American Women's History: A Research Guide
Timeline [under development]
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1607
See Virtual Jamestown

1637
LaPlante, Eva. American Jezebel [Interview online]. Interviewed by Dick Gordon. The Connection. National Public Radio, 19 March 2004. Available from: http://www.theconnection.org/shows/2004/03/20040319_b_main.asp. LaPlante is the author of American Jezebel: The Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman Who Defeated the Puritans (Harper, 2004).

1651

Norton, Mary Beth. Sex, Religion, and Society in Early America; or, a 17th-Century Maryland Menage a Trois and its Consequences [lecture online]. Talking History, 14 September 2000. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2000july-december.html.

1692
Salem witch trials.

Norton, Mary Beth. Salem Witch Trials [Interview online]. Interviewed by Eileen Dugan. Talking History, October 2002. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch2002.html.

Reis, Elizabeth. Women and Witchcraft in Colonial Salem, Massachusetts. Interviewed by Bryan Le Beau, Talking History, 29 October 1998. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch1998.html.

1773
Phillis Wheatley becomes the first African American to publish a book: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. The Massachusetts Historical Society's From Our Cabinet feature includes images of the title page and frontpiece of the book, as well as a poem in Wheatley's hand.

1776
Abigail Adams' "Remember the Ladies" letter to John Adams, 31 March 1776. See Selected Manuscripts: Remember the Ladies from the Massachusetts Historical Society.

1782
Deborah Sampson, soldier in disguise [Massachusetts Historical Society]
Deborah Sampson enlisted in the Continental Army under the name "Robert Shurtliff." This site reproduces a letter by Paul Revere in support of a military pension for Deborah Sampson Gannett.

1785
Martha Ballard begins her diary on January 1, 1785.
See Martha Ballard's Diary Online.

1836
Angelina Grimke's Appeal to the Christian Women of the South (1836) is available as part of the Samuel J. May Anti-Slavery Collection [Cornell University Llibrary].

1837 Godey's Lady's Book begins under editor Sarah Buell Hale.

Mary Lyon (1797-1849) founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachusetts. See the Mary Lyon Collection, part of the Five College Archives Digital Access Project.

Oberlin College becomes the first coeducational collegiate institution in the United States.
Ohio Memory includes Oberlin student Betsy Mix Cowles' letters from wrote the 1830s.

1848
Dubois, Ellen. The 150th Anniversary of the Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls: A Talk with Ellen Dubois [online]. Talking History, 13 July 1998. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch1998.html.

1849
Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman to receive the M.D. degree. See Elizabeth Blackwell: That Girl There Is Doctor in Medicine, an online exhibit from the National Library of Medicine, for Blackwell's class notes, her brother's account of the graduation, and additional sources that document her career.

1850
The Female Medical College of Pennsylvania opens.

1852

Hedrick, Joan. Uncle Tom's Cabin [Interview online]. Talking History, 25 February 2002. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch2002.html.
Hedrick won the Pulitzer Prize for Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life (Oxford University Press, 1994).

Scholars in Action: Analyze Abolitionist Speeches [online]. In History Matters. Fairfax, VA: Center for History and New Media; New York : American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning, 1998- [cited 24 March 2005]. Available from: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/sia/speeches.htm.
Historian Carla Peterson interprets speeches by Sojourner Truth (1852) and Frances Watkins Harper (1857).

1862
Homestead Act
See Adeline Hornbek and the Homestead Act: A Colorado Success Story from the National Park Service. Julia Ward Howe writes the "Battle Hymn of the Republic."
See Battle hymn of the Republic from the America Singing: Nineteenth-Century Song Sheets online collection.

1869

1871

The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory [online]. [Chicago, Ill.]: Chicago Historical Society and the Trustees of Northwestern University, 1996. Available from: http://www.chicagohs.org/fire/.
The "Web of Memory" section includes eyewitness recollections of the 1871 fire by nine women.

Victoria Woodhull testifies before Congress...
Interview with Barbara Goldsmith, author of Other Powers: The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism, and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull [Fresh Air, National Public Radio, March 11, 1999].
A political cartoon of Woodhull appears in Ohio Memory

1873
Emma Spaulding Bryant Letters: An Online Archival Collection [online]. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Libraries. Available from: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/bryant/.

1874
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded.
See Ohio Memory for numerous sources that document the temperance movement, including the "Women's National Temperance Convention Address and Plan of Work" that was written by Martha McClellan Brown for the 1874 convention.

