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Tennessee Anthropologist
Abstracts 1976-2000

The following are abstracts from the twenty-five years of the Tennessee Anthropologist, published by the Tennessee Anthropological Association. Abstracts are in order of publication. Volume, issue, and page information is given following the author(s) name. While the abstracts are not formally indexed, your should have a FIND command on your web browser that will permit searching by keywords.

  1. THE ARCHAIC PERIOD IN THE LOWER LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY: THE RADIOCARBON DATES. Jefferson Chapman. I(1):1-12. 1976. Nineteen radiocarbon dates on charcoal obtained from four stratified Early and Middle Archaic period sites establish a chronology for Kirk Corner Notched, bifurcate base, Stanly Stemmed, and Morrow Mountain type points in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley. These dates suggest that the Kirk phase dates c. 7500-6900 B.C., the bifurcate phases date c. 6800-6100 B.C., the Stanly phase dates c. 5800 B.C., and the Morrow Mountain phase may be as early as 5000 B.C. These dates compare favorably with other dates for similar artifacts elsewhere in the eastern United States.

  2. THE LONG ISLAND MOUNDS, MARION COUNTY, TENNESSEE - JACKSON COUNTY, ALABAMA. Donald B. Ball, Victor P. Hood, and E. Raymond Evans. I(1):13-47. 1976. Research pertaining to a mound group on Long Island in the Tennessee River has illuminated the nature and intensity of prehistoric occupations in an area that is poorly known archaeologically. Basic data was limited to surface recovered inventories supplemented by local collections. This material was collated with published information from culturally similar sites whose data provided a framework from which statements relevant to settlement, subsistence, and the degree of socio-political development could be derived.

  3. FOLK ARCHITECTURE IN TENNESSEE: A CALL FOR NEW DIRECTIONS. George F. Fielder. I(1):48-57. 1976. The study of Tennessee folk architecture is still in the data collection phase of development. A sound theoretical framework within which architectural observations can be placed is not possible until we have a statistically adequate data base. The author summarizes the procedure of architectural recording necessary to provide such a data base and calls for a new organized effort in folk architectural research in Tennessee.

  4. OLD WORDS FOR NEW IDEAS: LINGUISTIC ACCULTURATION IN MODERN CHEROKEE. Duane H. King and Laura H. King. I(1):58-62. 1976. Since the time of European contact, the Cherokee language has undergone numerous changes to accommodate new ideas. The linguistic processes utilized are borrowing, semantic extension, and descriptive derivation. Examples of the changes and the linguistic processes are examined in the article.

  5. TEAM SPORTS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AMONG THE MISSISSIPPI CHOCTAW. Kendall A. Blanchard. I(1):63-70. 1976. Patterns of social organization among the Mississippi Choctaw as they are manifested through the team sport phenomenon are analyzed. It is argued that the function of modern athletic events (e.g. basketball, football, softball, baseball) is identical to that of the older stickball. Both the new and the old are significant elements in the process of defining social boundaries, facilitating inter-community communication, reinforcing traditional models of kin group interaction, and resolving potential conflict situations. The importance of competitive conflict as a means of maintaining group cohesion and the practical importance of an anthropological understanding of sport are stressed.

  6. THE CITICO SITE (40HA65): A SYNTHESIS. James W. Hatch. I(2):75- 103. 1976. The once impressive Citico site (40Ha65) on the outskirts of Chattanooga, Tennessee has witnessed numerous, unrelated episodes of archaeological excavation over the past 110 years. The work carried out there varies greatly in quality, provenience data and field notes are scarce, and the artifacts themselves are in private and museum collections all over the East. Since urban expansion has destroyed significant portions of the site, Citico site research must rely heavily on this information. This article recounts the history of archaeological work at the site - the methods used, the discoveries made, and the current disposition of the data. Following this, the data are collectively analyzed and reconstructions made of Citico's site morphology, population and subsistence base, mortuary patterning, and socio-political role on a regional scale.

  7. MOUNTAIN WOMEN IN A CHANGING LABOR MARKET. Thomas W. Collins and Clata L. Finn. I(2):104-111. 1976. This paper analyzes the effects of industrial development in a rural Tennessee county on traditional female roles. New plants located in the county are representative of the peripheral sector of the national economy and hence must obtain most of their employees from the female labor market. In such a situation women gain a greater degree of power relative to their husbands but remain in a static position in relation to the wider society.

  8. STONE CONSTRUCTIONS ON LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN: A PROBLEM OF IDENTITY. Jeffrey L. Brown. I(2):112-115. 1976. A complex of stone walls on the side of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee has been identified by Phillip E. Smith (1961) as an aboriginal construction. In this paper evidence is presented to show that the complex is clearly a Civil War military site.

  9. THE SKELETAL REMAINS OF THE EARLIEST AMERICANS: A SURVEY. Fred H. Smith. I(2):116-147. 1976. A survey of skeletal remains from possibly the earliest American Indians is presented. Included is a summary of the morphology of each specimen, something about its discovery and claims to antiquity, and references appropriate to each. The amino acid racemization technique for dating bones and its resultant early dates for American skeletons are also discussed. Finally, the concept of "morphological dating" in paleontological studies is considered. It is concluded that there is no sound skeletal evidence for the presence of man in the New World prior to the final opening of the Bering Strait Land Bridge at about 27,000 BP. Most early remains date to less than 15,000 BP.

  10. THE YEARWOOD SITE: A SPECIALIZED MIDDLE WOODLAND OCCUPATION ON THE ELK RIVER. Brian M. Butler. II(1):1-15. 1977. In 1975, extensive excavations at the Yearwood site documented an unusual Middle Woodland occupation characterized by a variety of structural types and a substantial amount of "exotic" goods indicative of participation in Hopewellian exchange networks. This overall character of the site differs substantially from other documented Middle Woodland sites in the area, and it is argued that Yearwood represents a warm weather encampment whose prime function was to serve as a locus for important social activities of the aggregate residential unit (social intensification). Radiocarbon dates from Yearwood place the site in the first century A.D., but other considerations argue for a later date, probably in the third century A.D.

  11. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON AN EXPERIMENTAL STONE BOX BURIAL. H.C. Brehm and E. Raymond Evans. II(1):16-23. 1977. In November 1973 an experiment was initiated by the senior author of this paper in an effort to gain a better understanding of the construction and function of the so-called "stone- box" graves which have been long regarded as the most diagnostic cultural trait of the Middle Cumberland culture. This preliminary report offers some data and conclusions regarding box construction, rate of decay and displacement of burial items.

  12. THE HOUSEWIFE SYNDROME AMONG NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN. Billye Y.S. Fogelman. II(1):24-28. 1977. The hypothesis that a housewife syndrome is emerging among Native American women living in urban setting is examined and found to be unsubstantiated. When a feature is present is it argued that it is a cultural feature rather than a sign of the housewife syndrome.

  13. OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE GRAVEHOUSES. Donald B. Ball. II(1):29-62. 1977. An intensive survey of three contiguous Middle Tennessee counties (Cannon, Coffee, and Rutherford) has documented a total of 16 extant gravehouses in nine cemeteries plus to former location of several others. Built to cover an in-ground interment, these structures were found to exhibit a high degree of diachronic attribute similarity when recorded in detail and compared architecturally to one another. It is suggested that these structures represent a traditionally patterned mechanism for the tangible expression of sentiment on a personal, rather than social, basis. To place these little studied structures in a spatial and historical framework, data are presented pertinent to both their distribution in North America and probable European source area.

  14. A MODEL FOR LATE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE SYSTEMS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE TENNESSEE VALLEY DURING THE BLUFF CREEK PHASE. David H. Dye. II(1):63-80. 1977. A testable model of the prehistoric subsistence patterns existing in the western Middle Tennessee Valley from approximately 1500 to 700 B.C. is proposed. This period includes that time when fiber-tempered ceramics were manufactured. Evidence for the Wheeler series or Wheeler culture in the Tennessee Valley is reviewed. A model of subsistence strategies is set forth for the Wheeler culture in the form of four procurement systems. These are suggested to replace a model recently proposed by Jenkins (1974). Jenkins' formulation places emphasis on shellfish, nuts, and white-tailed deer. Such an emphasis is not in accord with information on contemporary hunters and gatherers and the early historic Indians of the Southeast, which stresses wild and domesticated plant foods as the staple items of the diet. Hunting is a major source of animal protein but a minority food in comparison with plant foods. Fishing is a source of supplementary protein. The model proposed in this paper is compared with known archaeological plant and animal remains from contemporary sites in the Midwest and Middle South.

  15. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TEST EXCAVATIONS AT THE SAM HOUSTON SCHOOLHOUSE. D. Bruce Dickson. II(1):81-97. 1977. Test excavations at the Sam Houston Schoolhouse were conducted to determine if there were substantial changes in the building when it was restored during the 1950s. These excavations indicated that the restored hearth is the same size as the original one, and the building was restored in its original location. No evidence was found of foundations for other structures in the vicinity of the schoolhouse, but additional excavation should be conducted to verify this preliminary conclusion.

  16. A REEVALUATION OF LATE ARCHAIC SUBSISTENCE AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE WESTERN TENNESSEE VALLEY. William Rowe Bowen. II(2):101-120. 1977. Examination of a main stream shell midden and a tributary non-shell midden in the Western Tennessee Valley has prompted new ideas concerning the subsistence/settlement patterns practiced by the Late Archaic Ledbetter phase inhabitants in this area. Analysis of environmental and artifactual data suggests a seasonal-round subsistence/settlement type as opposed to the year-round model postulated by Lewis and Lewis.

  17. A REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PRE-COLUMBIAN MAN ON THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS. Stanley Z. Guffey. II(2):121-137. 1977. The effects of preliterate cultures on their environments have received scant attention relative to the effects of the great civilizations and their antecedents and descendants on their environments. In their studies of preliterate and prehistoric ecology, anthropologists and ecologists have tended to focus on the effects of various environmental parameters on the course of cultural evolution at the expense of the opposite direction of the culture/environment interactive process. This paper is an attempt to assess the current state of our knowledge of pre- Columbian man's effects on the ecology of a relatively homogenous cultural and biotic region, the eastern North American forest area. Further, a brief attempt is made to formulate a set of conceptual schema for analyzing the interactions of man and the ecosystems. Although full development and application of this conceptual approach must be postponed, it is suggested that it is applicable to any natural and cultural place/time, and it might suggest areas of research into the effect of preliterate or prehistoric man on the ecosystem in much narrower spatial and temporal contexts.

  18. IMPOLITENESS: ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN COLLECTIVE REALITY MODELS. Marilyn McKillop Wells. II(2):138-141. 1977. Adaptation to the changing physical, social and ideological environment involves an interplay between stability requirements and adjustment mechanisms such as impoliteness.

  19. PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE DUCK RIVER DRAINAGE, COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE. Jay K. Johnson. II(2):142-151. 1977. Multivariate analyses of site assemblages from the proposed Columbia Reservoir, as reported by Dickson (1976), have revealed distributional patterns which may be interpreted in terms of aboriginal adaptation to gross differences in physiography and presumed economic potential. These patterns are related to a settlement-subsistence model, which has been developed to explain prehistoric occupation in nearby and environmentally similar regions.

  20. PLANTATION ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE HERMITAGE: SOME SUGGESTED PATTERNS. Samuel D. Smith. II(2):152-163. 1977. The interpretive significance of "patterning" in the artifactual remains found on historic sites is just beginning to be understood. In this paper three hypotheses, developed during the course of an archaeological project carried out at the Hermitage, are described and discussed. Each of these is thought to have considerable potential utility for helping understand certain widespread nineteenth century cultural practices, especially as they occurred on southern plantations.

  21. BONE ARTIFACT CLASSIFICATION: A DALLAS PHASE MISSISSIPPIAN EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTION AND FUNCTIONAL INTERPRETATION. Richard R. Polhemus. II(2):164-189. 1977. Forty-two bone artifacts from Dallas phase sites in the eastern Tennessee Valley previously called "daggers" or "spear points" are studied. The form, breakage pattern, and burial context and associations indicate these artifacts may have functioned as tips on the poles or "Spears" thrown in the chunky game.

  22. THE IDENTIFICATION OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FROM THE OWL HOLLOW SITE, 40FR7, FRANKLIN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. James E. Cobb and Andrea Brewer Shea. II(2):190-198. 1977. The remains of domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., have been identified from the Owl Hollow Site, 40Fr7, a large late Middle Woodland habitation site located in south-central Tennessee. Carbonized sunflower achenes and seeds were recovered from a small processing pit, a stratified earth oven, and a large storage pit. A radiocarbon sample from the storage pit has been dated at A.D. 310 + 65 years. The sunflower seeds are short and wide with an average length-width of 36.5 mm. In comparison to other Helianthus remains the Owl Hollow seeds are larger than Archaic sunflower examples.

  23. TEACHING ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE REGIONAL SCHOOLS: THE IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER TRAINING. Choong Son Kim. III(1):1-5. 1978. This paper relates the personal experiences of an anthropologist who teaches in a regional school where anthropology is not well known as a means of drawing a possible suggestion for graduate training for future anthropology teachers. Specific allusions are made as to how graduate training affects the teaching of anthropology, and several implications for teacher training are presented.

  24. THE CAMP SITE BENEATH THE CRAVENS HOUSE PORCH. Jeffrey L. Brown. III(1):6-13. 1978. Archaeological investigations beneath the porch of the Cravens House on the Lookout Mountain Battlefield revealed the presence of a camp site apparently occupied by newspaper writers and artists. The camp site and its contents are described.

  25. TRADE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL STATUS AND RANK IN DALLAS SOCIETY. John B. Sabol, Jr. III(1):14-30. 1978. Recent analyses of the Dallas archaeological culture (Hatch 1974; Hatch and Willey 1974) have concluded that Dallas social organization was composed of a hierarchical structure of status and rank positions similar to a ramage. Hatch and Willey (1974) further suggest that pre-eminent statuses were related on a pan-regional basis via kinship affiliations in the pre-eminent ramage at various Dallas sites. This interpretation is questioned here. The development and importance of trade at particular Dallas sites is shown to lead to local status and rank positions, differing from the general status and rank structure proposed by Hatch and Willey (1974).

  26. HISTORIC FISH TRAPS ON THE LOWER HOLSTON RIVER. James E. Cobb. III(1):31-58. 1978. Three well-preserved fish trap sites on the lower Holston River are defined and described. An historical sketch of each trap is presented to document its period of operation. The historical, descriptive, and ethnographical data suggest these traps were operational from the early 1800's to ca. 1940. Based on this primary research, two fish trap types are proposed for the lower Holston River. Research suggest these trap types, identified as "frame-pole" and "platform-slat" types, may have historical and functional validity throughout upper East Tennessee.

  27. RECOVERY SYSTEMS FOR SUBSISTENCE DATA: WATER SCREENING AND WATER FLOTATION. David H. Dye and Katherine H. Moore. III(1):59-69. 1978. Two of the most important means of recovering subsistence data from archaeological sites are water screening and water flotation. These two systems are described as they were used in the Middle Tennessee Valley during the 1977 summer and 1978 winter field seasons of the Tennessee River Archaeological Project. They were designed as mutually complementary systems for the recovery of "micro" data such as small zoological and botanical remains. Their efficiency is indicated by recovery of very small material.

  28. INFANT MORTALITY AND FAMILY STRUCTURE AMONG BLACKS IN MEMPHIS. Carol L. Jenkins. III(1):70-78. 1978. Examination of recent epidemiological data reveals a peculiar pattern of infant mortality among Blacks in Memphis. Although several factors may underlie this patterning, family structure appears to be strongly indicated.

  29. PLANT FOOD UTILIZATION DURING THE MIDDLE WOODLAND OWL HOLLOW PHASE IN TENNESSEE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT. Gary D. Crites. III(1):79-92. 1978. Analysis of carbonized plant remains from Owl Hollow phase sites in the upper Duck and Elk River valleys in south-central Tennessee indicates seasonal exploitation of a broad range of wild plant species representing two major vegetational zones: (1) a lowland zone with concomitant flood plain and terrace species and (2) an upland zone exhibiting upland forest and forest edge species. Most recently, analysis of water-floated fill from large earth ovens and storage pits has produced evidence for utilization of indigenous "semi- cultigens" such as goosefoot (Chenopodium spp.) and maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana Walt.), the indigenous cultigen, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), as well as two introduced cultigens, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize (Zea mays). Significantly, maize has been recovered from three late Owl Hollow sites dating A.D. 465-A.D. 500. This is the earliest non-problematical maize reported in the Southeast.

  30. THE PALEN FENCE: AN EXAMPLE OF APPALACHIAN FOLK CULTURE. E. Raymond Evans. III(1):93-99. 1978. The palen fence was introduced in North America by the earliest English colonists in the seventeenth century and has continued in its original form throughout the Appalachian regions into the latter half of the twentieth century. This largely neglected item of material folk culture will be documented, and the necessary data to provide an understanding of its historic background will be presented.

