterborough, New Hampshire, is one of the topical essays in American Women: A Gateway to Library of Congress Resources for the Study of Women's History and Culture in the United States.

Muller v. Oregon (Supreme Court upholds maximum hour law), February 24, 1908

International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) organizes strike by 20,000 New York City shirtwaist makers.
Heaven Will Protect the Working Girl [American Social History Project, Center for Media and Learning] is the companion site to a film that tells the story of two fictional New York City immigrant teenagers who worked in the garment industry in the first decade of the twentieth century. The site includes text (e.g., lyrics for the song, "Heaven Will Protect the Working Girl"), images, and audio from an oral history interview.

Kheel Center Labor Photos database includes images of the strike, as well as images of ILGWU activities covering most of the twentieth century. Access note: Researchers have to set up a free account before searching the database.


Historical Overviews

Tompkins, Vincent, ed. American Decades: 1900-1909. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996.


Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920 [online]. [Durham, NC]: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, 2000 [cited 12 March 2001]. Available from:

Census Data

Historical Census Browser
Researchers can examine state and county topics for individual census years and over time, as well as generate maps of selected data.

History of the U.S. Census Bureau and Its Work


Digital Dress Costume Collections allows researchers to search four collections simultaneously. Enter 1930-1939 to search for items from the 1930s.

Wisconsin Historical Museum Children's Clothing Collection [online]. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, updated 26 June 2001 [cited 10 December 2001]. Available from:
Tour the collection by decade (then by gender and type of clothing).

Manuscripts: Diaries & Letters

Manuscript Diary of Margaret A. Eadie, 1901-1909 [Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text & Image, University of Pennsylvania Library]


The National Digital Newspaper Program will create a digital collection of historically significant newspapers from all states and U.S. territories published between 1836 and 1922. The pilot project will involve the digitization of newspapers from six states covering the years 1900 to 1910.

Utah Digital Newspapers [online]. Salt Lake City: Marriott Library, University of Utah, 2002 [cited 12 February 2003]. Available from:
Numerous papers in this collection cover the early 1900s.


Browse the Quilt Index by time period (e.g., "1901-1929")

The Quilts section of American Women's History: A Research Guide includes additional links to digital collections.

Secondary Sources

The database America: History & Life offers a simple option for limiting a search for articles and other sources to a specific time period. If you are searching for articles that cover the decade from 1900 to 1910, enter 1900d in the "Time Period" row of the search screen. See Searching America: History & Life by Time Period for an example using another time period.

American Women's History: A Timeline

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132