1881
Camping with the Sioux: Fieldwork Diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher [online]. Washington, DC: National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, 2001. Available from: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/fletcher/fletcher.htm. Fletcher's account of her six-week venture into Plains Indian territory in 1881. The site also includes an overview of Fletcher's life, a photo gallery, and the text of the folktales that she recorded in her diary.

The American Red Cross is founded by Clara Barton. The Clara Barton National Historic Site provides photographs of Barton, a small collection of primary source documents, and a chronology.

1882
The The Association of Collegiate Alumnae, forbearer of The American Association of University Women (AAUW), is formally organized.
The AAUW's Online Museum offers a timeline with images of photographs and documents. The Chinese Exclusion Act is passed.

1883
Emma Lazarus writes "The New Colossus." In 1903, this sonnet would be engraved on a plaque and placed in the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty.
The Women of Valor Exhibit offers an excellent overview of Lazarus' life, including a section on The New Colossus.

1886
Haymarket Riot

1889
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House in Chicago.
Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963 [online]. Chicago: Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the College of Architecture and the Arts, the University of Illinois at Chicago, n.d. [cited 14 February 2003]. Available from: http://www.uic.edu/jaddams/hull/urbanexp/contents.htm.

Nellie Bly travels around the world in 72 days.
See Around the World in 72 Days, the companion web site to the American Experience film.

Susan La Flesche Picotte becomes the first Native American woman medical doctor.

1890
National Woman's Suffrage Association Founded

1892
General Federation of Women's Clubs Founded

1892
Ellis Island opens on January 1. Fifteen year old Annie Moore is the first immigrant to pass through Ellis Island. The Famous Ellis Island Passenger Arrivals.

1895
Lillian Wald opens the Henry Street Settlement in New York City.
See Wald is featured in the Jewish Women's Archive online exhibit "Women of Valor."

1896
Plessy v. Ferguson

1898
Spanish-American War
See Mercedes Graf's article, Band of Angels: Sister Nurses in the Spanish-American War, Part 1.

1904
Gerhard Sisters' Photographs [online]. In The 1904 World's Fair: Looking Back and Looking Forward. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 2004 [cited 26 September 2004]. Available from: http://mohistory.org/content/fair/wf/html/index_flash.html.

Gordon, Linda. Orphan Train [online]. Interviewed by Fred Nielsen. Talking History, 8 October 2001. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch2001.html.
Gordon discusses her book The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, in which Mexican-Anglo relations play a central role.

Ida Tarbell's The History of the Standard Oil Company.
See Ida Tarbell Home Page.

1905
A'Lelia Bundles discusses the life of Madame C. J. Walker.

1907
Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women.
Terry Gross interviews Ellen Dubois, author of Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage, on Fresh Air [11 March 1998].

1908
Muller v. Oregon (Supreme Court upholds maximum hour law), February 24, 1908

1910
Chicago garment workers' strike, Sep. 22 1910 - Feb. 18 1911 from the Women Working collection.

1911
The Triangle Factory Fire, March 25, 1911 [online]. Ithaca, N.Y.: Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, 1998- . Available from: http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/. The "Sources" section includes documents, photographs and illustrations, and audio files of oral histories.

1912 Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927) founded the Girl Scouts of America. A biography of Low appears in the New Georgia Encyclopedia.

U.S. Children's Bureau is formally created.
View Kriste Lindenmeyer's presentation on the role of women in formation and work of the Children's Bureau in Resourceful Women: Researching and Interpreting American Women's History [online]. A Library of Congress Symposium, June 19-20, 2003.

1913
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones is arrested after leading protest of conditions in West Virginia mines.
Mother Jones [online]. Talking History, 2 September 2002. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch2002.html.

1914
Ludlow Massacre (April 14)
See The Ludlow Massacre: Images from the Western History Collection, Denver Public Library

Margaret Sanger publishes the first issue of The Woman Rebel. See Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel [Model Editions Partnership].

Elsie De Wolfe's The House in Good Taste is published. The House in Good Taste is part of the University of Wisconsin's Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture.

1916
Inez Miholland dies.

Lumsden, Linda. Linda Lumsden on the Life and Times of Inez Milholland [online]. Talking History, 26 August 2004. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2004july-december.html.

Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to the United States Congress. See Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women's Rights, and Democratic Government [Suffragists Oral History Project, UC Berkeley, Regional Oral History Office].

1917
Segment 2: From the Archives: "Ernestine Hara Kettler Recalling Her Imprisonment after the National Woman's Party March on Washington of 1917 (Recorded 1-29-1973)." [online]. Talking History, August 26, 2004. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2004july-december.html.

