American Women Through Time
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Go to: II. RESEARCH SOURCES (Historical Overviews, Primary Sources, and Secondary Sources)


Diane Nash plays a key role in the Nashville sit-ins.
Diane Nash and the Sit-Ins [Teachers' Domain] includes a biographical profile of Nash and a video clip of an interview with Nash.
Access note: although access is free, registration is required.

John Kennedy is elected President.
Eleanor Roosevelt, John Kennedy, and the Election of 1960, a mini-edition from the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers project, includes letters to and from Roosevelt, excerpts from her "My Day" newspaper column, and audio from three JFK campaign advertisements.

The drug company G.D. Searle receives FDA approval to sell "the pill."
See American Experience: The Pill [PBS] for a program transcript, timeline, interviews with women, and much more.

Freedom Riders test a recent Supreme Court decision prohibiting segregation on interstate buses.
Freedom Riders and the Albany Movement In Music of Social Change. Atlanta: Emory University, [2005].
Joan Browning was among the SNCC workers who were jailed in Albany, Georgia for demonstrating at bus and train stations. This site features letters and notes that Browning wrote on papers towels and tissue while in jail.

Ackmann, Martha. 'The Mercury 13': Training U.S. Women for Space [Audio; 8 min., 19 sec.]
Listen to the NPR interview with Martha Ackmann, author of The Mercury 13: The Untold Story of 13 American Women and the Dream of Space Flight.

Peace Corps is established.
Oral History Digital Collection [Youngstown State University] includes interviews with two women who were Peace Corps volunteers in the 1960s. Select "Peace Corps" from the list of headings.
Talking History [25 May 2000] includes the segment, "A History of the Peace Corps. Eileen Dugan interviews Elizabeth Cobbs-Hoffman, author of All You Need is Love: The Peace Corp and the Spirit of the 1960s (Harvard University Press, 1998).

President John F. Kennedy establishes the President's Commission on the Status of Women.
From the Archives: Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson Addresses the President's Commission on the Status of Women (1962) [Talking History, 27 January 2005]

Women Strike for Peace is founded.
The Triptych digital collection includes over 100 images of Women Strike for Peace buttons from the Swarthmore College Peace Collection.

Constance Baker Motley successfully argues in Meredith v. Fair that James Meredith should be admitted to the University of Mississippi.
Constance Baker Motley [Teachers' Domain; registration required] includes a transcript of an interview in which Motley describes the Meredith case in detail.

Dolores Huerta plays a major role in the formation of the National Farm Workers Association.
The Farmworker Movement: 1962-1993 [Si Se Puede Press, 2005] includes photos of Huerta (Online Gallery Search) and numerous essays by women and men who volunteered in the farmworker movement.
The Unsung of Civil Rights [National Public Radio; 8 min, 39 sec] offers a brief report on Huerta.

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is published.
Lear, Linda J. [Interview] [online]. Interviewed by Dennis Mihelick. Talking History, 15 April 1999. Available from: Lear, author of Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature, talks about Carson's life and work.

Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published.
Daniel Horowitz discusses his book, Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique, in a Talking History interview [9 December 1999].

Bombing at a Birmingham church kills four African-American girls.
Listen to National Public Radio's segment, 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing: Forty Years Later, Birmingham Still Struggles with Violent Past.

Julia Child's public television program The French Chef began on Boston's WGBH.
See Julia Child's Kitchen at the Smithsonian, and the Archive of American Television interview with Child that is available on Google Video.

Katharine Graham becomes president of the Washington Post.
Katharine Graham: A Life Remembered [National Public Radio]
Katharine Graham Remembered [Washington Post]

March on Washington
In They Were There: Dorothy Height [Tavis Smiley Show; time: 8 min.], Height recalls her role in planning the event, the experience of being close to Martin Luther King during his historic speech, and the meeting of National Council of Negro Women the day after the march.
Janus Adams recalls the experience of attending the March as a little girl in Commentary: Remembering the Speech [Tavis Smiley Show, August 27, 2003; time: 3 min., 54 sec.].
Another relevant program: 1963 March on Washington: 'Medgar Evers Ballad' Ten Leaders and a Tribute to Women [WGBH Forum]

Vivian J. Malone and James A. Hood become the first African-Americans to sustain enrollment at the University of Alabama.
Vivian Malone Jones is on the panel that discusses Integrating the University of Alabama [WGBH Forum].

Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and in employment.

Fannie Lou Hamer appears before the credentials committee of the 1964 Democratic National Convention. She relates the difficulties that she faced in registering to vote in Mississippi.
Listen to Hamer's Testimony Before the Credentials Committee, Democratic National Convention, part of Say It Plain: A Century of Great African American Speeches from American Radio Works.
The Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive includes an audio enhanced transcript of an oral history interview with Hamer. Kay Mills, author of This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer, discusses Hamer's life with Brian Lamb in a Booknotes Interview.

Free Speech Movement at Berkeley
The Online Archive of California includes hundreds of images that document the free speech movement. Many of these photos include images of women (e.g., Joan Baez, Bettina Aptheker).
Aptheker recalls the period in an interview (Bancroft Library) from 2001.

