American Women's History: A Research Guide
Female Offenders
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Benamati, Dennis C., Phyllis A. Schultze, Adam C. Bouloukos, and Graeme R. Newman. Criminal Justice Information: How to Find It, How to Use It. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1998.

Huls, Mary Ellen. "Female Offenders." In United States Documents on Women, 1800-1990: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Vol. 1. Social Issues. Bibliographies and Indexes in Women's Studies, no. 17. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

O'Shea, Kathleen A., and Fletcher, Beverly R., comps. Female Offenders: An Annotated Bibliography. Research and Bibliographical Guides in Criminal Justice, no. 5. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997.


McShane, Marilyn D., and Frank P. Williams, eds. Encyclopedia of American Prisons. New York: Garland, 1996. 532p.
Many of the over 160 signed articles in this work include historical information. See in particular the entries for "Children of Prisoners - Mothers' Issues," "History of Prisons," and "Women Inmates."

Rafter, Nicole Hahn, ed. Encyclopedia of Women and Crime. Phoenix, AZ : Oryx Press, 2000.

Primary Sources: Archival Collections

See the general section, Archival and Manuscript Collections, for additional information sources.

Hinding, Andrea, ed. Women's History Sources: A Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collections in the United States. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1979. 2 vols.
The definitive guide in the field, Women's History Sources provides brief but informative descriptions of over 18,000 collections in almost 1,600 repositories throughout the United States. Look in the Index (volume 2) under "Crime and criminals," "Criminal law," "Prison reform," "Prisoners," "Prisons," and "Prisons for women."

"Incarcerated Women" [online]. In Records in the New York State Archives Relating to Women: An Overview [online]. [Albany]: New York State Archives, August 1997 [cited 8 August 1998]. Available from: Brief but informative description of the types of sources available (e.g., inmate case files, computer files of statistical data).

Primary Sources: Digital Collections

OhioPix [online]. Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 2001- [cited 9 October 2002]. Available from:
A search for Ohio Reformatory for Women retrieves images of inmates from the 1950s.

Primary Sources: Statistics

Bureau of Justice Statistics []

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Washington: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1974- . Annual.

Statistical Universe [online]. [Bethesda, Md.]: Congressional Information Service, 2000- .

American Women's History: A Research Guide

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132