1918
"I Remember When: What Became of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918." (The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 in Philadelphia) [online]. Talking History, 24 March 2005. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2005jan-june.html.
Originally broadcast on WUHY-FM in Philadelphia on 18 January 1983.
Several women and men recall the epidemic in this segment.

1919
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom is organized.
See: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom [online]. Swarthmore, PA: Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 2000 [cited 3 April 2002]. Available from: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/Exhibits/wilpfexhibit/exhibithome.htm. This exhibit includes 100 photographs from 1915-1999.

1920
The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution passes.

Triptych: The TriCollege Digital Library [online]. [Haverford, PA : Haverford College Special Collections, 2002- ]. Available from: http://triptych.brynmawr.edu/.
Digital collections from Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, and Haverford College Special Collections. See the Suffragist Images Collection.

1925 Florence Sabin becomes the first female member of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Library of Medicine offers documents from The Florence R. Sabin Papers as part of its Profiles in Science site.

Mary Breckinridge organizes Frontier Nursing Service to provide health care to remote areas of Eastern Kentucky. See Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project for transcriptions of interviews.

1928
Margaret Mead publishes Coming of Age in Samoa.
Margaret Mead Symposium [Library of Congress]

1929

Jessen, Gene Nora. [Interview] [online]. Interviewed by Rebecca Bain. The Fine Print. Nashville Public Radio, July 6 & 7, 2002. Available from: http://wpln.org/fineprint/fineprint2002/fineprint070602.html.
Jessen is the author of The Powder Puff Derby of 1929: The True Story of the First Women's Cross-Country Air Race.

1932
Amelia Earhart's solo Atlantic flight.
See: The George Palmer Putnam Collection of Amelia Earhart Papers [online]. W. Lafayette: Purdue University Libraries, [2002- ]. Available from: http://www.lib.purdue.edu/aearhart/.

1935
The National Council of Negro Women is founded by Mary McLeod Bethune.

1936
Dorothea Lange most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother." See The Power of Dorothea Lange's Pictures [Library of Congress]

1938
Billie Holiday first sang "Strange Fruit," a song about lynching in the South, at a New York Club in 1938. See: Margolick, David. Billie Holiday-Strange Fruit [Interview online]. Talking History, 4 February 2002. Available from: http://talkinghistory.oah.org/arch2002.html.

Hendry, Donna. Billie Holiday's Strange Fruit: Using Music to Send a Message [online].

Pecan-Shellers' Strike [The Handbook of Texas Online]

1939
Marian Anderson's Lincoln Memorial concert drew an audience of 75,000. The Marian Anderson Collection of Photographs, 1898-1992 [University of Pennsylvania Library] includes more than 20 photographs from this event.

1950
Coffee, Doughnuts and a Witty Line of Chatter: The Photos and Letters of Helen Stevenson Meyner in Japan and Korea, 1950-1952 [online]. Easton, Penn.: Lafayette College Special Collections and College Archives, updated 18 August 2000 [cited 3 June 2002]. Available from: http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~library/special/meyner/exhibit/exhibit_pages/helen_cover.htm.
Includes over twenty photographs and short excerpts from Meyner's letters to her family.

Senator Margaret Chase Smith's Declaration of Conscience speech [Margaret Chase Smith Library]

1951

Frontiers in Civil Rights: Dorothy E. Davis, et al. versus County School Board of Prince Edward County, Virginia [Digital Classroom, National Archives]

1952
Virginia Apgar - Newborn Baby Evaluation [They Made America - PBS]

1954
Brown v. Board of Education
See the Library of Congress online exhibit "With an Even Hand": Brown v. Brown at Fifty.

1955
Rosa Parks Is Arrested for Civil Disobedience [Library of Congress]

1956
Autherine Lucy enrolls at the University of Alabama after more than three years of court action.
Segment 3: "From the Archives: Autherine Lucy and Thurgood Marshall Press Conference, January 1956." [Talking History, 13 January 2005]

See also: Autherine Lucy and the University of Alabama [Library of Congress].

1957
The first African American students were to be admitted to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
See Arkansas History Commission Photographs includes photographs of Elizabeth Eckford and other key figures (e.g., Daisy Bates). Search for Central High School.

1960
The drug company G.D. Searle receives FDA approval to sell "the pill."
See American Experience: The Pill [PBS] for a program transcript, timeline, interviews with women, and much more.

1961
Ackmann, Martha. 'The Mercury 13': Training U.S. Women for Space [Interview online]. Interviewed by Melissa Block. All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 17 June 2003. Available from: http://discover.npr.org/features/feature.jhtml?wfId=1301400. [8:19]

President John F. Kennedy establishes the President's Commission on the Status of Women.
From the Archives: Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson Addresses the President's Commission on the Status of Women (1962) [Talking History, 27 January 2005]

1962
National Farm Workers Association is formed.
See The Unsung of Civil Rights, a brief National Public Radio report on Dolores Huerta.

