All glossary terms shown in red are illustrated - click the
term to go to the illustration. Glossary terms shown in
blue will be defined if you click
on them. Definitions are adapted from
"Trees of the Central Hardwood Forests of North America" by
Leopold, McComb and Miller.
- Buds beside
or above the true bud at a node.
Acorn - A thick-walled
nut with a
woody cuplike base.
Acute - Having an
apex whose sides are straight and taper to a point.
A plant whose seeds are borne within a
Fragrantly scented; often spicy
Pertaining to leaf or bud
arrangement in which there is one bud or one leaf at a
Pollen-bearing portion of a stamen.
Apex - The tip
or terminal end.
- Pressed against the stem.
Axil - The
upper angle between a petiole of a
leaf and the stem from which it
Bark - The
external group of tissues, from the cambium outward, of a woody
stem; varying greatly in appearance and texture.
Berry - A
fleshy, indehiscent, pulpy, multi-seeded
fruit resulting from a single
Blade - The expanded part of a
Bloom - A waxy
coating found on stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits, usually of a
white to gray cast and easily removed.
Bole - Stem of
Bract - A
reduced or modified leaf, from the
axil of which arises a flower
- A structure of embryonic tissues that will become a
leaf, a flower, or both,
or a new shoot.
Bud Scales - A
small vestigial leaf; a thin membrane-like
Bundle scar -
Seen in the leaf scar, the broken ends of
the woody vascular strands that connected the leaf
Calyx - Sepals,
collectively; outermost flower whorl.
Carpel - A floral leaf
bearing ovules along a margin.
Catkin - An
inflorescence, really a
spike, generally bearing only
pistillate flowers or only
staminate flowers, which eventually
fall from the plant entire.
Chevron - Triangular pattern
Chordate - Heart Shaped
- Accessory buds to either side of the true
lateral bud at a node.
- A flower that has corolla,
calyx, stamens, and one or more
Compound - A leaf of two
or more leaflets.
- A fruit having several woody, leathery, or
fleshy scales, each bearing one or more seeds,
and attached to a central axis.
Conifer - A cone-bearing tree.
Corolla - Petals,
collectively; usually the conspicuous colored flower whorl.
Crown - The
upper mass or head of a tree.
Deciduous - Falling off; Leaves shed
Dehiscent - Splitting open.
Dentate - Toothed, teeth pointing outward, not forward. See
Forking regularly by pairs.
Having unisexual flowers, with flowers of each sex confined to a
Doubly Serrate - Bearing serrations
that bear minute teeth on their margins; each tooth bearing smaller
Downy - Pubescent with
fine, soft hairs.
Drupe - A
fruit having a seed enclosed in a stony
Endocarp - the inner layer of the
Entire - Having a margin without teeth,
notches, or lobes.
Evergreen - Having green foliage throughout
the year (but not necessarily a conifer).
Exfoliating - Peeling away
Filament - Stalk of stamen
bearing the anther at its tip.
Fissured - Torn
lengthwise, with vertical furrows.
Flower - An axis bearing one or more
pistils, or one or more
stamens, or both.
Fruit - A matured ovary; a
seed-containing unit characteristic of
Having longitudinal channels or grooves.
Glabrous - Not
Generally, any small knob or wart that is a normal part of the
plant; technically, a surface or protuberance that secretes a
Covered with a waxy bloom or whitish material that rubs off easily.
Gymnosperm - A
plant bearing naked seeds without an
Hairy - Covered with hairs.
Hoary - With a close white
Imbricate - Overlapping.
- Not opening regularly.
Imperfect Flower -
A flower that lacks a calyx,
corolla, stamens, and/or
- A characteristic floral arrangement or flower cluster.
Keeled - Ridged like the bottom of
- A bud borne in the axil of
a previous season's leaf.
Leaflets - A foliar element of a
Leaf - The whole
organ of photosynthesis, characterized by an
axillary bud most of the year.
- The mark remaining after a leaf falls from a twig.
Legume - A dry,
opening along both sutures and the product of a single
Lenticel - A small corky spot on
young bark made of loosely packed cells.
Lobe - A
division of a leaf, calyx, or
petals, cut to about the middle.
Lustrous - Shiny.
Margin - The
edge of a leaf.
Middle layer of fruit wall.
Midrib - Central or main vein of a leaf
or leaf-like part.
Monoecious - Having
flowers, with flowers of both sexes on the same plant.
Mucilaginous - Slimy.
Naked Bud - A bud without scales.
Node - A joint
on a stem, represented by a point of origin of a
leaf or bud.
Nut - A dry,
indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded
fruit having a hard and bony
Asymmetrical base of leaf.
Obtuse - Blunt
Pertaining to leaf or bud
arrangement in which there are two buds or two leaves at a
node across from each other.
Enlarged basal portion of the pistil, which
becomes the fruit.
Ovate - Egg-shaped, like an oval.
Ovoid - Egg-shaped
Ovule - The
egg-containing unit of an ovary, which after
fertilization becomes the seed.
Radiating fanlike from a common point.
Penducle - Stalk of a single
flower or of an entire
- Having both
functional stamens and pistils.
The ovary wall.
Persistent - Remaining attached.
Petal - One
unit of the inner floral envelope or corolla,
usually colored and more or less showy.
Compounded with the leaflets or segments
along each side of a common axis or rachis;
featherlike. Leaf venation can be
pinnate or palmate.
Central organ of the flower, typically
consisting of ovary, style,
Pistillate Flower - A flower with no
Pith - the central part of a twig,
usually lighter or darker than the wood.
Pod - A dry,
Pome - A type of fleshy
fruit resulting from a compound
Pseudo-terminal bud - Seemingly the
terminal bud of a twig, but actually the
upper-most lateral bud with its
subtending leaf scar on one side and the
scar of the terminal bud often visible on opposite side.
Covered with short soft hairs.
Rachis - Axis
Ridges - Raised areas of bark.
Samara - A dry,
indehiscent fruit bearing a wing.
Rough or gritty to the touch.
Scale - Applied
to many kinds of small thin flat appressed,
usually dry leaves.
Scale (bud) - A small vestigial
leaf; thin, membrane-like covering.
Seed - A
fertilized ripened ovule that contains an
Outermost flower structures which usually enclose the other flower
parts in the bud.
Saw-toothed, the teeth pointed forward.
Without a stalk.
- A single blade attached to a petiole. Not
Sinus - The
indentation between two lobes.
Spike - An
inflorescence comprised of a central
axis having sessile flowers.
Stalked - Having a stalk.
Stalked (bud) - A
bud whose outer scales are attached above the base of the bud
Flower structure made up of an anther and a
stalk or filament.
Staminate Flower - A flower with only functional
Receptive portion of the pistil to which
Style - The
slender column of tissue that arises from the top of the
ovary and through which the pollen tube grows.
Submerged Bud - A bud hidden by the
petiole or embedded in the
leaf scar. American Sycamore buds are
completely enclosed by the petiole of the leaf and are an example of
a submerged bud.
Superposed - Having one or
more buds immediately above the
Positioned at the tip of a stem.
- A bud at the tip of a stem.
Margins of leaf are toothed.
Twig - The shoot of a woody plant
representing the growth of the current season.
Unisexual Flowers - Of one sex only
(having stamens or pistils, but not both); also called
Valvate - Meeting by the edges
Venation - The pattern of veins in
a leaf. Venation can be either pinnate
Whorled - Three or more leaves or
buds at a node.