American Women's History: A Research Guide
Home Page | Last Update: 7/11/2006 | Suggestion Box

Lewis Hine Photographs for
the National Child Labor Committee

[National Archives]


Ashby, LeRoy. "Bibliographic Essay." In Endangered Children: Dependency, Neglect, and Abuse in American History. Twayne's History of American Childhood Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997.

Berrol, Selma Cantor. "Bibliographic Essay." In Growing Up American: Immigrant Children in American Then and Now. Twayne's History of American Childhood Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1995.

Child Labor Bibliography [online]. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Department of Labor Library, n.d. [cited 19 June 2000]. Available from:

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson. "Bibliographical Essay." In Growing Pains: Children in the Industrial Age, 1850-1890. Twayne's History of American Childhood Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997.

Hawes, Joseph M. "Bibliographical Essay." In Children Between the Wars: American Childhood, 1920-1940. Twayne's History of American Childhood Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997.

Hawes, Joseph M., and N. Ray Hiner, eds. American Childhood: A Research Guide and Historical Handbook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985. Chronological arrangment. Each chapter provides a review of the literature of a broad topic (e.g., "Growing Up Female in Young America, 1800-1860), followed by an extensive bibliography.

Reinier, Jacqueline S. "Bibliographical Essay." In From Virtue to Character: American Childhood, 1775-1850. Twayne's History of American Childhood Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1996.


Forman-Brunell, Miriam, ed. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2001. Over 100 signed articles on a wide range of topics, including "Adoption," "Dolls," "Enslaved Girls of African Descent," "Girl Scouts," "Girls Fiction," "Latina Girls," "Play," "Sports," and "Television."

Networking Tools

H-Childhood Discussion List []

Society for the History of Children and Youth []

Primary Sources: Archival Collections

"Childhood." In Selected Subject List for Iowa Women's Archives [online]. Iowa City: Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries, January 1997 [cited 14 June 2000]. Available from:

Primary Sources: Digital Collections

American Centuries [online]. Deerfield, Mass.: Memorial Hall Museum, 2001- [cited 9 February 2002]. Available from:
"Children" is one of the "topics" in the "Assisted Search." The site presents a wide range of primary sources, including furniture (e.g., a twin potty chair), clothing, toys, children's books, and excerpts from diaries.

By the People, For the People: Posters from the WPA, 1936-1943 [online]. [Washington, DC]: Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, 2000 [cited 12 September 2000]. Available from:
See the subheadings to "Children" in the Subject Index to the collection.

Children in Urban America Project [online]. [Milwaukee]: Marquette University, n.d. [cited 10 April 2001]. Available from:

Connecticut History Online [online]. Connecticut Historical Society, Thomas J. Dodd Research Center at the University of Connecticut, and Mystic Seaport, [2001- ]. Available from:
The site also includes a very useful lesson plan: 125 Years of Childhood: Comparing and Contrasting the Lives of Children in Connecticut.

Florida Folklife from the WPA Collections, 1937-1942 [online]. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2000. Available from:
Includes folktales, folksongs, and interviews that document a variety of ethnic cultures. A search for Children's songs retrieves 25 records.

Lewis Hine Photographs for the National Child Labor Committee [National Archives]

Minnesota Girls in the 20th Century [online]. [Mankato]: Minnesota State University, 2004 [cited 10 March 2005]. Available from: Undergraduates in Professor Susan Freeman's course conducted oral history intereviews with eleven women. Includes video and audio files from the interviews, photographs, and reactions of students to the project.

Photo Database & Virtual Gallery [online]. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library, n.d. [cited 18 March 2002]. Available from:

The Photography Collection [online]. Denver, CO: Denver Public Library, 1995- . Available from:
The 80,000 images in this collection document the history of Colorado and the American West. A keyword search for girl* produced over 2200 records. Try combining this term with other terms (e.g., Indians, schools) that appear frequently in the database.

Shaping the Values of Youth: Sunday School Books in 19th Century America [online]. East Lansing: Michigan State University Libraries, 1999- . Available from:

Virginia Agricultural Extension Service [online]. In Imagebase. Blacksburg: University Libraries, Virginia Tech, [cited 16 November 2002]. Available from:
This collection includes about 1300 photographs of 4-H activities.

Visual Resources Database [online]. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, [1998- ]. Available from:
A keyword search for girl* retrieved over 800 records (on 7/15/2001).

Wisconsin Historical Museum Children's Clothing Collection [online]. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, updated 26 June 2001 [cited 10 December 2001]. Available from:

Primary Sources: Microform Collections

Records of the Children's Bureau, 1912-1969. Alexandria, Va.: Chadwyck-Healy, 1988.

The Social and Cultural Construction of Girls. Woodbridge, Conn.: Primary Source Microfilm, n.d.
Collection overview from the publisher [.pdf]

Primary Sources: Books & Periodicals

Bremner, Robert H. Children and Youth in America: a Documentary History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970-1974.

Geha, Rabia, and Kelly Wooten, comps., and Amy Leigh, ed. Beyond Nancy Drew: Girls' Literature in the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture [online]. Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, n.d. [cited 15 March 2002]. Available from:

Girls Books in Series Collection [online]. Greensboro: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, updated 8 may 2000 [cited 10 July 2000]. Available from:

Kelly, R. Gordon, ed. Children's Periodicals of the United States. Historical Guides to the World's Periodicals and Newspapers. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984. 591p.

Newton, Sarah E. Learning to Behave: A Guide to American Conduct Books Before 1900. Bibliographies and Indexes in American History, no. 28. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. See "Conduct Books for Children."

Talking About Women's History

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. Fasting Girls: A History of Anorexia Nervosa [online]. Talking History, 3 February 2000. Available from:

------. Joan Jacobs Brumberg - Part I [Interview online]. Interviewed by Barry Vogel. Talking History, 30 May 2002. Available from:
Brumberg and Vogel discuss the impact of consumer culture on adolescent girls.

Innes, Sherrie A. Delinquents and Debutantes [online]. Interviewed by Dennis Mihelich. Talking History, 17 March 2000. Available from:

Lindenmeyer, Kristi. History of Child Labor in the United States: A Talk with Kristi Lindenmeyer [online]. Interviewed by Dennis Mihelich. Talking History, 7 September 1998. Available from:

Shelman, Eric A., and Stephen Lazortiz. Out of the Darkness [Interview online]. Interviewed by Brian LeBeau. Talking History, 21 June 2001. Available from:
The authors discuss their book about Mary Ellen Wilson, child abuse, and the founding of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Thompson, Kathleen, and Hilary Mac Austin. Children of the Depression [Lecture online]. Books and Beyond. Washington, DC: The Center for the Book, Library of Congress, 12 February 2002. Available from:
Thompson and Austin present an illustrated talk about their book Children of the Depression (Indiana University Press, 2001).

Tripp, Valerie. American Girls [online]. Interviewed by Fred Nielsen. Talking History, 10 September 2001. Available from:
Tripp is the principal author of the American Girl books, a series of historical fiction for children.

American Women's History: A Research Guide

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132