Answer the following. Do not write more than you can fit. Do not write on the back of the page. Explain your answers as appropriate.
1. Why might I argue that the idea of a paradigm undermines
the notion of scientific objectivity?
Because some aspects of the
paradigm are not objectively determined, and they influence aspects
like choice of topics to study (see here)
2. Here is my hypothesis:
H: If you skip class (p), then you will fail (q). (see here)
For each statement below, tell me if it’s based on valid
what kind of logic is being used? (4 points each)
a. I came to class (not p), so I should pass.
Not p = Denying the antecedent, invalid
b. I failed (q), so I
mustn’t have come to class.
q = Affirming the consequent, invalid
The valid ones would be "I skipped class" (p, ponens) and "I did
(not q, tollens)
3. My hypothesis is: If a parent spanks a child then the
will be well-behaved. I’ve conducted four tests of the
hypothesis. For each, write supported, not supported, or
unaffected, based on your assessment.
a. I have parents spank their children (p) and the children are well-behaved (q). (see here)
b. I gather some well-behaved children (q) and find that their
parents don’t spank them.
c. I make parents not spank their children (not p) and the children
d. I get some children who aren’t well-behaved (not q) and find that their parents don’t spank them (not p).
4. I want to know if people’s vision is affected by
stress. I make two students come to the front of the room and
have the class insult them until they cry. Then I give them a
vision test. I have the
class copy down the results of their tests. (4 points each)
List two ethical violations in my experiment. How could I fix them (and still do the experiment)? (see here)
Come up with a new stressor that isn't so extreme or don't manipulate it, but measure it in a natural situation.
Present de-identified data, and conduct the research in private.5. What kind of numbers would each of the following designs produce? (3 points each) (see here)
H: If a person has an eating disorder, then that person is repressing a memory of childhood sexual abuse.
Evaluate my hypothesis in terms of the ideal hypothesis.
Testable? Get people with eating disorder and look for
Falsifiable? If they don't have repressed memories.
Simple? This is tough, because there's a lot of room in
a memory" to build in assumptions.
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