  31. CHEROKEE AND DALLAS DOG BURIALS FROM THE LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Paul W. Parmalee and Arthur E. Bogan. III(1):100-112. 1978. Skeletons of eight dog burials from Dallas and Cherokee sites situated along the Little Tennessee River in Blount and Monroe counties, Tennessee, were measured and described. One aged male dog from the Chota-Tanasi site was especially noteworthy because of its unusually small stature. The remaining seven adult animals approximate those which have been reported from other late prehistoric sites in eastern North America.

  32. SEASONAL NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN A LATE WOODLAND POPULATION: SUGGESTIONS FROM SOME EASTERN KENTUCKY COPROLITES. C. Wesley Cowan. III(2):117-128. 1978. Pollen and macrofossil components of human paleofeces from a small, dry Late Woodland Newtown Focus rock shelter in the Red River drainage of eastern Kentucky are described. These data suggest that the occupants of the site may have been experiencing seasonal nutritional stress.

  33. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE ALONG THE CUMBERLAND RIVER IN THE OUTER NASHVILLE BASIN AND THE WESTERN HIGHLAND RIM. Robert L. Jolley. III(2):129-144. 1978. The Cumberland River region is a rich archaeological area that has received very little scientific attention. A brief, but systematic survey along the Cumberland yielded 41 previously unrecorded sites and recollections from 17 recorded sites. The small sample size, which inhibited the reconstruction of prehistoric settlement systems and patterns, was found to be adequate to reconstruct a tentative cultural history of the area.

  34. BRAKEBILL MOUND, NEAR KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE: A HISTORY OF THE MOUND AND DESCRIPTION OF TWO RECENTLY DISCOVERED SKELETONS. P. Willey, Mark F. Guagliardo, and William M. Bass. III(2):145- 167. 1978. In September, 1975, two burials were discovered and excavated in the basement of a house built atop Brakebill Mound (40Kn55), a late Mississippian mound in East Tennessee. This paper reviews the historic events which occurred concerning the mound and its contents, and reports the recovery and analysis of the two skeletons.

  35. THE AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY FARM LABOR SYSTEM AS AN ADAPTIVE MECHANISM FOR AFRO-AMERICANS. Ira E. Harrison. III(2):168-186. 1978. Providing caretaker services (day care, education, health, legal, etc.) for Afro-American migratory farm workers is frequently a frustrating affair for professionals. This paper offers explanations for this bewilderment by viewing Afro-American farm workers from a cultural-historical perspective: they are the contemporary end products of the slave-plantation system. Types of migratory farm workers are described and their potential for rehabilitation is evaluated.

  36. CERAMICS OF THE OWL HOLLOW PHASE IN SOUTH-CENTRAL TENNESSEE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT. Charles H. Faulkner. III(2):187- 202. 1978. The ceramic assemblage of the Middle Woodland Owl Hollow phase is briefly described and compared to other Middle Woodland ceramic assemblages in the Southeast and Midwest. The Owl Hollow ceramics are closely related to the La Motte ceramics of the lower Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois. It is suggested that the Owl Hollow - La Motte relationship may be due to an adaptation to, and interaction across the southern extension of the Prairie Peninsula.

  37. KARST TOPOGRAPHY: A FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH PALEO- INDIAN SETTLEMENT IN CERTAIN AREAS OF KENTUCKY. Thomas W. Gatus and David R. Maynard. III(2):203-210. 1978. Reconnaissance level, county- wide archaeological surveys in Kentucky have revealed an inordinately high frequency of Paleo-Indian projectile points in or near areas of karst topography. It is suggested that there is a correlation between Paleo-Indian sites and their physical proximity to such karst features as sinkholes or sinks.

  38. THE GRAYSVILLE MELUNGEONS: A TRI-RACIAL PEOPLE IN LOWER EAST TENNESSEE. E. Raymond Evans. IV(1):1-31. 1979. Located approximately 30 miles north of Chattanooga, the community of Graysville, Tennessee contains one of the most stable Melungeon settlements in the state. Field work in the community conducted in conjunction with archival research demonstrates that the Melungeons, who now compose more than half of the local population, came from Hamilton County during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Census records and other archival sources indicate that prior to coming to Hamilton County they had lived in Virginia and North Carolina. In Graysville, the Melungeons strongly deny their Black heritage and explain their genetic differences by claiming to have had Cherokee grandmothers. Many of the local whites also claim Cherokee ancestry and appear to accept the Melungeon claim. The racist discrimination common in Hancock County and n most other Melungeon communities is absent in Graysville. Here, the Melungeons interact in all phases of community life, and exogamy with local Whites is a common practice. The group is called after the most common surname present - Goins - and the term "Melungeon" is not used by the people or by their neighbors. Recent field observations have led to the conclusion that the culture and social activities of the Graysville Melungeons differs in no way from that of any small Southern Appalachian community.

  39. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE IN THE HEADWATERS OF THE CANEY FORK RIVER IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. Robert L. Jolley. IV(1):32-62. 1979. A semi-intensive survey was conducted along portions of the two principal streams in the Caney Fork headwaters; the Collins and the Calfkiller. A total of 156 previously unrecorded sites was located. The data obtained enabled a brief, tentative cultural history of the region to be constructed. This cultural history appears to be similar to other neighboring headwater areas in Middle Tennessee, specifically the upper Elk and Duck Rivers. The survey was also successful in delineating settlement patterns through time and in determining how select environmental resources were exploited.

  40. THE KANAWHA TRADITION: A REVIEW AND RE-EVALUATION. Gary R. Wilkins. IV(1):63-81. 1979. Recent archaeological work in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has permitted a re-evaluation of the cultural context and affinities of the Charleston area moundworks. The Kanawha tradition as originally defined by McMichael is reviewed, and then re-interpreted in light of more recent evidence. The Charleston mounds are placed back within an Adena context and McMichael's definition of Armstrong Middle Woodland is significantly changed.

  41. PALEOETHNOBOTANY OF THE DUCKS NEST SITE: EARLY MISSISSIPPI PLANT UTILIZATION IN THE EASTERN HIGHLAND RIM. Gerald W. Kline and Gary D. Crites. IV(1):82-100. 1979. Analysis of paleoethnobotanical remains from the Ducks Nest site (40Wr4), a small Mississippian site in the Eastern Highland Rim section of Middle Tennessee dating ca. A.D. 1120, revealed the utilization of wild and domesticated indigenous plants including Chenopodium, Polygonum, Phalaris caroliniana, and domesticated Iva (Iva annua var. Macrocarpa). Maize and squash were also recovered, thus indicating the use of a diverse suite of plant foods.

  42. THE ACCEPTANCE OF EUROPEAN DOMESTIC ANIMALS BY THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CHEROKEE. Robert D. Newman. IV(1):101-107. 1979. European contact during the late 17th and early 18th centuries introduced the Overhill Cherokee to the horse, the pig and the cow. The horse and the pig were accepted by the Overhill Cherokee in response to the economic pressure of the deerskin trade, diminishing deer populations and European encroachment on Overhill land. The Federal Indian policy of the late 18th and early 19th centuries converted the Overhill Cherokee to full-time farming, a prerequisite for keeping cattle. The trends of acceptance of European domestic animals can be amplified by patterned variability in the archaeological record.

  43. A MISSISSIPPIAN CERAMIC SEQUENCE FOR WESTERN KENTUCKY. Rudolf Berle Clay. IV(2):111-128. 1979. Evidence is presented for change through time in Mississippian ceramics from the Tennessee and Cumberland Valleys in western Kentucky. Dates from Kentucky suggest that a Mississippian occupation began as early as A.D. 1000 and that it lasted as late as A.D. 1600, perhaps later. It is suggested that these dates are consistent with dates from southeast Missouri, southern Illinois, and southern Indiana.

  44. VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATION PARTICIPATION. Annie S. Barnes. IV(2):129-139. 1979. This paper examines the role of two churches and social organizations in the Atlanta, Georgia black subsociety. They are seen as having purposes with adaptive significance for effective functioning. Decision making, self- expression, and prestige elements in the churches and social groups are analyzed as functions employed in black adaptation.

  45. THE LATE ARCHAIC IN THE UPPER DUCK RIVER VALLEY. William R. Bowen. IV(2):140-159. 1979. Recent archaeological research of non-shell midden Late Archaic sites in the upper Duck River Valley of Middle Tennessee has raised questions concerning the validity and widespread applicability of certain previously constructed settlement/subsistence models for the Late Archaic in the Middle South. In this paper, the Late Archaic Ledbetter phase in the upper Duck River valley is defined, the data are used to evaluate other subsistence/settlement models, and a new subsistence/settlement model applicable to the Late Archaic Ledbetter phase of the Upper Duck Valley is proposed.

  46. BUTTON SNAKEROOT SYMBOLISM AMONG THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIANS. Robbie F. Ethridge. IV(2):160-166. 1979. With the recent revival of interest in medicinal herbs and natural healing, it follows that there would be increased investigation into the American Indians' use of plants as curatives. However, their use of plants extended far beyond the practical aspects of curing and food. They often placed symbolic functions on plants which then projected them from the world of the mundane into that of the spiritual. By imbuing these plants with symbolic meaning, the Southeastern Indians extended their use into various associated functions. Button snakeroot serves as an example of such plant symbolism by the Southeastern Indians.

  47. PREHISTORIC SPOT FINDS, LOCALITIES, AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT: A CAUTIONARY NOTE FROM KENTUCKY. Robert L. Brooks. IV(2):167-174. 1979. A large number of archaeological survey reports have been produced in recent years. Most of these reports contain information and descriptions of sites discovered, and also contain documentation on archaeological resources defined as spot finds and localities. These smaller concentrations are usually only cursorily treated in the analysis of the reported resources. It is argued that the use of these terms is only an attempt to define a hierarchy in the archaeological resource base and biases our perception of these smaller artifact concentrations. Analogies and case examples from Kentucky illustrate the problems created by the inappropriate use(s) of terms such as spot find and locality. It is recommended that a resource considered an archaeological site regardless of the site extent or the quantity of artifacts recovered.

  48. A LATE WOODLAND SHAFT-AND-CHAMBER GRAVE IN THE NORMANDY RESERVOIR. Major C.R. McCollough, Glyn D. DuVall, Charles H. Faulkner, and Tracy C. Brown. IV(2):175-188. 1979. A Late Woodland shaft-and- chamber grave in the Normandy Reservoir, upper Duck River Valley is described. The distribution of this grave type in the Southeast and the significance of this Middle Tennessee discovery are also discussed.

  49. MULTIVARIATE DENTAL SEXING: DISCRIMINATION OF THE SEXES WITHIN AN EAST TENNESSEE MISSISSIPPIAN SKELETAL SAMPLE. Gary T. Scott and Kenneth R. Parham. IV(2):189-198. 1979. Discriminant function statistical techniques have been a useful aid to physical anthropologists in sexual assessment of skeletal remains. In this study, a multivariate discriminant analysis (BMDP07M, Stepwise Jackknife Discriminant Analysis) of dental remains is utilized to aid in the assessment of sex in a large skeletal series of Late Mississippian (Dallas) Amerinds from the site of Toqua (40Mr6) in the eastern Tennessee Valley. The functions are determined on the basis of skeletally sexed individuals and then applied to subadults and poorly preserved material. Derivations of the functions are examined as well as application of the techniques to otherwise unsexed individuals. It is suggested that the functions provided in the text should be applicable to other archaeological samples of similar spatial and temporal contexts.

  50. PATTERNS OF LATE ARCHAIC EXCHANGE. Sharon I. Goad. V(1):1- 16. 1980. Two exotic raw materials, copper and marine shell, were the characteristic exchange items of the Late Archaic period. This article discusses the patterns of distribution of these two materials and the exchange mechanisms responsible for such patterns.

  51. THE MARK THRASH HOUSE SITE, CHICKAMAUGA NATIONAL MILITARY PARK, WALKER COUNTY, GEORGIA. Mary A. Wilson. V(1):17- 25. 1980. In 1975, archaeological excavations were undertaken at the north Georgia home of Mark Thrash, a former slave who lived at the house from 1915 until his death in 1943, at the age of 123. This paper concerns the artifacts found, their possible implications about his lifestyle, and how the Mark Thrash site fails to fit certain current classifications regarding the archaeological inference of socio- economic status.

  52. THE ADOPTION AND USE OF THE HORSE AMONG SOUTHEASTERN INDIANS. Jared Vincent Harper. V(1):26-33. 1980. Numerous books and articles have been written concerning the acquisition and use of the horse by the Plains Indians, but little has been written about the acquisition and use of the horse by Indians of the Southeastern United States. An examination of the literature on Southeastern Indians shows that like the Plains Indians the Southeastern Indians obtained most of their horses from the Spanish settlements in New Mexico by way of Indian middlemen. Horses in lesser numbers were obtained from Spanish settlements in Florida and English settlements in the Carolinas and Virginia. Probably because of ecological factors the Southeastern Indians never developed a complex horse culture like that associated with the Plains Indians. They did, however, use horses for a variety of purposes, including carrying game back from the hunt, moving camp, packing trading supplies, as a symbol of wealth, for food and other uses.

  53. CERAMIC DIVERSITY AS AN INDICATOR OF CULTURAL DYNAMICS IN THE WOODLAND PERIOD. Roy S. Dickens, Jr. V(1):34-46. 1980. A large body of literature in both the social and natural sciences suggests that diversity plays a major role in human adaptive processes. In an interacting population (society), the diversity of collective ideas -- what might be called the "idea pool" -- can be important in determining the threshold of culture change. Idea pools will be expanded in relation to increased inter-areal exchange -- what might be called "idea flow." How can archaeologists measure the relative diversity of ideas (homogeneity or heterogeneity of idea pools) in past societies? In this paper, a simple mathematical measure (index) of diversity is applied to ceramic assemblages of several societies spanning the Early Woodland to Early Mississippian periods in the South Appalachian province. Surface finish, a variable and easily recognized attribute, is used. The results demonstrate that the most diverse expressions of ceramic surface finish occur in societies occupying the time interval A.D. 200-600, during and immediately following the apogee of Hopewellian interaction. These findings suggest that the late Middle Woodland period was a highly dynamic time in Southeastern prehistory. Trade contacts, and possibly other mechanisms for idea exchange, probably were at a peak level. If the ceramic idea pools were more diverse at this time, it is possible that other ideas -- e.g. those concerned with social relationships and ideological concepts -- also were in a more dynamic state.

  54. THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE VANDALIZED GRAVES OF TWO HISTORIC PERSONAGES: OSCEOLA, SEMINOLE WAR CHIEF, AND COLONEL WILLIAM M. SHY, CIVIL WAR HERO. John T. Dowd. V(1):47- 72. 1980. Historic burials, even those on historic sites being excavated, are often left undisturbed out of respect for the feelings of the living relatives and to avoid law entanglements. Occasionally unusual circumstances arise that do call for the excavation of a historic burial In recent years two separate cases of grave vandalism necessitated the excavation and evaluation of the graves of two famous historic personages. In 1966 the grave of Osceola, a great Seminole War Chief, was vandalized. No apparent damage was believed done to the burial, but when a Miami businessman claimed he had Osceola's bones in his possession an investigation by the National Park Service was undertaken. This investigation proved the businessman's claim untrue. In 1977 the grave of Civil War hero Colonel W.M. Shy was disturbed. Upon examination a body was discovered that was thought to have been a recent murder victim. After a thorough examination, the body was identified as that of Colonel Shy.

  55. GEOPHAGY IN FAYETTE COUNTY, TENNESSEE: A SYMBOLIC INTERPRETATION. Carol L. Jenkins. V(1):73-91. 1980. This paper reviews the literature on geophagy and evaluates three major etiological hypotheses. Data are presented from Fayette County, Tennessee, to illustrate the author's suggestion that geophagy is retained as a reassuring symbolic act among those ethnic groups who experience relatively high infant and maternal mortality rates.

  56. 40SL29: ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA FROM A SHALLOW DISTURBED SITE IN SULLIVAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Harry M. Piper and Jacquelyn G. Piper. V(2):95-121. 1980. The thesis has been advanced that small, surface and disturbed sites can yield important data by controlling for the known disturbance variables, and considering them in the resulting artifact distribution and other site interpretations. The primary purpose of the test excavations carried out at 40SL29 was to determine what useful, scientific data could be recovered from a small site which had been subjected to five known types of disturbance. Recognizing the disturbance variables to the extent possible, the observed data from the investigation permits statements about areas of more intensive site utilization, the type of site, raw material used through time, site depth, certain topographic and ecological observations as to site location, and the chronology of intermittent site occupation.

  57. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON ALCOHOLIC CLIENTS IN AN EAST TENNESSEE DETOXIFICATION REHABILITATION INSTITUTE. Ira E. Harrison, Kay Paris, and Patricia A. Weed. V(2):122-136. 1980. This presentation discussed the social (age, sex, education, employment marital, residential) and cultural (family, pattern of drug use) characteristics of clients at Knoxville's first non-medical detoxification-rehabilitation institute. The "average" client has approximately 10.5 years of formal education, is unemployed, but is a skilled construction laborer, with a family history of alcoholism. These observations are discussed in terms of East Tennessee cultural heritage and current socio- economic trends.