Freedom Summer
Blewen, John. Oh Freedom Over Me [online]. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Public Radio, 2000 [cited 18 June 2002]. Available from: Listen to this engaging program about Freedom Summer. Topics include activist strategies, freedom songs, and Fannie Lou Hamer. The site also includes transcripts of selected interviews and a slideshow of photographs.

See Wednesdays in Mississippi: Civil Rights as Women's Work

In Griswold v. Connecticut, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that Connecticut's ban on the distribution of contraceptive devices or information is a violation of married couples' right to privacy.
Listen to oral arguments from OYEZ.

Photojournalist Dickey Chapelle is killed while covering the Vietnam War.
See Vietnam War Photographs by Dickey Chapelle [Wisconsin Historical Society].

Selma-to-Montgomery march for civil rights.
Activists Mark 40th Anniversary of Selma March [National Public Radio; 8 min., 19 sec.] includes an interview with march organizer and participant Ameila Boynton.

A Visual Journey: Photographs by Lisa Law 1965-1971

Voting Rights Act
America's Historical Documents: The Voting Rights Act

Black Women at Virginia Tech Oral History Project [online]. Blacksburg: Virginia Tech University Libraries, updated 1 September 1999 [cited 15 November 2000]. Available from:

National Organization for Women is established.
Part III of The Feminist Chronicles, 1953-1993 includes the text of numerous early NOW documents.
Women - Dare We Not Discriminate?, a Harvard Law School Forum (18 February 1966), includes speakers Betty Friedan, Mary I. Bunting, and Pauli Murray.

Diane Arbus' Identical Twins photograph.
Listen to Diane Arbus' Identical Twins, part of National Public Radio's "Present at the Creation" series.

In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that Virginia's miscegenation statute is unconstitutional.
The online journal History Now provides an overview of the case.

The Building Stewardesses Construction Guides at the WTC, 1968-1971 (Lost & Found Sound, National Public Radio; time: 21 minutes).

The "Catonsville Nine" protest against the Vietnam War by burning several hundred draft records that they had taken from the Selective Service Offices in Catonsville, Maryland. Marjorie Melville and Mary Moylan are among the participants.
Fire and Faith: The Catonsville Nine File [Enoch Pratt Public Library] provides profiles of the participants, an audio file of an interview with draft board employee who witnessed the event, and footage of the group as they burn the draft records and recite the Lord's Prayer in unison.

Diahann Carroll becomes the first African American to star in a television situation comedy. She plays a widowed nurse in Julia.
The Encyclopedia of Television provides a good overview of Julia.
The Archive of American Television interview with Carroll is available on Google Video.

The Jeannette Rankin Brigade marches on Washington, D.C. to protest the Vietnam War.
Rankin relates how the Jeannette Rankin Brigade was formed in a oral history interview (Suffragists Oral History Project, Regional Oral History Office, Bancroft Library).

The Whole World Was Watching: An Oral History of 1968 [online]. Providence, RI: Scholarly Technology Group, Brown University, [1998- ]. Available from: Most of the interviewees at least touch upon civil rights. Naomi Craig, an African American, discusses race relations and the assassination of Martin Luther King.

Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union (CWLU).
Learn more about the Chicago Women's Liberation Union Herstory Project.

President Richard Nixon creates the Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities to recruit and train women for upper-level governmental positions.
A Few Good Women: Advancing the Cause for Women in the U.S. Government, 1969-1974 [online]. University Park: University Libraries, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003- [cited 11 March 2005]. Available from:

Roxcy Bolton successfully challenges "men only" sections in restaurants.
Roxcy Bolton, Pioneer Feminist [Florida Memory Project] includes an overview of Bolton's work for women's rights, pro and con letters about the "men only" lunch sections, photographs of Bolton, and lesson plans for grades 7-9.

Stonewall Riots in New York City mark the starting point of the modern gay rights movement.
Listen to the documentary Remembering Stonewall from Sound Portraits (23:03 min.).
See the online exhibit, Stonewall and Beyond: Lesbian and Gay Culture, from Columbia University Libraries.


Historical Overviews / General Sources

Linden-Ward, Blanche, and Carol Hurd Green. Changing the Future: American Women in the 1960s. New York: Twayne, 1992.

Sigerman, Harriet, ed. The Columbia Documentary History of American Women Since 1941. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

The Sixties [online]. Otto G. Richter Library, University of Miami, 2004. Available from:
Includes a section on Gender Issues.

Advertising offers 6,000 print advertisments published from 1940 to the present. Search by year or browse by decade.

Census Data / Statistical Sources

Historical Census Browser
In addition to examining state and county topics for individual census years and over time, researchers can generate maps of selected data.

Historic Films / Television News

The Florida Memory Project [State Library and Archives of Florida] offers several historic films from the 1960s, including "The Road to Beauty" and "Florida Cinderella."

Television News of the Civil Rights Era, 1950-1970 [online]. Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia, Virginia Center for Digital History, 2005- .

Oral History Collections

Public Opinion

See the Public Opinion section for citations to print and electronic sources.

Secondary Sources

The database America: History & Life offers a simple option for limiting a search for articles and other sources to a specific time period. If you are searching for articles that cover the 1960s, enter 1960d in the "Time Period" row of the search screen. See Searching America: History & Life by Time Period for an example using another time period.

American Women Through Time

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132