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is published.
Lear, Linda J. [Interview] [online]. Interviewed by Dennis Mihelick. Talking History, 15 April 1999. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch99jan-june.html. Lear, author of Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature, talks about Carson's life and work.

1963
Horowitz, Daniel. Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique [Interview online]. Interviewed by Lisa Kannenberg. Talking History, 9 December 1999. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch99july-december.html.

Julia Child's public television program The French Chef began on Boston's WGBH.
See Julia Child's Kitchen at the Smithsonian.

1964
Civil Rights Act

Blewen, John. Oh Freedom Over Me [online]. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Public Radio, 2000 [cited 18 June 2002]. Available from: http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/oh_freedom/index.html. Listen to this engaging program about Freedom Summer. Topics include activist strategies, freedom songs, and Fannie Lou Hamer. The site also includes transcripts of selected interviews and a slideshow of photographs.

See Wednesdays in Mississippi: Civil Rights as Women's Work

1965
Voting Rights Act

A Visual Journey: Photographs by Lisa Law 1965-1971

1966
Black Women at Virginia Tech Oral History Project [online]. Blacksburg: Virginia Tech University Libraries, updated 1 September 1999 [cited 15 November 2000]. Available from: http://spec.lib.vt.edu/blackwom/.

National Organization for Women is established.

1968
The Whole World Was Watching: An Oral History of 1968 [online]. Providence, RI: Scholarly Technology Group, Brown University, [1998- ]. Available from: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/1968/. Most of the interviewees at least touch upon civil rights. Naomi Craig, an African American, discusses race relations and the assassination of Martin Luther King.

1969
A Few Good Women: Advancing the Cause for Women in the U.S. Government, 1969-1974 [online]. University Park: University Libraries, The Pennsylvania State University, 2003- [cited 11 March 2005]. Available from: http://www.afgw.libraries.psu.edu/.

1970
May 4 Collection [Kent State University Libraries]

1971
Breaking New Ground - Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971) [Supreme Court Historical Society]

1972
Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign [Jo Freeman]

Title IX

1974
Listen to Barbara Jordan's Statement at the U.S. House Judiciary Committee Impeachment Hearings, part of Say It Plain: A Century of Great African American Speeches from American Radio Works.

1977
See Sisters of '77, a companion site to the film about the National Women's Conference in 1977.

1981
First medical reports to describe Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

In Their Own Words ...: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years of AIDS [online]. [Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health, 2001]. Available from: http://aidshistory.nih.gov/home.html.
See the transcripts of interviews with Ms. Barbara Fabian Baird, R.N., and Christine Grady, R.N., Ph.D.

Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman appointed to the United States Supreme Court. O'Connor discusses her book, Lazy B: Growing Up On a Cattle Ranch in the American Southwest, on Booknotes.

1983
Barbara McClintock wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
See The Barbara McClintock Papers [online]. Profiles in Science. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2001 [cited 7 November 2001]. Available from: http://www.profiles.nlm.nih.gov/LL/.
McClintock (1902-1992) won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. This site includes correspondence, lecture notes, and numerous photographs.

1987
A Year in the Life: Beginning the Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Albany New York, 1987-88 [online]. Produced by Stephanie Madnick. Talking History, 29 June 2000. Available from: http://www.albany.edu/talkinghistory/arch2000jan-june.html.

1988

Women of Valor: Gertrude Elion [online]. Brookline, Mass.: Jewish Women's Archive, n.d. [cited 16 March 2002]. Available from: http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/elion/.
Elion (1918-1999) helped develop treatments for childhood leukemia, the herpes virus, immunity disorders, arthritis, and other diseases. She won the Nobel Prize in 1988.

1990
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

1994
Violence Against Women Act of 1994

Dublin, Thomas, and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1830-1930 [online]. 1997- [cited 4 May 2001]. Available from: http://womhist.binghamton.edu.
This collection of primary source documents is organized around numerous topical areas. Each editorial project also includes an introduction and an annotated bibliography. The following section includes material about violence against women:

1999
WTO Seattle Collection [online]. Seattle, Wash. : University of Washington Libraries, n.d. [cited 28 November 2004]. Available from: http://content.lib.washington.edu/wtoweb/index.html. In addition to photographs of protesters, this collection also includes oral histories of women who helped organize protests during the World Trade Organization (WTO) meeting in Seattle in 1999.


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