  58. LOG HOUSES IN GRAINGER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John Morgan and Joy Medford. V(2):137-158. 1980. This paper examines the log houses of Grainger County, located in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of upper east Tennessee, where relatively dense distributions of log structures remain on the landscape. The log dwellings in the county are typically single-pen structures rather than double-pen dogtrot houses as various writers have suggested. Temporal trends were discerned for the number of stories and timber types in the log structures. Other characteristics of log house form and construction techniques are revealed.

  59. NOTES ON THE ANIMAL FOOD RESOURCES OF AN INDIAN FAMILY IN EASTERN OKLAHOMA. Paul W. Parmalee. V(2):159-165. 1980. A large trash pit discovered on an Indian ,probably Choctaw homestead site in eastern Oklahoma provided an opportunity to study a large series of faunal remains that reflected the animal resources used by one family during the period of ca. 1840-1850. In addition to quantities of Indian artifacts and European trade goods, approximately 3,100 bones representing at least 20 species were recovered. The use of native animals was minimal compared with domestic stock; pigs and cattle provided the major source of meat in the diet of this family.

  60. THE CULTURE HISTORICAL PLACEMENT OF FAYETTE THICK CERAMICS IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY. R. Berle Clay. V(2):166-178. 1980. The position is argued that a Woodland ceramic complex represented at present by Fayette Thick can be identified in central Kentucky probably as early as 1000 B.C. or earlier. It more accurately contains at least two ceramic types rather than the single type in use. Reexamination of the published sources from the state suggests that this complex is not associated with burial mounds which have been called Adena. By contrast, burial mounds, associated with a quite different ceramic complex, probably do not appear until c. 500 B.C. The nature of what are here called the Fayette and Adena ceramic complexes does not support the reconstruction that the earlier is the ancestor of the later and that Fayette Thick contexts can be considered "early Adena." At this point, given our inadequate understanding of the early Woodland ceramic sequence in the region, the origins of burial mounds and the Adena ceramic complex in central Kentucky remain open questions.

  61. RECOLLECTIONS OF AN EARLY FISH TRAP ON THE HOLSTON RIVER. William J. McCoy, Jr. V(2):179-184. 1980. A brief, selective history of the fish traps privately operated at Monday's Island on the lower Holston River, Mascot, Tennessee precedes William J. McCoy's detailed account of the 1915 Monday Island fish trap and his vivid description of his childhood vacation spent on Monday's Island in June 1915.

  62. TWENHAFEL ARCHAEOLOGY: THE SOUTHEASTERN CONNECTION. Jack L. Hofman. V(2):185-201. 1980. Artifacts of southeastern origin or inspiration recovered from the Twenhafel site in southern Illinois are described and discussed. Non-local sherds with stamped decorations and sherds with tetrapodal feet may be derived from Copena or related complexes in the Middle South. Additional material indicating southeastern contact includes greenstone celt fragments and Copena projectile points. The specific nature of the exchanges which resulted in the presence of southeastern Middle Woodland artifacts at Twenhafel is presently unknown.

  63. A STUDY OF STONE BOX GRAVES IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. Ian W. Brown. VI(1):2-26. 1981. This paper is a descriptive study of stone box graves, a late prehistoric form of burial in Eastern North America. This type of grave, so typically associated with the Mississippian cultural tradition, was most popular in the Middle Cumberland region of Tennessee. It is believed that stone box graves developed in this region early in the second millennium A.D., spreading rapidly to peripheral areas and continuing in the latter regions into historic times, long after they had disappeared in the Middle Cumberland. The dispersal of this grave type represents the spread of an idea, rather than migrations, as the grave form was often modified to accommodate local burial forms. The decline of this burial trait in late prehistoric/early historic times is consistent with the general breakdown of Mississippian ceremonialism.

  64. THE MELUNGEONS OF UPPER EAST TENNESSEE. PERSISTING SOCIAL IDENTITY. Anthony P. Cavender. VI(1):27-36. 1981. A Melungeon can no longer be identified simply in terms of distinctive physical appearance. The definitional criteria used by the local populace in Hancock County for purposes of ascribing or assuming Melungeon identity are not uniform, but vary in relationship to socio-economic status. The Melungeon identity persists in spite of near complete racial dissolution because it serves as a symbolic marker of low socio-economic status and also because members of the local elite are economically exploiting tourist interest in the "mysterious" Melungeons.

  65. SELLARS: A SMALL MOUND CENTER IN THE HINTERLANDS. Brian M. Butler. VI(1):37-60. 1981. The Sellars site in Wilson County, Tennessee, is a small fortified Mississippian Mound center of approximately 10 acres in area. The site was first described and investigated over 100 years ago, but still remains one of the least known and best preserved examples of this type of site in Middle Tennessee. After its acquisition by the state in 1974, limited test excavations were conducted at the site in 1974 and 1977. The results of the test excavations are presented along with radiocarbon dates and a discussion of the site's possible role in the larger Mississippian settlement system.

  66. THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL RECORD: EARLY ARCHAIC PERIOD TO CONTACT IN THE LOWER LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Jefferson Chapman and Andrea Brewer Shea. VI(1):61-84. 1981. Analysis of over 22 kilograms of carbonized plant remains from archaeological contexts in the lower Little Tennessee River valley has yielded an important record of plant use over the past 9500 years. This paper reviews the evidence for wild plant foods, and native and tropical cultigens in each of the cultural periods. Clues to vegetation composition and man's impact on that vegetation are offered by wood charcoal samples.

  67. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT SIZE ADAPTATIONS IN PREHISTORIC TENNESSEE INDIANS. Robert J. Hinton. VI(2):89-111. 1981. Measurements approximating the size of the temperomandibular joint or TMJ (mandibular condyle, mandibular fossa) in prehistoric Tennessee Indians show a gradual decrease from the Archaic through the Woodland to the Mississippian. Current understanding of the biomechanical response of joint structures to forces transmitted to the joint during mastication suggests that the observed reduction in TMJ size is most likely due to decreased functional stress on the dentition over time. Ethnographic and paleofecal evidence, which indicates that substantial differences in food preparation techniques may have existed between the Archaic and Mississippian periods, is presented in support of this contention. Also, joint size dimensions in the Tennessee Indian samples are discussed in the context of similar data for other New World aboriginal peoples and for American White and British samples.

  68. THE INTRODUCTION AND EARLY USE OF AFRICAN PLANTS IN THE NEW WORLD. Mark Wagner. VI(2):112-124. 1981. This paper is a study of historical factors that influenced the introduction of African cultigens into the New World. Foremost among these factors was the African slave trade. African cultigens were selected for use as provisions on the slave ships based largely upon two factors: their availability in mass quantities along the African coast and their ability to withstand spoilage. Cultural food preferences of the African slaves sometimes also influenced what cultigens were used as provisions. The early history of these plants in the Americas and their role in New World subsistence economies is also examined.

  69. ANALYSIS OF SURFACE MATERIAL FROM COLUMBIA RESERVOIR SITE 40MU272, MAURY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Mark A. Smith. VI(2):125-143. 1981. Site 40Mu272 is an upland Archaic camp near the Duck River. The physiographic setting of the site, located within an abandoned meander where both riverine and upland species could be exploited, may have been a principal factor in its selection by Archaic peoples. Material from two controlled surface collections made in 1978 and 1980 and methods for obtaining the material are reported. The 1978 collection made in 50 meter squares is compared to results of the 1980 collection using 10 meter squares. The smaller grid allowed (1) better definition of site boundaries, (2) the possibility of defining activity areas and separate components within the site. An Early Archaic Kirk component(s) has been recognized as well as at least one later Archaic component. Hypotheses about site function and activities as means for evaluating them are presented, as well as future plans for the site.

  70. BANNERSTONES AS CHRONOLOGICAL MARKERS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. Mary L. Kwas. VI(2):144-171. 1981. The purpose of this paper is to examine the different physical shapes or types of bannerstones, and to determine if these shapes can be used as chronological markers in the southeastern United States.

  71. CHRONOLOGICAL TRENDS IN THE PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT OF THE YELLOW CREEK UPLANDS IN NORTHEASTERN MISSISSIPPI. Jay K. Johnson. VI(2):172-179. 1981. Settlement system data resulting from an upland survey in northeastern Mississippi are viewed from a chronological perspective. Major trends are integrated with an ecological model of Eastern Woodland subsistence and the resulting implications are evaluated using regional data.

  72. ON THE GENDER OF THE WINGED BEING ON MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD COPPER PLATES. Catherine Brown. VII(1):1-8. 1982. Copper plates are a type of artifact associated with the more elaborate Mississippian period cultures. The exact function of these plates or plaques of copper, most of which are embossed with designs, is not clear. It is generally assumed that the "winged being" depicted on some of the plates, such as those from Etowah, is a masculine figure. This assumption, however, is at least questionable in light of some of the anatomical features of these figures and also in light of ethnohistorical evidence from the sixteenth century and later. This paper discusses evidence that some of these plates may depict a feminine being.

  73. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON WOMEN AND RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA. Anthony P. Cavender and Jacqueline Peters Stroh. VII(1):9-13. 1982. Contrary to the existing stereotype, women in southern Appalachia have historically made contributions to the maintenance of their society that fall outside the realm of domestic life. This paper explores the diversity of roles that women in southern Appalachia have traditionally occupied by focusing on the topic of women pastors and evangelists.

  74. RECENT RADIOCARBON DETERMINATIONS FOR THE PINSON MOUNDS SITE. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr., John B. Broster, and Karen M. Johnson. VII(1):14-19. 1982. The Pinson Mounds site in Madison and Chester counties, Tennessee is a large mound complex occupying an area of approximately 600 acres. Limited test excavations conducted at the site in the early 1960s have led to some inaccurate interpretations of the site's temporal placement. A series of 10 radiocarbon dates from samples obtained during fieldwork in 1975 and 1981 is presented. These dates clearly establish the site as a major Middle Woodland center.

  75. SOCIAL HISTORY OF TWO APPALACHIAN COMMUNITIES. Susan S. Brown. VII(1):20-37. 1982. The history of two communities only 20 miles apart in Tazewell County, Virginia, illustrates how the interaction of environment, economy, and historical circumstances can create different patterns in Appalachian community development. The interaction of geography and government policy provided the basis for settlement by farmers, agricultural entrepeneurship, and social mobility in the town of Tazewell, whereas in the town of Pocahontas, the physiography, mineral deposits, and mining company control produced a settlement of wage laborers, coal company hegemony, and an impermeable class structure.

  76. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS IN THE LITTLE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY. Arthur E. Bogan. VII(1):38-50. 1982. The Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted archaeological excavations in the Little Tennessee River Valley, East Tennessee, during the period from 1967 to 1979. A large quantity of vertebrate and molluscan remains from the Middle Woodland through historic Federal Period was recovered. The Little Tennessee River Valley material provides a rare opportunity to examine culture change in a restricted research universe. Analysis of these faunal samples has provided information about the species utilized and about changes in subsistence patterns. In addition, the historic Cherokee samples provide an insight into native subsistence change in comparison to local Euro-American diets.

  77. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN LATE PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN AN APPALACHIAN NORTH CAROLINA LOCALITY: SOME PRELIMINARY INTERPRETATIONS. Burton L. Purrington. VII(1):51- 61. 1982. Between 1970 and 1979 more than 200 prehistoric archaeological sites were recorded in the watershed of the upper Watauga River, a remote feeder of the Holston-Tennessee River system in the Appalachian Summit region of northwestern North Carolina. Both continuity and change in local settlement patterns from Archaic through Protohistoric times are evident. Archaic, Woodland, and late prehistoric (Pisgah phase) sites exhibit a continuous pattern of utilization of a very broad range of environmental zones. However, by early Middle Woodland times (Pigeon phase) a trend toward more intensive use of main valley bottomland sites, increased sedentism, and more specialized use of the uplands is evident. This trend culminates in the Pisgah phase with the emergence of relatively small main valley villages with outlying farmsteads on the valley margins and limited activity sites in a variety of valley and upland settings. During the Protohistoric early Qualla phase the valley may have been abandoned by permanent populations, but specialized use continued.

  78. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MISSISSIPPIAN HUNTING PATTERNS AND THEIR ANTIQUITY. Neil D. Robison. VII(1):62-74. 1982. Mississippian hunting patterns were most likely a continuation of those practiced by earlier cultural groups. The adoption of maize agriculture by eastern North American Indian groups should not have caused any major selection changes in the overall types of animal species exploited. This proposal is in opposition to hypotheses that contend the introduction of agriculture caused a shift from a diffuse hunting and gathering economy, one that relied on numerous animal species for meat resources, to a focal economy where only a few of the larger game species that yielded greater amounts of meat were being exploited. It is proposed that Indian hunters learned the most efficient means of exploiting the fauna around them by at least the Middle Archaic period. Those faunal resources which could maintain large populations and had high meat yields per individual were utilized most frequently. Small game animals and larger species with low reproductive rates seem never to have been used to their full potential.

  79. DUGU VISIBILITY: THE ROLE OF A RELIGIOUS CEREMONY IN STATUS POLITICS. Marilyn McKillop Wells. VII(1):75-88. 1982. The visibility of dugu, a complex religious ceremony, has increased in a poly-ethnic settlement during the last fifteen years. Visibility, a consequence of location and frequency, is interpreted as a response to the changing social environment. The ceremony that was formerly a hidden aspect of Carib life has been brought into public view and has become an instrument of status politics. This is part of an oppositional process that continues between two ethnic groups in Belize, the Black Carib and the Creole.

  80. PALEO-INDIAN HABITATION AT THE PIERCE SITE (40CS24): CHESTER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John B. Broster. VII(2):93-104. 1982. The Pierce site, located in Chester County, Tennessee, was first recorded in 1973. This site contained some 140 Paleo-Indian artifacts dating from Clovis to late Paleo-Indian times. This paper attempts an initial analysis of this body of data, and is strongly centered upon a functional interpretation of both the artifacts and the site. Little has been professionally reported concerning the Paleo-Indian occupation of West Tennessee, and it is hoped that this study will help fill the gap in our knowledge of this area.

  81. AN OUTSIDE VIEW OF MIDDLE WOODLAND CHRONOLOGY IN THE NORMANDY RESERVOIR AREA. Eugene M. Futato. VII(2):105-113. 1982. The validity and chronological position of the Neel phase in the Normandy Reservoir area (Faulkner 1977) is evaluated on the basis of cross cultural comparisons with the Middle Woodland sequences of the Bear Creek watershed of Northwest Alabama and of the upper and central Tombigbee River Valley. Developmental parallels among the three areas are then noted.

  82. THE BINARY NATURE OF THE HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH: DOCUMENT AND ARTIFACT. William B. Hunt and Nicholas Honerkamp. VII(2):114-125. 1982. In this paper the authors discuss some of the characteristics of photographic evidence as it applies to historic archaeology and examine several implied and explicit concepts involved in the manipulation of photographic images by archaeologists. By way of example, the results of archaeological and documentary research at the site of a mid-nineteenth century blast furnace in Chattanooga, Tennessee, will be reviewed. Also examined is the binary nature of historic photographs, which exist as documents and as artifacts, and the relationship that these document-artifacts have to archaeological sites as they undergo successive behavioral-nonbehavioral transformations.

  83. BLACK FAMILY RELATIONS. Annie S. Barnes. VII(2):126-150. 1982. This paper examines the influence of socioeconomic factors on parent and child, stepparent and stepchild, sibling, and grandparent and grandchild authority, cooperative, and affective relations in a black neighborhood, known here as Golden Towers, in northwest Atlanta, Georgia. Age, sex, education, occupation, and income are seen as major determinants of interaction in the black family.

  84. SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS AT ADAMS AND RIVERSIDE DRIVE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. Charles H. McNutt and Gerald P. Smith. VII(2):151- 175. 1982. In August, 1977, the authors were informed by a newspaper article that early brick foundations had been unearthed beneath the southwest corner of Adams Avenue and Riverside Drive by construction activities for a pedestrian bridge linking Mud Island to downtown Memphis, Tennessee. Plans were hastily made to examine the location and to determine the nature of the foundations. Three construction phases, spanning approximately one century, were isolated. Archival work, of necessity done after the emergency excavations, has provided sound clues if not positive identification of the establishments responsible for each construction period.

  85. STRUCTURAL DATA RECOVERED FROM THE BANKS III SITE (40CF108) AND THE PARKS SITE (40cF58), NORMANDY RESERVOIR, COFFEE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Willard S. Bacon. VII(2):176-197. 1982. This paper presents structural data from sites in the Normandy Reservoir, Coffee County, Tennessee. Structural remains from the Late Archaic, Early Woodland and Middle Woodland periods are reported. A date of 220 B.C. + 185 years was obtained for an unusual assemblage of artifacts associated with Structure 6 on 40Cf58. The date and the artifacts confirm Faulkner's (1977) tentative definition of the Early Middle Woodland Neel phase.

  86. THE SAGA OF JEROME BOYATT: A MIRROR OF ATTITUDES TOWARD LAW AND LAWLESSNESS. Benita J. Howell. VIII(1):1-19. 1984. Social historians concerned with plain folk increasingly turn to oral history to augment documentary sources of "fact," but oral narratives also illuminate grassroots attitudes that conflict with establishment versions of events. A case in point is the saga of Jerome Boyatt, who shot two lawmen and subsequently was lynched in Scott County, Tennessee in 1933. Discrepancies between contemporary newspaper accounts and narratives collected in 1979-1980 from Boyatt's contemporaries highlight attitudes toward law and lawlessness that justify folk interpretations of the underclass outlaw as a victim of "bad law" perpetrated by the local elite.

