American Women Through Time
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Go to: II. RESEARCH SOURCES (Historical Overviews, Primary Sources, and Secondary Sources)


Chicago garment workers' strike.
Chicago garment workers' strike, Sep. 22 1910 - Feb. 18 1911 from the Women Working collection.

Madam C.J. Walker sets up a factory and beauty school in Indianapolis.
The Madam C. J. Walker Collection [Indiana Historical Society] includes digital images of Walker, advertisements, and examples of hairstyles.
A'Lelia Bundles discusses the life of Madam C. J. Walker in a Library of Congress Symposium, "Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History."

The Triangle Factory Fire, March 25, 1911 [online]. Ithaca, N.Y.: Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, 1998- . Available from: The "Sources" section includes documents, photographs and illustrations, and audio files of oral histories.

1912 The Bread and Roses Strike begins in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
Bread and Roses Strike Begins ["Mass Moments," Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities]
Lawrence Strike of 1912 [Women Working, 1800-1930, Harvard University Library] provides an overview of the strike, primary sources in digital format, and links to additional web resources.

Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927) founds the Girl Scouts of America. A biography of Low appears in the New Georgia Encyclopedia.

Oregon's Equal Suffrage Proclamation
See Feminist Voices & Visions: Proclamation of Woman's Suffrage in Oregon (University of Oregon Library and the Center for the Study of Women in Society)

U.S. Children's Bureau is formally created.
Kriste Lindenmeyer's presentation [video; 19 min.] on the role of women in formation and work of the Children's Bureau was part of the Library of Congress Symposium, Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History [2003].


Mary Harris "Mother" Jones is arrested after leading protest of conditions in West Virginia mines.
Mother Jones [online]. Talking History, 2 September 2002. Available from:

White goods workers of New York strike.
Read Rose Schneiderman and the White Goods Workers of New York, taken from Chapter 2 of Carrie Brown's Rosie's Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War (Northeastern University Press, 2002).

The woman suffrage parade in Washington, D.C. draws more than 5000 marchers.
Sheridan Harvey's essay, Marching for the Vote: Remembering the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913, is part of the Library of Congress guide, American Women.

Ludlow Massacre (April 14)
See The Ludlow Massacre: Images from the Western History Collection, Denver Public Library

Margaret Sanger publishes the first issue of The Woman Rebel. See Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel [Model Editions Partnership].

Elsie De Wolfe's The House in Good Taste is published. The House in Good Taste is part of the University of Wisconsin's Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture.

Edith Bolling Galt marries President Woodrow Wilson.
View the Booknotes Interview with Phyllis Lee Levin, author of Edith and Woodrow: The Wilson White House.

The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom is founded.
The Swarthmore College Peace Collection's online exhibit on the history of the WILPF includes about 100 photographs.

Suffrage activist Inez Miholland collapses while speaking on stage in Los Angeles, and dies a month later.
Listen to the Talking History interview, Linda Lumsden on the Life and Times of Inez Milholland [26 August 2004].

Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to the United States Congress. See Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women's Rights, and Democratic Government [Suffragists Oral History Project, UC Berkeley, Regional Oral History Office].

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 [100 Milestone Documents]

The National Woman's Party is founded.
Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party [Library of Congress] documents the wide range of tactics that the NWP used in its push for ratification of the 19th Amendment.


Callie House, the driving force behind the Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty and Pension Association, begins serving a one-year sentence in the Missouri State Prison in Jefferson City.
Watch Mary Frances Berry's lecture, Callie House: My Face is Black is True.

Georgia O'Keeffe's first one-person show is held at the 291 gallery New York.
The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum includes a biographical profile and a detailed chronology.
The National Gallery of Art's Radio Programs offers a brief interview (3 min., 31 sec.) with Barbara Buhler Lynes, co-curator of the O'Keeffe on Paper exhibition.
The Timeline of Art History includes an overview of O'Keeffe's life and examples of her work.

Segment 2: From the Archives: "Ernestine Hara Kettler Recalling Her Imprisonment after the National Woman's Party March on Washington of 1917 (Recorded 1-29-1973)." [online]. Talking History, August 26, 2004. Available from:

The United States enters World War I.
Carrie Brown offers excerpts from her book, Rosie's Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War.
Several digital collections are cited in the World War I section of American Women's History: A Research Guide.

"I Remember When: What Became of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918." (The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 in Philadelphia) [online]. Talking History, 24 March 2005. Available from:
Originally broadcast on WUHY-FM in Philadelphia on 18 January 1983.
Several women and men recall the epidemic in this segment.

Julia Morgan begins work on the Hearst Castle.
Guide to the Julia Morgan Architectural Drawings, 1907-1929 includes over 30 digital images of drawings for the Hearst Castle and other projects.



Ad* Access [online]. [Durham, NC]: Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, c1999.
Images of over 7000 advertisements from U.S. and Canadian newspapers and magazines between 1911 and 1955. "Beauty and hygiene" is one of the five areas of concentration.

Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920 [online]. [Durham, NC]: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, 2000 [cited 12 March 2001]. Available from:

Medicine and Madison Avenue [online]. Durham, NC: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, 2002 [cited 28 September 2002]. Available from:
Images of 600 health-related advertisements that appeared in newspapers and magazines from the 1910s through the 1950s.

Census Data

Historical Census Browser
Researchers can examine state and county topics for individual census years and over time, as well as generate maps of selected data.

History of the U.S. Census Bureau and Its Work


Digital Dress Costume Collections allows researchers to search four collections simultaneously. Enter 1910-1919 to search for items from the 1910s.

Wisconsin Historical Museum Children's Clothing Collection [online]. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, updated 26 June 2001 [cited 10 December 2001]. Available from:
Tour the collection by decade (then by gender and type of clothing).

Manuscripts: Diaries & Letters

Lillian Schoedler (1891-1963) [online]. In Women Working, 1800-1930. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Library, 2005. In her 1914 diary, Schoedler describes her work as a secretary in New York City, her social life, and her athletic activities.


Utah Digital Newspapers [online]. Salt Lake City: Marriott Library, University of Utah, 2002 [cited 12 February 2003]. Available from:
Numerous papers in this collection cover the early 1900s.


Browse the Quilt Index by time period (e.g., "1901-1929")

The Quilts section of American Women's History: A Research Guide includes additional links to digital collections.

Secondary Sources

The database America: History & Life offers a simple option for limiting a search for articles and other sources to a specific time period. If you are searching for articles that cover the decade from 1910 to 1919, enter 1910d in the "Time Period" row of the search screen. See Searching America: History & Life by Time Period for an example using another time period.

American Women Through Time

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132