  87. HUMAN BONES FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT: AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INFORMATION. Douglas W. Owsley. VIII(1):20- 27. 1984. Studies of human burials are invaluable for explaining and understanding the human past. A wealth of information pertaining to human biology and social organization can be gained from the study of human bone. Research on human skeletal material includes all earlier populations, not only Native Americans. These facts are relevant in light of recent efforts to have skeletal collections reinterred.

  88. FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE HISTORIC CHEROKEE OCCUPATION AT CITICO (40MR7), MONROE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Arthur E. Bogan. VIII(1):28-49. 1984. Faunal remains recovered during archaeological excavations in 1978 at the historic Cherokee town of Citico are examined. The comparisons of faunal remains from tightly dated contexts provides an opportunity to examine the changing roles of animals in the historic Cherokee diet. A shift from a heavy reliance on deer during the Colonial period to an increased utilization of Euro-American domesticates in demonstrated. The use of freshwater mussels is documented into the Federal Period.

  89. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE BROWN SITE (40Mu260), MAURY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr., Patti A. Driscoll, and Steven A. Symes. VIII(1):50-66. 1984. The skeletal remains of 47 individuals from 33 graves excavated at the Brown site (40Mu260), a Middle Cumberland site near Columbia, Tennessee, are discussed in terms of their age, sex, pathologies and stature. Of the adults, 18 are male, 10 are female, and seven are of indeterminate sex. Also, 65.7% of the adults and 58.3% of the subadults manifest pathologies. The average age at death (23.3 years) is similar to that of the individuals from Arnold, Ganier and Averbuch sites. The mean stature for males (167.34 centimeters) and females (157.35 centimeters) are very similar to the mean adult stature estimates for the other Middle Cumberland sites. Finally, the mean number of individuals per grave (1.2-1.4) is similar to the mean number of individuals per grave for the Arnold, Ganier and Averbuch cemeteries.

  90. A PROPOSED PREHISTORIC CULTURAL SEQUENCE FOR A SECTION OF THE VALLEY OF THE WEST FORK OF THE WHITE RIVER IN SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. VIII(1):67-94. 1984. This paper summarizes a proposed cultural sequence for a portion of the White River Valley in Indiana. The prehistoric occupations of the area from Paleo-Indian through Late Woodland and Mississippian are discussed, a number of cultural phases are presented, and a projectile point series for the area is included. This paper is based upon data accumulated over many years by an ongoing archaeological research program of mine and upon other available information. The cultural framework presented herein in to be continually refined and elaborated, and other studies are to be integrated with it.

  91. CHERT AVAILABILITY IN THE LOWER CUMBERLAND AND LOWER TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEYS IN WESTERN KENTUCKY. Thomas W. Gatus. VIII(2):99-113. 1984. Two seasons of work with the Lower Cumberland Archaeological Project has produced data indicating that 18 chert bearing deposits occur in the Lower Cumberland and Tennessee River Valleys. Of these, about half contain deposits suitable for prehistoric tool manufacturing. Due to the geologic nature of the area, chert bearing bedrock could only provide limited supplies of chippable stone for lithic manufacturing purposes. However, data collected for this study indicate that most major deposits produce abundant residuum which became incorporated into stream gravels and was subsequently available to aboriginal knappers. Apparently both alluvial gravels and residuum were exploited.

  92. SOME ASPECTS OF MARITAL MOVEMENT IN KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE. Daniel S. Amick. VIII(2):114-122. 1984. Marital distance and magnitude parameters are determined for a Knoxville population sample. Comparison of the Knoxville data with data from nearby rural Hancock County (Kirkland and Jantz 1977) suggests greater mobility for the Knoxville gene pool. Differences in mating patterns between the two populations are also suggested to influence marital movement parameters. Additionally, the importance of sex on migration into Knoxville appears insignificant. Spatial exogamy patterns for Knoxville residents show a sharp decrease of marriage frequencies between 0 and 20 km. Marriage frequencies increase at the 50 km range with a gradual decrease beyond this distance. This result appears to be due to local patterns of population density and aggregation.

  93. CRIBRA ORBITALIA AND POROTIC HYPEROSTOSIS IN AN OVERHILL CHEROKEE SKELETAL POPULATION. Douglas W. Owsley. VIII(2):123-132. 1984. This research reports the frequency of cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis in a historic Cherokee population of the Little Tennessee River Valley. Contact and Colonial period Overhill Cherokee Indian skeletons from five archaeological sites in East Tennessee were examined for the presence and severity of these bone pathologies. Both types of lesions were observed with total sample frequencies being 30.4 percent and 7.3 percent for cribra orbitalia and vault porotic hyperostosis, respectively. The data are subdivided by age and sex for comparative analysis and are contrasted with data for Late Mississippian Dallas skeletons from the same area. Archaeological data for Late Mississippian and historic Cherokee faunal and botanical utilization, as well as socio-cultural differences, are considered in the interpretation of apparent population differences in nutritional sufficiency.

  94. EXCAVATION OF A MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY TRASH PIT, WYNNEWOOD STATE HISTORIC SITE, SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Samuel D. Smith. VIII(2):133-181. 1984. In 1981, during monitoring of construction activity, an unusually large trash pit was discovered at the Wynnewood State Historic site, Sumner County, Tennessee. Subsequently, this feature was completely excavated and yielded an important collection of mid-nineteenth-century artifacts. This paper discusses the historic context and nature of this feature, its probable specific date (with a revised approach to use of the Mean Ceramic Date Formula), its site-specific function, and its broader socioeconomic and sociocultural implications. Efforts to extract useable comparative data from other nineteenth-century Tennessee sites indicate a pressing need for some degree of standardization of artifact reporting.

  95. AN ANALYSIS OF FAUNAL REMAINS FROM WYNNEWOOD STATE HISTORIC SITE, SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO TENNESSEE PLANTATION SITE ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CENTRAL BASIN. Emanuel Breitburg. VIII(2):182-199. 1984. Faunal remains recovered from Feature 12 at the Wynnewood State Historic Site are examined. Seasonal placement of Feature 12 use is proposed, and the dietary patterns of site occupants evaluated. The results of the data analysis are evaluated against documentary evidence (U.S. Census Schedules, Productions of Agriculture). The patterned nature of the archaeological and archival data for three other examined Central Basin plantation sites (the Hermitage, Belle Meade, and Woodlawn) resulted in the proposal of a model for Middle Tennessee plantation site domestic mammal utilization.

  96. THE 1882 INVESTIGATIONS BY COLONEL P.W. NORRIS AT THE POWERS FORT SITE, 23BU10, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. Timothy K. Perttula and James E. Price. IX(1):1-14. 1984. An important aspect of research on the Mississippian Power phase concerns the socio-political integration of this society and the relationship between Powers Fort, the civic and ceremonial center, and the other contemporary Powers phase settlements. Powers Fort has received only limited and sporadic investigations since Colonel Philetus W. Norris of the Bureau of (American) Ethnology first described the site in 1882. What he found in this fortified mound center is described in this paper from unpublished letters and journals submitted to the Bureau. As a legacy, his work still provides most of what is known about the nature of Powers phase ceremonial activities - a key element in gaining a comprehensive understanding of the phase's internal composition.

  97. FRACTURE PATTERNS AND STATUS AT CHUCALISSA (40SY1): A BIOCULTURAL APPROACH. Craig H. Lahren and Hugh E. Berryman. IX(1):15- 21. 1984. Biocultural analysis of Mississippian mortuary practices has led to an increased awareness of the integrated ecological, cultural, and biological systems affecting behavioral activities. In this study, fracture patterns are used as an interpretive device to investigate the activity patterns of high and low status individuals from the Chucalissa site in western Tennessee. The frequency, type and location of fractures will be discussed in regards to these two groups.

  98. INDIVIDUAL VERSUS CORPORATE ADAPTATIONS IN URBAN CONTEXTS. Nicholas Honerkamp and R. Bruce Council. IX(1):22-31. 1984. The introduction of municipal services in metropolitan areas represents a major adaptive shit in addressing problems basic to the maintenance of life in urban situations. It is argued that the archaeological and documentary study of municipal services (centralized water supplies, sewer systems, lighting and power, roads, etc.) may hold greater promise for informing on urban adaptations than other, more traditional approaches. Examples from urban sites in the Southeast are presented in support of this assertion.

  99. POSTHOLE TESTING AND PATTERN RECOGNITION AT WHITEHAVEN, 15McN65. Kit W. Wesler. IX(1):32-47. 1984. The Whitehaven mansion, near Paducah, Kentucky, is a Civil War-era landmark being restored as a tourist information and rest facility associated with Interstate 24. The Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Transportation, sponsored a brief archaeological testing project at the mansion, intended to recover as much information as possible on the early occupation of the house. Posthole testing on a five-meter grid provided spatial data regarding use of the houselot, and also identified deep deposits for further testing. Comparison of posthole and excavation data demonstrates the usefulness of the former for preliminary assessment of spatial and assemblage patterning.

  100. SAMUEL BROWN ON SALTPETER FROM SANDSTONE CLIFFS IN EASTERN KENTUCKY IN 1806. Fred E. Coy, Tom Fuller, Larry Meadows, Don Fig, Jim Rosene, and Garland Dever. IX(1):48-65. 1984. Samuel Brown, a chemist at Transylvania University, prepared a paper for presentation before the American Philosophical Society in 1806 which proved of importance in brining to Jefferson's attention the possibility of obtaining much needed potassium nitrate for the manufacture of gunpowder from the State of Kentucky. A portion of this paper deals with the obtaining of potassium nitrate directly from the bone dry rock houses or shelters in the sandstone cliffs of eastern Kentucky. This paper discusses the remains of these works and correlates the present day information with some of the data presented by Brown.

  101. THE PHARMACOLOGY OF FOLK MEDICAL USE OF PANAX IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS: AN OVERVIEW WITH SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY. Charles Wm. Logsdon. IX(1):66-79. 1984. Panax quinquefolium and P. Ginseng have been noted to be adaptogenic. Chemical properties within the root are reputed to enhance the body's ability to overcome disease and aging. Because of the presence of these properties many non- Western ethnomedical practices utilized Panax as an integral constituent in their pharmacopoeia. Western folk medicine also includes "sang" (ginseng) as an important component in herbal remedies. The folk economies of the Southern Appalachians have long procured ginseng as a source of barter for cash or manufactured goods. Most of the existing literature concerning the pharmacology of P. quinquefolium and P. Ginseng deals primarily with pharmaceutical research in non-Western cultures. Little evidence exists that describes similar research in Appalachian folk medicine. The evidence of Western folk herbal uses of ginseng can be extracted from diaries, biographies, and the journals of early botanists, ethnographers, physicians, and settlers. This paper attempts to combine both pharmacological and ethnographical sources to provide a basic pool of data for folk- culture research.

  102. THE LOG BARNS OF BLOUNT COUNTY, TENNESSEE. John Morgan and Ashby Lynch, Jr. IX(2):85-103. 1984. This paper examines the log barns of Blount County in East Tennessee, where hundreds of nineteenth century log structures remain on the landscape. The dominant log barn type found in Blount County is the double-crib barn with a cantilevered overhanging frame loft. The most prevalent variant of the double-crib barn has the cantilevered overhang on all four sides of the structure, but barns with only front and rear overhangs are also common. The study also reveals the cantilevered overhang to be present on a great majority of the county's non-double-crib log barns. The concentration of cantilevered barns in Blount County is puzzling because such barns are only rarely found in several East Tennessee counties. Future research should seek to accurately determine and explain the geographical variation of East Tennessee log barn types.

  103. MORRIS PLAIN: AND OTHER WEST KENTUCKY CERAMIC SMOKING GUNS. R. Berle Clay. IX(2):104-113. 1984. The culture historical significance of an obscure Mississippian period ceramic type, Morris Plain, is reviewed. Tempered with crushed shell tempered pottery as "grog", it was once interpreted as a Woodland product using Mississippian shell tempered sherds for grog temper. This led to interesting culture historical reconstructions for two sites in western Kentucky, Tinsley Hill and Morris Village. Reevaluated, the type becomes an acceptable variation in Mississippian ceramic production, the earlier interpretations beside the point. Using this type as an example, the interpretation of grog tempering in the development of Mississippian ceramics from Woodland antecedents is considered. Other "Morris Plain situations" are discussed and, finally, it is suggested that a persistence of grog tempering from Woodland to Mississippian need not indicate stylistic continuity. More pressing questions of ceramic history must be addressed, important, what ever happened to Yankeetown Incised and the Late Woodland floruit it represents?

  104. THE CHANGING ROLES OF CHILDREN IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE OF THE RURAL SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY. Max E. White. IX(2):114-128. 1984. This paper examines the changes which have occurred in children's roles in the family and the community in the rural Southern Appalachians during the twentieth century. Children's roles in the traditional culture are discussed, along with events which led to the disruption of traditional life throughout the study area. The years about 1920 to about 1950 are seen as the period of most dramatic change. The experience of one community during this transitional period is presented as being more or less typical of communities through the Southern mountains.

  105. HUNTER-GATHERERS IN THE NASHVILLE BASIN OF TENNESSEE, 8000-5000 B.P. Jack L. Hofman. IX(2):129-192. 1984. Interpretation of the diversified economy and social organization of mid-Holocene hunter-gatherers in the Southeast presents a complex archaeological problem and a variety of explanatory models have been offered. Contemporary archaeological and ethnographical research continue to expand awareness of the intricacies and variations of hunter-gatherer adaptations, and this results in a recurrent need for reevaluation of ideas and explication of deficiencies in available information. This paper provides a summary of some interpretations about Archaic adaptations and change in the Southeast and in Middle Tennessee in particular. A simplistic working model of the regional Middle Archaic adaptive system is presented. This discussion is intentionally speculative and is intended to provide a scenario for future testing and evaluation using archaeological information now being generated by research along the Duck River and elsewhere.

  106. EXPLORING DIMENSIONS OF ILLEGAL LIQUOR MANUFACTURE: MOONSHINING AS A COTTAGE INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS. Robert A. Pace and Jeffrey W. Gardner. X(1):1-26. 1985. The manufacture of moonshine in the Southern Appalachians can be perceived as a unique form of locally specialized production operating within a milieu of social, economic, and political forces. This paper deals with economic aspects of moonshining and examines the material cultural remains of moonshining activity in a rural Appalachian setting. Aspects of site content and situation are discussed with respect to their research potential for the analysis and interpretation of local economies.

  107. THE POTENTIAL FOR EARLY-MAN SITES AT BIG BONE LICK, KENTUCKY. Kenneth B. Tankersley. X(1):27-49. 1985. The ancient marsh and spring environments at Big Bone Lick, Kentucky attracted animals and early Paleo- Indians, as evidenced by projectile points and the remains of Pleistocene megafauna. The depositional environment around the springs probably restricted the movement of the megafauna, thereby creating a natural trap from which Clovis hunters could have ambushed large game. Buried Clovis sites are predicted to occur, based on a paleogeomorphological and geochronological study of the alluvial deposits.

  108. A STUDY OF A MAGICAL FOLK CURE. Hector Qirko. X(1):50-54. 1985. An East Tennessee folk cure of hanging a mole's foot around an infant's neck to soothe teething pain is discussed as one link in a long chain of mole-lore dating back through the Middle Ages to Indo-European tradition. This practice is also seen as one of many different folk cures that deal with problems in dentition.

  109. LITHIC MANUFACTURE AND HUNTER-GATHERER TECHNOLOGY AT A WOODLAND SITE IN TENNESSEE. Sherri L. Hilgeman. X(1):55-75. 1985. In a recent paper on hunter-gatherer technology, Robin Torrence has suggested that the tools used to procure animal resources should be more complex than those used for plant resources. This idea has been applied to the study of the lithic assemblage of the Hurricane Branch site, 40Jk27, in north-central Tennessee. The analyzed sample of flakes from the main Woodland occupation at the site indicated that primary flaking was the primary lithic manufacturing activity, and these results, when compared to the chipped stone assemblage, suggested that the primary flaking tools conformed to Binford's characterization of an expedient technology, while the secondary flaking hafted bifaces, "projectile points," conformed to a curated technology. The results of a usewear analysis suggest that these two classes of tools were generally used as predicted by Torrence's model but the way in which other artifacts were used indicated that other considerations, besides time input into manufacture, were operating when a tool was selected for a task.

  110. AN INSTANCE OF MIDDLE ARCHAIC MORTUARY ACTIVITY IN WESTERN KENTUCKY. Stephen T. Mocas. X(1):76-91. 1985. Feature 72 at the Lawrence site (15-Tr-33) in western Kentucky was chosen for special attention because the Middle Archaic burial combined a variety of elements of mortuary ritual which are common in subsequent sites in the Lower Tennessee and Cumberland drainages but thus far are not represented on any site of this antiquity in this area. Additional data are also provided concerning the occurrence and status of the domesticated dog at this site.

  111. A GOURD BOWL FROM SALTS CAVE, KENTUCKY. Kenneth B. Tankersley, John L. Bassett, and Samuel S. Frushour. X(2):95-104. 1985. A gourd bowl, recently discovered in Upper Salts Cave, Kentucky, was shown through mineralogical analysis and experimental study to contain powdered gypsum. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of this type of container in the procurement of powdered gypsum from the Mammoth Cave system.

  112. THE HOEING FACTOR: AN HISTORICAL FOOTNOTE ON ADENA ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CENTRAL KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS. Sherri L. Hilgeman. X(2):105-117. 1985. A review of the site information on file at the Kentucky Office of State Archaeology has revealed that many of the "Adena mounds," especially those along the southern and eastern margins of the Bluegrass, are the result of Funkhouser and Webb's use of a series of county maps produced by the Kentucky Geological Survey in the 1880s and attributed to Joseph B. Hoeing, Survey cartographer. The history of the Survey's involvement in local and state archaeology is outlined, as is the repercussions on Adena archaeology that have resulted from Funkhouser and Webb's rather uncritical use of the site locations depicted without the accompanying written commentaries by William N. Linney.

  113. A MIDDLE ARCHAIC BANNERSTONE "HOLE" FROM MIDDLE TENNESSEE: SOME IMPLICATIONS. Jack L. Hofman. X(2):118-122. 1985. The core removed during the process of drilling a Middle Archaic bannerstone is reported from the Ervin site in Middle Tennessee. This item represents one aspect of a prehistoric lapidary industry which is rarely documented through artifactual remains. Recognition and documentation of bannerstone "holes" will enhance evaluation of site functional variability and potentially the definition of activity loci. The discard and recovery contexts of bannerstone "holes" should be distinct from that of the actual bannerstones. This brief note is intended to increase awareness of this artifact type, which has only rarely been recovered or recognized in the past.

  114. AN EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY LOG STRUCTURE IN WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Donna C. Boyd and C. Clifford Boyd, Jr. X(2):123-133. 1985. An early nineteenth-century two-story log dwelling is described. The structure, probably built in the 1820s, was constructed of poplar and oak logs fitted together by V-notching. The dimensions and methods used in the construction of this dwelling compare favorably to other contemporary dwellings surveyed in Washington and Grainger counties, Tennessee.

  115. PREVALENCE RATE OF DOUBLE TEETH IN DECIDUOUS DENTITION AT AVERBUCH (40DV60). David R. Stevenson. X(2):134-155. 1985. The author surveyed 301 subadults from the Late Mississippian site of Averbuch (40Dv60), near Nashville, Tennessee, to determine the prevalence of double teeth in the deciduous dentition of a well documented archaeological skeletal series and the affect of this anomaly on anterior succedaneous dentition. The literature suggests that double teeth, sometimes referred to as fused or geminated teeth, follow a familial pattern and are correlated with other development anterior dental anomalies, such as oligodontia. Of the 301 subadults surveyed, 153 were selected for prevalence rate assessment. All anomalies were confined to the mandible, and the sample yielded seven cases of double teeth, two cases of oligodontia and one case of a double tooth and oligodontia in the same mandible. The prevalence rate for double teeth was estimated at 5.23% for double teeth and oligodontia, 6.53%. Permanent teeth succeeding deciduous double teeth or oligodontia followed a normal pattern or lacked an incisor. It is hypothesized that a clustering of the trait at the site led to this high prevalence rate.

  116. PLANT REMAINS FROM THE WESTMORELAND-BARBER AND PITTMAN-ALDER SITES, MARION COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Kristen Johnson Gremillion and Richard A. Yarnell. XI(1):1-20. 1986. Plant remains from two sites in the eastern Tennessee River Valley provide a record of plant use from Late Archaic through Mississippian times. Evidence from Late Woodland deposits indicates that chenopod was harvested; maize was also grown, but on a small scale. Mississippian period samples illustrate the increased importance of maize and the introduction of the common bean. Evidence is offered for the initially minor role of maize as a crop which was incorporated into a gardening system based upon indigenous small grains. Comparisons are made with Late Woodland and Mississippian subsistence trends in other parts of eastern Tennessee.

  117. AN OUTLET FOR MALE AGGRESSION: THE SECRET FRATERNITY OF THE SOUTHERN COCKFIGHTER. Gary L. Parker. XI(1):21-28. 1986. The analysis of aggressive sporting events such as boxing, football, or hockey reveals much about the way in which people tend to channel their aggression through another person or persons. Cockfighting, an almost totally male oriented event, is examined here in terms of man's tendency to displace aggressive traits a step further -- from the human into the animal realm. Watching aggressive encounters of men and animals is a favorite pastime of many people in the United States. The fighting cock is seen as possessing many of the male characteristics, such as courage, tenacity, etc., that are deemed important to men in Western society. Since physical aggression between two humans is frowned upon in this country, the men of the cockfighting fraternity tend to displace this behavior from the human into the animal realm by the fighting of and betting on gamecocks. This article is an attempt to show that the sport of cockfighting should be viewed as only another type of sport concerned with ventilating unacceptable human physical aggression in the United States.

  118. THE JOHNSTON SITE: PRECURSOR TO PINSON MOUNDS? Mary L. Kwas and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XI(1):29-41. 1986. Recent archaeological research has demonstrated that large platform mounds were constructed in the Midsouth during the Middle Woodland period. Located only several kilometers northwest of the substantial Pinson mound group, the Johnston site includes two platform mounds and a small, conical mound that can be attributed to the Middle Woodland period on the basis of morphology and surface collections. The available data suggest that the Johnston site dates to the first century B.C.

  119. SECULAR CHANGES IN HEIGHT AMONG THREE EASTERN CHEROKEE POPULATIONS. Kenneth P. Cannon. XI(1):42-54. 1986. Comparison of three populations of Eastern Band Cherokee Indians representing three separate time periods -- the eighteenth century, the nineteenth century and the twentieth century -was conducted to determine if significant secular changes in height had occurred. The results indicate that a general trend of height increase was present, but statistical variations complicate the results.

  120. PLANT MEDICINE OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS, I, HEMATIC HERBS ("THE TONICS OF SPRING"). Charles W. Logsdon. XI(1):55-68. 1986. Hematic tonics have long been used as remedial applications in Southern Appalachian folk medicine. The herbal constituents in such "tonics" include a number of plants with bioactive ingredients. While the majority of these plants induce a dialysis effect through their diuretic properties, other properties are also deemed important in so-called "blood cleansing." A survey of ethnographic and pharmacologic literature notes some correlation between the stated purpose and the actual effect of hematic plant tonics. These results point toward a valid use of the "spring tonic" in folk medical practices.

  121. MIDDLE WOODLAND PANPIPES. Willard S. Bacon. XI(2):73-99. 1986. Panpipe data lists complied by Griffin et al. (1970), Young (1976), and Seeman (1979) are revised with data on very early and recent finds. The social status studies of burials associated with panpipes by Greber (1979) and Jefferies (1976) are re- examined. A review of available radiocarbon dates from panpipe producing sites suggests they were popular for about two hundred and fifty years. Hypotheses to explain the distribution of panpipes, and their role within the context of Hopewell Interaction Sphere activities, are presented.

  122. EURO-AMERICAN PETROGLYPHS ASSOCIATED WITH PINE TAR KILNS AND LYE LEACHING DEVICES IN KENTUCKY. Charles D. Hockensmith. XI(2)100-131. 1986. Pine tar extraction and lye leaching are Euro- American activities represented archaeologically by distinctive petroglyphs. These historic stone carvings were named circle and line petroglyphs because of their circular outline and associated linear grooves. The present study focuses on recorded specimens in Kentucky and has three main objectives. The first objective is to present an overview of pine tar and lye production which integrates data from historic accounts, oral history, place names, and historic photographs. A second objective is to describe all known circle and line petroglyphs in Kentucky in order to document their individual characteristics and to facilitate future research efforts. Finally, the circle and line petroglyphs in Kentucky are discussed as a whole, then compared with those in adjacent states.

  123. ZIMMERLE BRICK KILN. Samuel D. Smith and Charlotte A. Watrin. XI(2):132-144. 1986. Some categories of historic period archaeological sites continue to rank among those rarely excavated. This is only the second reported excavation of a brick kiln site in Tennessee, which must contain at least several thousand such sites. The Zimmerle Brick Kiln remains were exposed by the landowner, who then granted permission for an archaeological recording of what he had found. The structural remains are interpreted as probably representing a mid- nineteenth century home-use kiln. The find is important because of the paucity of information concerning such sites. A full understanding of the Zimmerle Kiln remains will not, however, be possible until a much larger body of comparative archaeological data has been collected.

  124. CARIES FREQUENCY AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE DALLAS SKELETAL REMAINS FROM TOQUA (40MR6), MONROE COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Maria O. Smith. XI(2):145-155. 1986. The frequency and location of carious lesions were examined on the dentition of the skeletal series from the Dallas Phase site of Toqua (40Mr6), located on the Little Tennessee River south of Knoxville. The subsistence strategy of the Dallas Phase was agriculture, and the cariogenic cultigen cultivated was maize. The results obtained from examining the caries experience of the Toqua sample are in agreement with results obtained from other agriculturalist samples. Specifically, the sample is characterized both by a dramatic increase in the frequency of caries and by a greater proportion of caries located on the tooth crown. These two features are in contrast with observations made on hunter/gatherer samples, including an Archaic sample from the Tennessee Valley area. Hunter/gatherers have a low incidence of caries and exhibit caries almost exclusively at the tooth cervix. Cervical caries are considered to be the consequence of advanced periodontal disease which, by denuding the cervix of bone, exposes the vulnerable cervix to demineralizing acids. Although proportionately only about half of all carious lesions in the Toqua sample, the large number of cervical caries suggests that periodontal disease was a significant contributing factor to the high incidence of caries for the sample.

  125. THE WHITE CAPS OF SEVIER COUNTY: ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. Joseph C. Lewelling. XI(2):156-172. 1986. The story of the Sevier County White Caps, a group of "moral vigilantes" operating in a mountainous region of East Tennessee in the 1890s, is related. The group is examined in historical and cultural contexts. Its' relationship with American vigilante traditions and with Appalachian attitudes toward law and order is discussed. In addition its' role as a conservative reaction to changing social and economic conditions is explored.

  126. LITHIC ARTIFACTS FROM THE ANDERSON SITE, 40WM9. Bruce Lindstrom and Kenneth W. Steverson. XII(1):1-50. 1987. This report represents a portion of the archaeological research resulting from excavations in 1980 and 1981 at the Anderson site in Williamson County, Tennessee. Archaeological fieldwork on this Middle Archaic shell midden was performed by the authors and Mr. John Dowd of Nashville, Tennessee. The stone artifacts from the Anderson site were carefully excavated and recorded, and they reveal an interesting sequence of Middle Archaic projectile points. This report describes that sequence and provides details on the other stone artifacts from the site.

  127. THE KITTRELL MOUND AND AN ASSESSMENT OF BURIAL MOUND CONSTRUCTION IN THE SOUTHERN RIDGE AND VALLEY PROVINCE. Jefferson Chapman. XII(1):51-73. 1987. The Kittrell Mound is the earliest dated (A.D. 485 and 655) mound in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of eastern Tennessee. Limited test excavations revealed a central burial pit, earthen mound, and limestone cap. Utilizing dated mound sites and an evolutionary sequence of pipe forms, a chronology of mound construction, from stone to earthen, is proposed for the area of the southern Ridge and Valley. Data suggest that burial mounds were constructed for a period of at least 1000 years.

  128. JUAN PARDO'S EXCURSION BEYOND CHIAHA. Charles Hudson. XII(1):74-87. 1987. In 1567/68 Juan Pardo led a contingent of about 150 men into the Tennessee Valley to the principal town of Chiaha, Olamico, located on Zimmerman's Island. From here Pardo and his men made a brief excursion to Chalahume and Satapo on the Little Tennessee River. Linguistic evidence indicates that these were Muskogean place names which later underwent regular sound changes when they were adopted by Cherokee speakers.

  129. INTEROBSERVER ERROR IN THE ANALYSIS OF NOMINAL ATTRIBUTE STATES: A CASE STUDY. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr. XII(1):88-95. 1987. Five groups of lithic artifacts were analyzed by three lithic analysts using a nominal variable analysis system. Interobserver agreement between the three analysts for each nominal variable was calculated in order to evaluate and correct for coding errors in the nominal system. Interobserver agreement on the raw material and working edge attributes states was high. However, agreement on technological stage or projectile point type was much lower, indicating the need for closer monitoring of these attributes.

  130. THE CROCKETT COUNTY LITHOGLYPH. Charles H. McNutt. XII(2):99-106. 1987. A figure etched into a small siltstone slab is described. The artifact was found in Crockett County, Tennessee, on a terrace above the South Fork of the Forked Deer River. Although it has no cultural associations, there is no reason whatsoever to doubt its authenticity. Comparisons include a combination of traits found on East Tennessee shell gorgets and a group of figures found in or near the Mississippi Valley. The figure described in interpreted as late Mississippian and relevant to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.

  131. THE USE OF NEWSPAPERS AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR ASSESSING LOCAL FOODWAYS. Patricia A. Quiggins. XII(2);107-114. 1987. In an attempt to determine the extent to which newspapers could be used as source material for describing local foodways, a series of newspapers from Campbell County, Tennessee, were surveyed. The period of the survey, from the turn of the century until the 1940s, was a time in which there were significant changes in food preparation and storage, transportation, and distribution, in part due to rural electrification brought about by construction of Norris Dam. The newspaper data were contrasted with data from household surveys undertaken by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was found that although household surveys are better sources of data on individual household consumption, newspapers can be valuable sources for information on how food is used in the community, what foods are potentially available, the social uses of food, and how certain foods are valued. Local newspaper can thus be a valuable data source for anthropologists.

  132. LYE LEACHING STONES IN VIRGINIA. Howard A MacCord, Sr. XII(2):115-118. 1987. Prompted by the recent report on grooved stones in Tennessee and Kentucky, the writer reports three such stones found or reported for the Piedmont of Virginia. One is in Albemarle County, one in Bedford County, and one in Prince Edward County. Others will no doubt come to light as additional surveys are done in the region. The three reported are almost certain to have been used in lye-leaching. Of the three, two were on isolated stones (too big and heavy to carry) and the third is cut into the surface of an outcrop of bedrock.

  133. THE HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF TWO RURAL BLACKSMITH SHOPS IN COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA. David S. Rotenstein. XII(2):119-127. 1987. In 1986 the Georgia Department of Transportation identified two rural blacksmith shops during an archaeological survey. Both shops possessed standing architecture and were investigated archaeologically. The analyses of the two shops indicated consistencies with other blacksmith shops recorded archaeologically, yet both shops possessed the evidence of automobile and tractor repair. These results, and interviews with the blacksmith who built, operated, and abandoned one of the shops provide an interesting perspective into the persistence of traditional culture in our mass-produced mechanized society.

  134. PATTERN OF ANTEMORTEM TOOTH LOSS BETWEEN SELECTED ABORIGINAL POPULATIONS OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AREA. Maria O. Smith. XII(2):128-138. 1987. Antemortem tooth loss is caused by a variety of factors. By far the most significant of these are caries, attrition and periodontal disease. Since the incidence of the aforementioned conditions varies demonstrably between subsistence strategies, it is often hypothesized that antemortem tooth loss also varies between populations of contrasting subsistence economies. However, for various reasons, simple or distinct patterns have not routinely emerged from previous studies. An in-depth examination of antemortem tooth loss is undertaken for a sample of hunter/gatherer and agriculturalist Tennessee Valley aboriginals. The data reveal that discernible differences in antemortem tooth loss between the two subsistence strategies are restricted to the molar teeth.

  135. PUBLIC EDUCATION IN ARCHAEOLOGY: AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS. Wayne D. Roberts. XII(2):139- 145. 1987. There is a pressing need for public education in archaeology. Because of the public's fascination with archaeology, it is crucial that we reach people at a young age, so that their interest and activities in the discipline can be channeled along productive lines. This article describes a successful program developed by the author for elementary students in Maryville, Tennessee.

  136. BURIAL PATTERNS FOR THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. John B. Broster. XIII(1):1-15. 1988. The destruction of Mississippian sites in the Nashville area has become a major concern for professional archaeologists in the region. Extremely important data are being lost daily. This study, based upon salvage excavations of twenty years ago, will hopefully draw attention to what needs to be done for further work. The data have been drawn from the Arnold Village and Ganier sites, and the analysis concentrates on information from the cemeteries from both sites. An attempt to use burial information to understand social and political organization is attempted with this preliminary study. It is hoped that this may stimulate additional investigations of this very important and disappearing cultural resource.

  137. "THEY'RE PEOPLE YOU CAN COUNT ON": A MISSOURI OZARKS WORK ASSOCIATION. Burton L. Purrington and Jane Owen. XIII(1):16-34. 1988. Social relations in rural American communities are based on a variety of factors including kinship, geographical proximity, mutual values, shared experiences, and friendship. These variables typify an informal, voluntary, all-male work group in a rural Ozarks neighborhood in southwest Missouri. For more than 50 years participants have socialized, exchanged work, and provided assistance and emotional support during crises in a network that offers not only economic advantages but the social and psychological benefits of friendship as well. However, as the area's agricultural economy declines, there are few, if any, young farmers left to carry the association into the next generation.

  138. MIDDLE WOODLAND MORTUARY PATTERNING AT HELENA CROSSING, ARKANSAS. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XIII(1):35-50. 1988. The Helena Crossing site has been cited by previous researchers as representing the product of a "stratified" Middle Woodland society. A formal analysis was undertaken to explicate the nature of sociopolitical organization of the society responsible for the earthworks at the site. The data are shown to be incompatible with notions of a chiefdom level society.

  139. ABORIGINAL SKELETONS AND PETROGLYPHS IN OFFICER CAVE, TENNESSEE. P. Willey, George Crothers, and Charles H. Faulkner. XIII(1):51-75. 1988. In 1987 two cavers discovered human skeletal remains and petroglyphs in Officer Cave, Tennessee. The petroglyphs are four human heads or faces scratched into the limestone wall of the cave. They are similar in style to glyphs and other art forms dating to the Mississippian period (AD 900-1500). The glyphs may or may not be associated with the skeletons. At least 15 skeletons (2 infants, 3 children, 1 adolescent, and 9 adults) are represented. Officer Cave is one of two caves now known in the Southeast to contain both aboriginal skeletons and petroglyphs.

  140. THE BAT CREEK INSCRIPTION: CHEROKEE OR HEBREW? J. Huston McCulloch. XIII(2):79-123. 1988. The Bat Creek inscription was found in 1889 in an undisturbed burial mound in eastern Tennessee. Its text was originally identified as Cherokee by Cyrus Thomas, and later as a Paleo-Hebrew Judean inscription of Roman era by Cyrus Gordon. Recently, Marshall McKusick has reconfirmed Thomas's original identification. In the present paper, the inscription is compared letter by letter to both Cherokee and to Paleo-Hebrew. Contrary to McKusick, the latter fits significantly better, even when we use an early version of Cherokee proposed by McKusick. When we invert the tablet from its purportedly Cherokee orientation to improve its Cherokee fit, Hebrew still fits substantially better. Cherokee fits only slightly better than English, either way up. Despite some disagreement over details, we basically concur with Gordon's choice of the first or perhaps second century A.D. as a paleographically and historically likely context for this contact. We show that the brass bracelets found with the inscription, if of ancient Mediterranean origin, are indicative of the narrow period 45 B.C. to 200 A.D. A new radiocarbon date is consistent with the first or second century A.D., and rules out a post-Columbian date for the burial.

  141. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT HIGH KNOB (40MO82), AN EARLY ARCHAIC SITE IN MORGAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Joseph L. Benthall and Mary Kathleen Manning. XIII(2):124-148. 1988. This paper presents the results of test excavations conducted at site 40Mo82, situated at the summit of High Knob in Morgan County, Tennessee. Testing of the site was prompted by threatened destruction by coal mining operations. Test units excavated at random on the site disclosed the presence of an Early Archaic Kirk Phase habitation floor with associated artifacts within a natural depression on the mountain summit. Purrington (1983) has proposed a model of relatively intensive use of uplands for the Early Archaic Kirk Phase in the Appalachian Summit area. Such a land use pattern has implications in terms of resource emphasis in the subsistence pattern. Still other problems to be considered involve site function, seasonality, and interaction of permanent residents with transient groups.

  142. A COMPARISON OF INFANT MORTALITY BETWEEN PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS AND EARLY AGRICULTURALISTS IN TENNESSEE: IMPLICATIONS FOR GENERAL HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS. Rick R. Richardson. XIII(2):149-162. 1988. Although there is general agreement among many researchers concerning the decline in health and nutrition which accompanied the shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture, few studies have directly addressed the differences in infant mortality between these two distinct cultural adaptational strategies. Data from the present study indicate that an increase in infant mortality through time also accompanied the corresponding changes in subsistence health and nutrition.

  143. A BLACK SKELETAL SAMPLE FROM A WASHINGTON, D.C. CEMETERY IN THE CONTEXT OF NINETEENTH CENTURY URBAN GROWTH. Robert W. Mann and James J. Krakker. XIV(1):1-32. 1989. During residential construction in Washington D.C. in 1959, the incomplete skeletons of 13 blacks and one white were recovered from an unmarked cemetery. Based on historical records and date of the site (ca. 1850-1900), the cemetery was in use during a time of rapid black migration to the city. It is likely that some of the older individuals once served as slaves. Pathological conditions include a very low incidence of dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and the complete absence of enamel hypoplasias. Also present is one case of scaphocephaly and a severely ulcerated tibia. This small group appears to have been in relatively good health in comparison with other black skeletal samples dating after 1900.

  144. CULTURAL CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN THE LATE WOODLAND AND MISSISSIPPIAN OCCUPATIONS OF THE MOUSE CREEKS SITE. Lynne P. Sullivan. XIV(1):33-63. 1989. In addition to the Mouse Creek phase component, WPA-era excavators investigated the remnants of a Hamilton burial mound and an Early Mississippian habitation area at the Mouse Creeks site. This study describes these earlier components, reinterprets the sequence of site occupation, and evaluates this sequence with a regional perspective. In situ development is suggested as well as subregional variation in Late Mississippian cultural development.

  145. A REVIEW OF THE TENNESSEE STATE CEMETERY LAW AND ITS EFFECT UPON ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RECOVERY AND SITE PRESERVATION. Michael C. Moore. XIV(1):64-76. 1989. This article presents past and present interpretations of the Tennessee state cemetery law. Recent legislation extends prehistoric graves the same legal protection as historic interments. Under the new law, such prevalent events as looting of Indian graves and haphazard destruction of prehistoric cemeteries are now illegal. Termination of land use as cemetery procedures are used to excavate and relocate known prehistoric graves prior to site destruction. One unfortunate consequence of this statute has been an excessive loss of valuable non-mortuary archaeological information.

  146. CROOKED CREEK POINTS, LONE TREE POINTS, AND A TERMINAL ARCHAIC-EARLY WOODLAND BURIAL FROM SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XIV(1):77-84. 1989. The Crooked Creek and Lone Tree projectile points have been identified as Terminal Archaic artifacts in the White River Valley of Indiana. This identification is based on the occurrence of Lone Tree points with a burial dating from this time period. [SEE REPRINT OF ARTICLE IN 1990].

  147. SEASONALITY ANALYSES OF CATFISH PECTORAL SPINES FROM A SOUTHEASTERN ARCHAEOLOGICAL FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE. Rob Hoffman. XIV(1):85-92. 1989. A technique for determining seasonality from catfish pectoral spines was applied to archaeological specimens from a Louisiana. Site. The results of the analysis were relatively successful in spite of the poor state of preservation in the overall assemblage, the site's southerly location, and the burned condition of the specimens. Analysis of catfish pectoral spines appears to offer a potentially valuable tool for the assessment of seasonality from certain types of sites in the Southeastern United States.

  148. THE QUAD SITE REVISITED: AN INTRODUCTION. Charles H. Faulkner. XIV(2):97-101. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT, THE FOLLOWING IS THE FIRST PARAGRAPH OF THE ARTICLE]. When David Hulse and Joe Wright contacted me in January, 1988 and inquired if the Tennessee Anthropological Association would be interested in publishing the personalized reminiscences of the senior author's research at the Quad and closely related sites on the Tennessee River in the vicinity of Decatur, Alabama, I was delighted. The Quad site is probably one of the best known Paleo-Indian sites in eastern North America, and any additional information about the work there would be enthusiastically received by our readers. Since the first article on the Quad site was published in the Tennessee Archaeologist (Soday 1954), and subsequent articles on this other near-by Paleo-Indian sites were published in that journal (Cambron 1955, 1956; Cambron and Hulse 1960), David and Joe wanted to continue the tradition and published their article in another Tennessee journal. Fortune continued to smile on the TAA when a few months later Charles Hubbert called and said he was submitting an article on a reinterpretation of the Paleo-Indian settlement pattern at the Quad site. Thus, it was decided to devote this entire issue to what Hulse and Wright call the "Pine Tree-Quad-Old Slough Complex", a series of early man sites in the Middle Tennessee River Valley.

  149. THE PINE TREE-QUAD-OLD SLOUGH COMPLEX. David C. Hulse and Joe L. Wright. XIV(2):102-147. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT].

  150. PALEO-INDIAN SETTLEMENT IN THE MIDDLE TENNESSEE VALLEY: RUMINATIONS FROM THE QUAD PALEO-INDIAN LOCALE. Charles M. Hubbert. XIV(2):148-164. 1989. [NO ABSTRACT, THE FOLLOWING ARE THE FIRST TWO PARAGRAPHS OF THE ARTICLE]. During the winter of 1986-1987, the Alabama State Museum acquired Special-Use Permit 05-AL-2-87 from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the purpose of doing archaeological site reconnaissance at the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is protected, by law, from all forms of collecting and other archaeological activity except those authorized under a Special-Use Permit. This gave me an opportunity to re-examine the Quad site, the Pine Tree site, and the Stone Pipe site. These are well-known Paleo-Indian sites located on the Tennessee River in the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. It was a rare opportunity to visit these famous sites, and to ponder the nature of the human events which occurred there. It seemed a good time for me to reappraise the evidence for Paleo-Indian in the area in an effort to make the distribution of sites understandable. This discussion is a synopsis of my thoughts on the matter.

  151. LOG HOUSES IN OVERTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. W. Calvin Dickinson. XV(1):1-12. 1990. The log houses in Overton County were constructed between the 1790s and the 1930s. They still exist in large numbers and generally follow the design characteristics of log houses in other areas of eastern Tennessee and the eastern United States. Overton County houses are different from those in many other areas, however, in that Overton County builders did not use pine timbers, and because most Overton County log houses were not originally single pen; most were double pen or dogtrot. They were usually story-and-a-half structures with gable- end chimneys, and they were generally built on a hill, oriented in a south-north direction. Some of these houses are now (1989) beyond repair, and some are being dismantled and reconstructed on other sites. Others are in the process of restoration because of the popularity of log houses at the present time.

  152. MELUNGEONS: COMPARISON OF GENE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS TO THOSE OF WORLDWIDE POPULATIONS. James L. Guthrie. XV(1):13-22. 1990. Worldwide gene frequency distributions in five major blood group systems were searched for similarity to those of the Melungeons. Calculations of the Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) identified populations from the Mediterranean region and from coastal Europe that do not differ significantly from the Melungeons. All others, including Amerindians, differ widely. Hybridization with Indians or with Blacks is not required for the data to fit Mediterranean populations. However, if it is assumed that the Melungeons are basically English, a considerable black component is required. These results are consistent with the Melungeon tradition that they are Portuguese, and are in substantial agreement with the findings of Pollitzer and Brown, whose 1969 data provided the basis for the present calculations.

  153. PREHISTORIC CAMPSITES IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS: THE INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AT HIGHER ELEVATIONS. Harry M. Piper and Jacquelyn G. Piper. XV(1):23-33. 1990. Data gathered at 123 prehistoric sites in the mountains of southwest Virginia, including data from 12 sites which were test excavated, provided information on the pattern of utilization of the higher elevations. Statistically tested results suggest that, in the rugged mountain terrain, the desirability of level land for campsites outweighed the fact that these locations were often distant from water. Other topographic site locational variables are examined including the importance of prehistoric pathways. A testable hypothesis for locating culturally stratified ridgetop sites is presented, together with examples from the test excavations. Should the suggested hypothesis prove reliable, it may increase the probability of locating culturally stratified upland sites with the very few test excavation units characteristic of initial-level CRM investigations.

  154. "MY GREAT GRANDMA WAS A CHEROKEE INDIAN PRINCESS:" ETHNIC FORGERY OR DARWINIAN REALITY. Michael H. Logan. XV(1):34-43. 1990. There is a remarkable thing about many Anglo-Americans here in the Southeast... a surprising number possess some long-lost Indian ancestor, notably a great grandmother who was typically not only Cherokee, but a princess as well. While many of these self-proclaimed ties with Native American peoples are valid, an equal number, or even more, are suspect. This paper examines the question of professed Indian ancestry from historical, social, and legal perspectives. Finally, by drawing upon a well-known hypothesis in evolutionary biology, the suggestion is made that there may be, in fact, a very good reason why so many maternal Indian ancestors lie hidden in the family closes of non-Indian America.

  155. CROOKED CREEK POINTS, LONE TREE POINTS, AND A TERMINAL ARCHAIC-EARLY WOODLAND BURIAL FROM SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XV(1):44-52. 1990. This paper discusses Crooked Creek points, Lone Tree points, and a burial from the Benjamin site in the White River Valley of southwestern Indiana. The point types are thought to be related and to be affiliated with the Terminal Archaic-Early Woodland period. Lone Tree points, related points, and bone and antler artifacts were found with the burial. The burial is informative in that it provides an associated group of artifacts pertaining to an occupation about which little is known. [The following editor's note was appended: This article, which appeared in the Spring 1989 issue of the journal is being reprinted due to errors that I made in setting up the figures which mis-identified the artifacts. I apologize for the error (C.H.F.)].

  156. A REVIEW OF THE RESULTS OF THE WATAUGA ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT. C. Clifford Boyd, Jr. XV(2):57-81. 1990. A summary of ceramic and lithic variability in the artifact collections from the Watauga Reservoir is presented, as well as a chronology for the reservoir area. Predominant Late Archaic and Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric period use of the reservoir area is indicated by the frequencies of temporally diagnostic artifacts in these collections. The attribute characteristics of artifacts suggest close prehistoric cultural relationships between Native American groups in upper East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and western North Carolina.

  157. THE ANDERSON SITE REVISITED: RESULTS OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS AT 40WM9, WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore, C. Parris Stripling, John T. Dowd, and Richard D. Taylor, Jr. XV(2):82-95. 1990. Investigations at the Anderson site were initiated in August of 1989 to assess the impacts of construction, looting, and land use changes upon the site prior to preparation of a National Register nomination. Despite some damage to the cultural deposits, the site was found to retain much of its integrity as an estimated 80% of the midden appears to be intact. The 1989 work affirms that the Anderson site will continue to play an important role in future studies of Middle Archaic groups in Middle Tennessee.

  158. BUTTONS AND BRICKS: SOME ARTIFACTUAL INFORMATION FROM SMITH COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Samuel D. Smith. XV(2):96-114. 1990. An artifact found on a farm in Smith County, Tennessee, is believed to be a mold for making pewter buttons. The kind of buttons that would have been produced using this mold suggests a similarity to eighteenth century examples from the northeastern United States. An examination of the site where this mold was found led to the discovery of a partially standing brick kiln that is a uniquely preserved example of brick making technology as it existed during the nineteenth century. Both of these artifacts have wide ranging implications for understanding two areas of past technology that are frequently manifested in the historic archaeological record.

  159. LITHIC ANALYSIS AND PALEO-INDIAN UTILIZATION OF THE TWELKEMEIER SITE (40HS173). John B. Broster and Mark R. Norton. XV(2):115-131. 1990. An analysis of lithic artifacts from the Twelkemeier site was undertaken by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology on this very important Paleo- Indian locality. A total of 116 tools was examined which probably date between 11,500 and 10,000 years B.P. Important information on tool types and lithic resource utilization was developed from this study.

  160. EPISODIC ZOOARCHAEOLOGY: INTRASITE VARIABILITY IN A FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE FROM REELFOOT LAKE, WEST TENNESSEE. Rob Hoffman. XV(2):132-143. 1990. Faunal assemblages from archaeological contexts are often presented as monothetic sets, an amalgamation of data from various locations within a single site. This allows for types of analysis that ultimately focus on very general patterns of resource exploitation at the settlement level. Analyses of intrasite variability in faunal assemblages are much less common. At the Mississippian site 40Lk3 at Reelfoot Lake, faunal remains recovered from spatially discrete pit features give a more mosaic view of the resource utilization at the site. Comparisons of these features suggest that seasonal and geographic variability in resource exploitation may produce contrasts that are as profound within sites as between sites. Consequently, researchers may want to incorporate the intrasite variability in faunal assemblages as a factor in generating multi-site comparative models.

  161. THE BAT CREEK STONE: JUDEANS IN TENNESSEE? Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And Mary L. Kwas. XVI(1):1-19. 1991. An inscribed stone reportedly excavated by the Smithsonian Institution from a burial mound in eastern Tennessee has been heralded by cult archaeologists as incontrovertible evidence of pre- Columbian Old World contacts. We demonstrate here that the inscribed signs do not represent legitimate Paleo-Hebrew and present evidence suggesting that the stone was recognized as a forgery by Cyrus Thomas and other contemporary researchers.

  162. A MIDDLE WOODLAND SOLSTICE ALIGNMENT AT OLD STONE FORT? James E. Pearsall and Clyde D. Malone. XVI(1):20-28. 1991. Evidence for celestial alignment of Middle Woodland structures to the sun and moon has been reported for both a hilltop enclosure (Essenpreis and Duszynski 1989) and for several geometric earthworks (Hively and Horn 1982, 1984) associated with the Ohio Hopewell. Research suggests that the Hopewell influence is evident not only in the earthwork construction methods used by local Middle Woodland populations at the Old Stone Fort in Coffee County, Tennessee, but also in the orientation of certain features of this earth work toward the rise of the summer solstice sun.

  163. THE FENWICK MINE COMPLEX: A LACK OF PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT. Lori Barfield. XVI(1):29-45. 1991. The Fenwick mines were operated by the Low Moor Company between 1900 and 1924 in Craig County, Virginia. A sizable town comprised of three ethnic groups: native white, Italian immigrants, and blacks, was associated with the mining complex. Very little physical or cultural evidence exists today as testimony to the presence of the mine or the town. Archival material and oral histories were used to reconstruct the mining activities and the mining town of Fenwick. Although Appalachian communities are frequently depicted as untouched by outside influences, the events surrounding the disappearance of the Fenwick Mine Camp are not believed to be idiosyncratic.

  164. CHILD SEX RATIOS AMONG THE MICMAC AND THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBES: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TRIVERS-WILLARD HYPOTHESIS. S. Diane Robinette. XVI(1):46-68. 1991. The Trivers-Willard hypothesis has been used extensively in recent years as an explanation for differential parental investment and gender-biased child mortality rates. This paper will assess the hypothesis using the Boas data for the Micmac of Maine and Eastern Canada and several tribes within the Pacific Northwest culture area. Socioeconomic and ethnic status will be examined to provide the foundations for the analysis of the child sex ratios at birth and subsequent mortality rates. Based on the results of this analysis, suggestions will be made as to why the Trivers-Willard hypothesis may hold true for certain groups and not for others. A discussion of possible overriding factors will also be provided.

  165. INVESTIGATIONS INTO EARLY PLANT DOMESTICATES AND FOOD PRODUCTION IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE: A STATUS REPORT. Gary D. Crites. XVI(1):69-87. 1991. Continuing paleoethnobotanical studies in Middle Tennessee are producing important new data. Cucurbita remains from circa 7,000-4,000 year old contexts are among the earliest known north of Mexico. Sumpweed (Iva annua) has now been recovered from third millennium B.C. context. Domesticated sumpweed and sunflower have been recovered from human fecal specimens dating to the third century B.C. Domesticated Chenopodium has been recovered from circa 625 B.C. temporal context in the Duck River Valley. The earliest known occurrence of maygrass has been pushed back approximately 2,300 years to circa 4,300 B.P., and a previously unidentified morphotype of knotweed (Polygonum) has been identified in an Early Mississippian sample from the region.

  166. EARLY KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE RIVER FERRIES. Tony Holmes. XVI(2):91-114. 1991. Knoxville has had at least 23 river ferries at eight different crossings of the Tennessee, Holston, and French Broad Rivers. The ferries played critical roles in the social and economic lives of the city between the 1790s and the 1930s. Nine of the ferries operated in the Forks of the Rivers area where the Holston and French Broad rivers form the headwaters of the Tennessee River. Fourteen additional ferries operated near the original "old" Knoxville. Several of the ferries were owned by some of Knoxville's earliest merchants, landowners, lawyers, and political leaders. Knoxville's "founder," James White, was a ferry owner. So was his son, Hugh Lawson White, a U.S. Senator and presidential candidate. Revolutionary War veteran Col. Francis A. Ramsey and his remarkable son, Dr. James G.M. Ramsey, were also both ferry owners. Although Knoxville has no ferries today, the city's heritage is richer for having so many in the past.

  167. PERSPECTIVES ON PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT IN THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU: THE VIEW FROM STATION CAMP. Robert A. Pace and Christopher T. Hays. XVI(2):115-149. 1991. Recent archaeological investigations at terrace sites on the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River have resulted in the recovery of lithic, ceramic, and contextual data useful in reconstructing aspects of late Archaic and Late Woodland settlement organization on the Cumberland Plateau of north-central Tennessee. The results of these investigations are discussed with reference to previous interpretations of Archaic and Woodland lithic subsystem organization which have been based primarily on data from upland and rockshelter locations (i.e. Ferguson 1988). Comparative analysis of lithic data from the Station Camp components supports the conclusion that characteristic patterns of assemblage variability can be broadly associated with Archaic and Woodland occupations, with major points of divergence suggesting change in lithic resource procurement and allocation practices. We cannot conclude, however, that these trends represent fundamental changes in overall patterns of settlement-subsistence behavior.

  168. SPLASH DAMS USED TO MOVE TIMBER IN EASTERN KENTUCKY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO THE RED RIVER GORGE. Fred E. Coy, Jr.; Tom Fuller, Larry G. Meadows, and Don Fig. XVI(2):150-179. 1991. The construction and use of "splash dams" for moving timber to the sawmills in the Red River drainage of Eastern Kentucky is described. The information on the construction being primarily derived from oral histories obtained from men who, early in the twentieth century, had been personally involved in the operations of these unique structures. Photographs of "splash dams" and photographs of a reconstructed model are included.

  169. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40LK3 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AT REELFOOT LAKE, TENNESSEE. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And Michael C. Moore. XVI(2):180-197. 1991. Archaeological investigations at mound site 40Lk3 under drought conditions discovered intact cultural features within an area submerged during the New Madrid earthquake of 1811-1812. Associated ceramic vessel forms suggest an occupation of post A.D. 1050 to 1150. The identification of intact prehistoric features explicitly illustrates that recently proposed water level changes pose a serious threat to archaeological sites below as well as above the current pool elevations.

  170. NEIGHBORHOOD REVITALIZATION AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION: POTENTIAL HOUSING FOR THE URBAN AND RURAL WORKING POOR. Deborah L. German. XVI(2):198-204. 1991. The focus of this article is the anthropologist's role in using historic structures as housing for the working poor. The usually-urban phenomenon of gentrification is discussed briefly. A review of government agencies and housing finance programs is included. Habitat for Humanity, a private, non-profit organization, is advanced as a potential model for involving the working poor in historic preservation and urban revitalization. Case examples include projects in the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of New York City; Charleston South Carolina; and Savannah, Georgia.

  171. PLANTATIONS ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE OLD SOUTH: MODELING A NEW APPROACH. Susan C. Andrews and Amy L. Young. XVII(1):1-12. 1992. Most North American plantation archaeology has focused on very wealthy antebellum plantations in the southeastern Coastal Plain. In addition, the ethnohistoric data used by historical archaeologists in these studies have been derived from late antebellum slave narratives published by abolitionists. As a result, historical archaeologists attempt to fit such things as settlement patterns, artifact patterns, and master-slave relations into models which may be inappropriate to regions other than the Coastal Plain and temporal periods other than late antebellum. A more regional and temporally sensitive approach to plantation archaeology is advocated, to allow for analysis of variability between plantations of different regions, sizes, and periods. Two plantations: Locus Grove in Jefferson County, Kentucky and Brabson Ferry in Sevier County, Tennessee are used in developing a model for the study of the plantations on the periphery of the Old South.

  172. 40HS200: THE NUCKOLLS EXTENSION SITE. Mark R. Norton and John B. Broster. XVII(1):13-32. 1992. An assemblage of Paleoindian projectile points and unifacial tools from a site on Kentucky Lake is analyzed. The material consists of 296 projectile points and 155 unifacial tools. A large number of these projectile points are basal fragments, suggesting a rearmament locality.

  173. ARCHAEOASTRONOMY IN TENNESSEE: THE MOONSHADOW SITE AND INDIAN SUNSHRINES OF THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU. Richard M. Mooney. XVII(1):33-53. 1992. A concise description of the discovery and evidence of archaeoastronomy sites in the mountains of Tennessee is presented. . The Moonshadow site, of possible Woodland association, is featured for the correlation of solar and lunar shadows with petroglyphs on a sandstone cliff wall at the time of the winter solstice sunset and southerly, lunar standstill periods. Another, much more extensive site, uses the shadow of a stick set into a drilled hole to mark the solar equinox, as a shadow falls onto the center of a distinct petroglyph.. While these features are first described here, explaining the alignments to assist the reader in analyzing and preserving other sites in the primary purpose of this report.

  174. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT 40DV35: A MULTI- COMPONENT SITE IN THE CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY, DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore, Emanuel Breitburg, John T. Dowd, C. Parris Stripling, and John B. Broster. XVII(1):54-78. 1992. Despite years of agricultural activity across 40Dv35, recent test excavations have determined that intact cultural features are still present. Primary habitation of the area is suggested to be Middle Archaic through Early Woodland based upon temporally sensitive artifacts recovered from the site. Cut marks on a humerus from one of the burial features provide the first direct evidence of the intentional disarticulation of an individual, for the purpose of interment, found in Middle Tennessee.

  175. SMITH COUNTY HISTORICAL HOMES. W. Calvin Dickinson. XVII(1):79-89. 1992. An architectural survey of Smith County, funded by the Tennessee Historical Commission and conducted by the Upper Cumberland Institute of Tennessee Technological University, found 1476 homes built before 1940. Most of these are plain, traditional structures of little or no architectural significance, but almost three hundred are of historical interest. Many are log structures built during the settlement period of the county's history. Most of the other houses are frame, and only 11 are brick. Some of the frame and brick structures are stylistically important, and some have architectural embellishment related to historical styles.

  176. CHOCTAW BALL RACKET MANUFACTURE. Mitchell R. Childress. XVII(2):93-119. 1992. Contemporary manufacture of Choctaw ballsticks (kapocha) is described. The observations and data are used to consider the activity in ethnoarchaeological perspective and an estimation of the time required to perform analogous prehistoric craft work is offered. A general consideration of the behavioral specifics and constraints associated with the work is provided and implications for the interpretation of Mississippian period lithic assemblages are discussed.

  177. SECOND REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS AT THE JOHNSON SITE, 40DV400: THE 1991 FIELD SEASON. John B. Broster and Gary L. Barker. XVII(2):120-130. 1992. Site 40Dv400 is a predominantly Early Archaic camp with evidence of Paleoindian occupation. Intact features and cultural deposits associated with the early prehistoric components are evidence in the stratigraphy of this river bank site. Although some information has been lost to previous erosion, archaeological excavations are warranted to recover important information concerning Early Archaic and Paleo-Indian occupations in the Middle Tennessee area.

  178. UPLAND ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CENTRAL BASIN: RESULTS OF LIMITED TEST EXCAVATIONS AT SITE 40DV256, DAVIDSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore, Mark R. Norton, and Kevin E. Smith. XVII(2):131-155. 1992. Tennessee Division of Archaeology personnel recorded intact midden deposits and cultural features on an upland site that overlooks the Cumberland River floodplain. Primary occupation of the site area was by Middle Woodland groups. Evidence for Early Archaic through transitional Late Archaic/Early Woodland components was also recovered. The site residents appear to have used this locale as a seasonal camp for hunting/butchering and tool maintenance activities.

  179. THE PREHISTORY OF THE OCOEE RIVER DRAINAGE AS EVIDENCED BY RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE AND LIMITED TESTING IN THE CHEROKEE NATIONAL FOREST. Donald M. Thieme and Glyn D. DuVall. XVII(2):156-180. 1992. Recent archaeological reconnaissance and limited testing in the Cherokee National Forest suggest that the prehistory of the Ocoee River drainage is similar to that reported for the Great Smoky Mountains and other portions of the Appalachian Summit region. In particular, nick point exposures of quartzite were found to have been exploited as prehistoric quarry areas. Results of testing one such quarry area with 1 x 1 meter test units are reported. A summary of temporally diagnostic artifacts recovered during reconnaissance of a proposed corridor for US 64 and proposed whitewater venues for the 1996 Olympics are also provided.

  180. TRADITION, TOURISM, AND THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRESERVATION AND PERPETUATION OF STORYTELLING: WHAT A STORY! Steven Jackson. XVII(2):181-190. 1992. The National Storytelling Festival will be conducting its twentieth annual session this fall in Jonesborough, Tennessee. In this relatively short span of time, the festival and the organization behind it, the National Association for the Preservation and Perpetuation of Storytelling, have created a worldwide revival of a folk tradition. This revival has brought about a tremendous amount of change upon the art of storytelling, its participants, and its recipients. That is the story to be told.

  181. THE BAT CREEK STONE: A REPLY TO MAINFORT AND KWAS. J. Huston McCulloch. XVIII(1):1-26. 1993. Mainfort and Kwas (Tennessee Anthropologist 1991), in a comment on my own 1988 TA article, criticize the Bat Creek stone and Cyrus Gordon's identification of the script on it as 1st or 2nd century A.D. Paleo-Hebrew on several grounds. They argue 1. That the inscription is not Paleo-Hebrew, 2. That the brass bracelets are in all probability modern trade items, 3. That the radiocarbon date I reported is unreliable, 4. That Cyrus Thomas denounced his own Mound Explorations report as containing fraudulent artifacts, including the Bat Creek Stone itself, and 5. That the Smithsonian agent who found the stone was particularly unreliable. The present reply refutes these arguments and adds new information concerning the patina of the letters and the precedents for the word divider.

  182. ARCHAEOLOGY AT OLD TOWN [40Wm2]: A MISSISSIPPIAN MOUND-VILLAGE CENTER IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Kevin E. Smith. XVIII(1):27-44. 1993. Tennessee Division of Archaeology personnel have salvaged archaeological data from a privately-owned Mississippian mound-village complex on the Harpeth River on two occasions over the past decade. The results of these limited salvage projects, along with a review of antiquarian observations of the site are presented and interpreted below. Primary occupation of the site area is interpreted as occurring during the Thruston phase (ca. A.D. 1250- 1450) based on diagnostic artifacts and a single radiocarbon date.

  183. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE PUCKETT SITE (40SW228): A PALEOINDIAN/EARLY ARCHAIC OCCUPATION ON THE CUMBERLAND RIVER, STEWART COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Mark R. Norton and John B. Broster. XVIII(1):45-58. 1993. This report presents the results of limited testing of an intact Paleoindian/Early Archaic midden in Middle Tennessee. Radiometric determinations for Dalton and Kirk Corner-Notched projectile points were obtained from this midden deposit.

  184. SOCIAL STATUS DIFFERENTIATION IN A MODERN TENNESSEE CEMETERY. Hugh B. Matternes. XVIII(1):59-82. 1993. Cemeteries are important American status indicators. Sections in a large urban cemetery in Knoxville, Tennessee are predominated by specific marker forms, suggesting that gravestones indicated different social affiliations. Relationships between kinship, social class, cemetery section and marker form indicated that family groups were associated with stone marker dominated sections and non-family burials were related to bronze marker sections. Near absence of lower class interments is evidence that social distance between lower and higher classes is expressed by burial segregation. The choice of a marker, section, or cemetery over others suggests that the social values attached to each of these are important aspects of the community structure.

  185. THE BAT CREEK FRAUD: A FINAL STATEMENT. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And Mary L. Kwas. XVIII(2):87-93. 1993. [NO ABSTRACT, THE FOLLOWING IS THE INTRODUCTION]. Debate over the so-called Bat Creek stone and related issues has monopolized a substantial amount of journal space that could have more profitably been used for scholarly articles in the field of anthropology, rather than fantasy. Unfortunately the Tennessee Anthropologist now has the dubious distinction of catapulting the stone into some degree of national notoriety (McCulloch 1993b). We regret imposing again upon the editor and readers, but the recent attack on us in this journal leave little choice. Since we would have preferred not to publish additional commentary on this matter, we will simply cut to the heart of the matter and refer readers to previous articles for background material (Mainfort and Kwas 1991; McCulloch 1988).

  186. THE BRICK CHURCH BUSINESS PARK SITE (40DV301): SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS AT A MISSISSIPPIAN HAMLET. Kevin E. Smith, C. Parris Stripling, and Michael C. Moore. XVIII(2):94-116. 1993. Limited salvage excavations at a small stone box cemetery and associated habitation area were conducted by a private archaeological consulting firm and the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. Under contract with a development firm, DuVall & Associates, Inc. Archaeologically removed human burials (pursuant to Tennessee Codes Annotated [46-4-101-104 et. Seq.]). During the course of stripping overburden to locate burials, the remains of a burned Mississippian structure were exposed. Subsequently, Parris Stripling of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology was able to partially investigate the structure prior to its destruction. The results of these limited investigations are presented, with analysis and interpretations of the placement of hamlets and small villages within the local settlement hierarchy.

  187. TURPENTINE: A INTRIGUING ELEMENT OF SOUTHERN FOLK MEDICINE. Nancy C. Peacock. XVIII(2):117-126. 1993. Turpentine has long been part of the American folk medical repertoire. Everything from the common cold to calluses seems to have a home remedy based on the use of turpentine. This paper addresses the history of the turpentine industry, possible origins of turpentine cures and turpentine as medicine.

  188. THE USE OF THE OPENING INTERROGATIVE IN BELIZE. Hector N. Qirko. XVIII(2):127-130. 1993. The apparent reflex use of opening interrogatives in conversation in Belmopan, Belize is discussed as potentially a means through which inhabitants of multilingual societies obtain information regarding language-use hierarchies, social status, and ethnic affiliation.

  189. A PROBABLE CASE OF DECAPITATION AT THE LATE ARCHAIC ROBINSON SITE (40SM4), SMITH COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Maria O. Smith. XVIII(2):131-142. 1993. Particular forms of perimortem violent trauma have been associated with warfare. These data have been principally derived from Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric sites. Recent examination of Archaic Period sites from the Western Tennessee Valley has revealed that these perimortem violent trauma have a considerable antiquity. An individual from the Late Archaic Robinson Site, located in Middle Tennessee in the Cordell Hull Reservoir, exhibits a series of cutmarks reflective of warfare related trophy taking. This case is of interest because it provides important baseline information concerning the spatial distribution of forearm trophy taking at this early archaeological horizon and it appears to be the earliest example of decapitation trophy taking in Tennessee, if not the Southeast.

  190. NAILING DOWN THE PATTERN. Amy Lambeck Young. XIX(1):1-21. 1994. Three methods are developed for interpreting nail assemblages from 19th- and 20th- century contexts. All methods are based on ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology, and direct observations of nails operating in their systemic contexts. The first method discriminates between a nail assemblage from an ephemeral structure site and an assemblage from a disposal site. The second enables the archaeologist to identify whether a building was log, timber frame, or balloon frame construction. The third method is designed to discriminate between a nail assemblage in a structure torn down to recycle the lumber or structures dismantled and materials discarded. These methods are used to interpret nails from two East Tennessee archaeological sites. It is concluded that such middle-range research is an effective aid for interpreting site formation processes on historic sites.

  191. THINGS THAT GO "BUMP" IN THE NIGHT. Susan R. Coleman. XIX(1):22-27. 1994. Superstitions are prevalent in both Irish and Appalachian societies. People use these superstitions to try to predict everything from what the weather will be like to the death of a loved one. This gives them the feeling that perhaps nature is not completely unpredictable, and they have time to prepare for what is to come. Both Irish and Appalachian societies believe in omens that predict the death of someone close. The Irish believe in banshees that wail before a death, lights that appear, foxes that gather around the home of one who is about to die, and other signs of death. In the Appalachian mountains, animals that appear to act strangely before a death, odd cries, and globes of light are some of the omens in which people believe. These omens of death in both the Irish and Appalachian cultures are analogous in that they mistake oddities in nature for signs foretelling death. Such can be explained because of the number of Irish and Scotch-Irish immigrants into the Appalachian region. They brought with them their beliefs, which they gradually adapted to reflect the influences of their new environment and the traditions of other peoples, such as the Germans, who were immigrating into the same areas.

  192. EXPERIMENTAL PINE TAR MANUFACTURE AT CUMBERLAND FALLS STATE PARK, KENTUCKY. Charles D. Hockensmith. XIX(1):28-45. 1994. The manufacture of pine tar was an important historic industry in the southeastern United States. While much has been written about the large commercial pine tar kilns, very little has been published on the small kilns that utilized stone bases. The experimental study reported in this paper provides several details about this process that were not previously recorded. Consequently, this paper demonstrates how experimental studies can aid our understanding of poorly documented small scale industries such as pine tar manufacture.

  193. A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF MISSISSIPPIAN LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AT WICKLIFFE MOUNDS (15BA4), BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY. Philip J. Carr and Brad Koldehoff. XIX(1):46-65. 1994. Recent investigations at the Wickliffe site (15Ba4), a Mississippian town and mound complex near the juncture of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, have defined three phases: Early (AD 1100-1200), Middle (AD 1200-1250), and Late (AD 1250-1350). Technological and raw material analyses of the chipped stone artifacts recovered from the 1984 excavations at Mound A have determined that lithic procurement and tool production strategies remained relatively constant. Both local and nonlocal raw materials were exploited: local chert cobbles were worked into arrow points and flake tools on-site, while most nonlocal cherts (e.g. Mill Creek and Dover) were arriving as finished tools, usually as large bifaces. This pattern is believed to be evidence of an exchange network that circulated goods produced by specialists. Further evaluation of this interpretation and a full description of the organization of Mississippian chipped stone technology at Wickliffe are in progress.

  194. CULTURE, HONOR AND VIOLENCE IN APPALACHIA. John H. Hamer. XIX(1):66-87. 1994. This paper is concerned with how honor articulates with property and kinship in the historic development of a culture of "personalized individualism" in Appalachia. When honor is threatened, violence may result, though not leading to what has classically been defined as feud, but to vengeance killings which have occasionally escalated into small scale wars. Historical examples of the process are drawn largely from Tennessee.

  195. POTASH FROM PYRAMIDS: RECONSTRUCTING DEGRAFFENREID [40WM4] -- A MISSISSIPPIAN MOUND-VILLAGE COMPLEX IN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Kevin E. Smith. XIX(2):91-113. 1994. While cataloguing miscellaneous collections curated by the Tennesse Division of Archaeology, the author discovered two bags of artifacts salvaged by avocational archaeologists from the DeGraffenreid site during its destruction in the late 1960s. Although the site was virtually destroyed through potash mining, interviews of local collectors and review of antiquarian observations yielded sufficient information to provide a reconstruction of the site layout and a suggested chronological placement. The results of these investigations are summarized and interpreted below.

  196. A LITHIC BASED PREHISTORIC CULTURAL CHRONOLOGY OF THE UPPER CUMBERLAND PLATEAU. Tom Des Jean and Joseph L. Benthall. XIX(2):114-147. 1994. Southeastern archaeological research throughout the twentieth century has focused on the prehistoric resources of the broad river valleys to the exclusion of other areas. One of these areas is the Cumberland Plateau which is assumed to possess little prehistoric interest since there are few recorded sites. This paper attempts to nullify that misconception and establish that there is a tremendous archaeological resource here, especially in the rockshelters of the Upper Cumberland Plateau. The following lithic-based chronology illustrates that practically every identified prehistoric culture recognized in the upper Mid-South was present here.

  197. WEST TENNESSEE CERAMIC TYPOLOGY, PART I: TCHULA AND MIDDLE WOODLAND PERIODS. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. And J. Shawn Chapman. XIX(2):148-179. 1994. Numerous problems attend attempts at classifying ceramics of the Tchula and Middle Woodland periods in western Tennessee. We present here the first explicit type and type-variety nomenclature for such ceramics. Comments on the efforts of earlier researchers are also offered.

  198. AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROJECT AT SWAN'S LANDING, A BURIED EARLY ARCHAIC SITE IN HARRISON COUNTY, INDIANA. Curtis H. Tomak. XIX(2):180-191. 1994. Swan's Landing is a large, buried archaeological site which is exposed in the bank of the Ohio River. Features, charcoal, bone, and a great quantity of chert debris are present, and a very large number of artifacts including points, bifaces, unifaces, and drills have been recovered. Almost all of the points are like Charleston Corner Notched and Pine Tree Corner Notched points for which radiocarbon dates from elsewhere indicate an age of approximately 9000 years. Swan's Landing appears to be a virtually single component Early Archaic site which has the potential to make very significant contributions to our knowledge of Early Archaic people in the Ohio Valley.

  199. INVESTIGATION OF THE FOLK ILLNESS Empacho AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH ENDOPARASITIC INFECTION. Charles T. Faulkner, Benito Borrego-Garcia, Michael H. Logan, and Sharon Patton. XIX(2):192-201. 1994. Empacho is a Hispanic folk illness attributed to having food or saliva stuck in one's stomach or intestinal tract. Researchers have suggests that it might be a useful screening label for diagnosing clinical gastrointestinal illness in Hispanic populations. However, few studies have attempted to isolate and identify biological causes of the illness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association of empacho with parasitic infection because many of the symptoms produced by empacho are similar to illness resulting from endoparasites like Giardia lambdia and Ascaris lumbricoides. Fecal samples from 123 children were analyzed for diagnostic products of endoparasitic protozoa and helminths. Structured interviews from 17 households were used to obtain information on the folk etiology and occurrence of empacho in the households, and knowledge of parasitic acquisition, treatment, and prevention. These data were used to address the hypothesis that households with a high frequency of empacho were associated with high rates of endoparasitic infection. The results of this limited investigation indicate that empacho and gastrointestinal parasitism can be viewed as etiologically distinct illnesses despite the similarity of their symptoms. However, additional research along these lines is needed to unequivocally clarify the relationship between empacho and other biomedical correlates of clinical gastrointestinal illness.

  200. BORROW PITS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES: CASE STUDIES AND A REPORT ON THE ARMES SITE (40DV444). Kevin E. Smith and Michael C. Moore. XX(1):1-17. 1995. Borrow pits -- sites used for the extraction of topsoil, clay, sand, rock, and similar materials -- represent a serious threat to archaeological sites in Tennessee. While regulated on state and federal projects, similarly substantial quantities of these materials are removed at the county, municipal, and private level with no archaeological oversight. The nature of this threat is demonstrated through a series of case studies, including the reporting of materials recovered from a borrow site by an avocational archaeologist, and several potential avenues to pursue solutions to this problem are proposed.

  201. SOCIAL RELATIONS AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES IN UNDERGROUND COAL MINES OF NORTHERN APPALACHIA. Jack H. Ray and R. Glenn Ray. XX(1):18-34. 1995. The environment of an underground coal mine provides a unique workplace where attitudes and interpersonal relationships vary from camaraderie to antagonism. This essay describes a wide range of behaviors experienced by Glenn Ray as a coal miner in northern Appalachia in the 1970s and early 1980s. Firsthand accounts detailing orientation of new miners, pranks played on fellow miners, established customs, experiences of women miners, and high-risk behaviors are discussed. Recounted from experiences as both union members and company supervisor, this article provides a closer look at worker-supervisor relations and interactions in a fast-disappearing underground subculture.

  202. THE TWIN MOUNDS (15Ba2) SURFACE COLLECTION LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE: INTRASITE AND REGIONAL INTERPRETATIONS. Jarrod Burks. XX(1):35-57. 1995. This paper presents an analysis of the lithic artifacts from a 1992 surface collection at the Twin Mounds site (15Ba2) in Ballard County, Kentucky. Chert and artifact types are identified for all lithic items with discussions of these type categories. Comparisons are made between the frequencies of the different chert and artifact types and potential explanations for their disparities are briefly explored. Finally, the Twin Mounds surface collection is equated with the results of previous Twin Mounds excavations, which uncovered a number of Mississippian structures, and then compared with a variety of other Mississippian sites in the western Kentucky region.

  203. TEXTILE IMPRESSED CERAMICS FROM THE OLIVER SITE, OBION COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Jamie C. Brandon and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XX(1):58-73. 1995. The Oliver site (40Ob161) is an upland Emergent Mississippian site dating between approximately A.D 900 and A.D. 1000. In this paper, we describe the textile structures represented on the sample of Kimmswick Fabric Impressed sherds from the site. Comparisons with other textile impressed ceramic assemblages in the Midsouth are also presented.

  204. HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE PUBLIC: TIPS FOR ARCHAEOLOGISTS DOING PUBLIC EDUCATION. Mary L. Kwas. XX(1):74- 78. 1995. Communicating with the public requires a different style from communicating with other professional archaeologists. The following article offers tips for effective public presentations.

  205. PINE TAR KILNS AND THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY OF EASTERN KENTUCKY. Charles D. Hockensmith and Cecil R. Ison. XX(2):83-95. 1995. Recent archaeological surveys have demonstrated that Kentucky's naval stores industry was more significant and more widespread than previously thought. This paper describes the archaeological remains associated with historic pine tar kilns which characterize the naval stores industry in Eastern Kentucky. These large earthen kilns were used for the commercial production of pine tar in the Cumberland Plateau region of Kentucky from the late 1700s to the early 20th century. The paper also discusses the manufacturing process and various uses of pine tar. Brief comparisons are made between the Kentucky kilns and those in other states.

  206. THE OLD STONE FORT SITE: A HISTORY OF THE EARLY DESCRIPTIONS AND MAPS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO MODERN RESEARCH. C. Ward Weems. XX(2):96-125. 1995. This paper appraises the extant historical documents and maps relevant to an understanding of the Woodland cutlural tradition hilltop enclosure called the Old Stone Fort (40Cf1). Maps, documents, and previous research are examined in which insights may be found into the features of the site. In particular, an opening in the back wall and a long ditch parallel to this back wall are examined as possible prehistoric features deserving further research and possible excavation. New maps and documents, apparently the earliest in each category, are introduced to the literature concerning the Old Stone Fort.

  207. WALTON ROAD. W. Calvin Dickinson. XX(2):126-137. 1995. Walton Road, completed in 1801, was the superhighway connecting East Tennessee and Middle Tennessee for one hundred years. Descriptions of this road can be found in the literature of that century, and evidence of the old right-of-way can be found on the ground in numerous locations.

  208. EXPLORING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF THE RELIGIOUS CAMP MEETING MOVEMENT. Betty J. Duggan. XX(2):138-161. 1995. Beginning in 1800 the religious camp meeting became a popular activity on the Western frontier, one which soon spread throughout the East. Many scholars and theologians have written about these multi-day events, yet camp grounds where they occurred remain unexplored by archaeologists. This articles expands upon an historic significance assessment of an early camp meeting site (40Gl66) in Giles County, Tennessee, placing it within the broader literature. Finally, it suggests potential contributions and problems that excavations as such sites offer regarding symbolic, social, and economic uses of space and material culture in a ritual context.

  209. AN EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION ON THE HARPETH RIVER, CHEATHAM COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Andrew P. Bradbury and Henry S. McKelway. XXI(1):1-30. 1996. Archaeological excavations at 40Ch162 documented the presence of prehistoric cultural material occurring within buried Holocene age alluvial deposits. The majority of recovered material was lithic debris and modified lithic implements. A moderate density of cultural material was contained within strata dating to the early Holocene. Excavation strategies were developed to maximize the recovery of cultural materials from these deposits while maintaining contextual control. Analysis of the recovered artifacts focused on the examination of variation within and between the various artifact classes recovered. Excavations and analysis furnished information on a series of temporary, limited occupations at this location.

  210. OSTEOLOGICAL CONTEXT AND BIOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION: A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF MOUND C'S CEMETERY, WICKLIFFE MOUND GROUP, KENTUCKY. Hugh B. Matternes. XXI(1):31-43. 1996. THe interpretation that the MOund C cemetery, from the Wickliffe Mound Group (15BA4), was used principally during the final phases of the site's occupation (circa. A.D. 1325), has brought about questions of the cemetery's relationship with Wickliffe's other mortuary deposits. Unfortunately, historic exhibition of many of the graves has compromised much of the cemetery's original context and greatly reduced what would be learned about them. Can any of its data be trusted and is there enough information present to draw any valid conclusions? A sample of 55 graves was examined using a conservative context validation method. Results indicated that while some critical data have been lost, not all information has been compromised.

  211. A HOME IN THE HEARTLAND: NOTES OF THE DARKE COUNTY MESTIZOS ALONG THE OHIO-INDIANA BORDER. Donald B. Ball. XXI(1):44-66. 1996. The Darke County Mestizos, an enclave of White-Indian-Negro ancestry and one of approximately 200 identified Indian remnant groups in the eatern United States, established a particularly stable and long-lived community on the Ohio-Indiana stateline in 1822. Despite their Native American ties, this agriculturally based settlement has emicly and eticly long been identified and perceived as "colored," although in terms of both physical appearance and life style they are generally indistinguishable from the surrounding population. A review of available literature in concert with limited recent field work has facilitated preliminary study of this group's diversified origins, it's history, social organization, and built-environment, and mechanisms for the control of excess population. Further study of this community may contribute to anthropological inquiry into the nature of group identity while historically oriented research might serve to better illuminate a little-known chapter in the African-American experience. Specific recommendations for future research are offered.

  212. IDENTIFYING BERDACHE MATERIAL CULTURE: AN ANTHROPOMETRIC AND STATISTICAL APPROACH. Michael H. Logan and Douglas A. Schmittou. XXI(1):67-78. 1996. Identifying material culture used by berdache, males who pursued the role of women, is a relevant, yet poorly developed, facet of American Indian art history. However, anthropometric and statistical data on adult stature provide a viable means of assessing the probability that certian specimens, notably dresses, were once the property of berdache males. This methodological approach was applied to a Lakota (Sioux) dress recently on display at the Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This size of this specimen, as well as its elaborate artistic embellishment, suggest that it was worn on formal occasions in the daily life of a Lakota berdache. Hopefully, other researchers will find this methodology useful in analyzing museum and private collections nationwide.

  213. ANTIQUARIANS' PERSPECTIVES ON PINSON MOUNDS. Mary L. Kwas. XXI(2):83-123. 1996. References to Pinson Mounds were abundant in early publications by travelers and antiquarians. Many of these works are now obscure. This compilation of these accounts provides a thorough and interesting background to the history of the site.

  214. THE SVEHLA EFFIGY ELBOW PIPE AND SPUD: MISSISSIPPIAN SACRA FROM THE SUTTER COLLECTION. Thomas E. Emerson. XXI(2):124-131. 1996. This article describes an effigy pipe and a long-stemmed spud from a late-nineteenth American Bottom collection as examples of Middle Mississippian sacra and discusses the insights they can provide into understanding Cahokian iconography and symbolism.

  215. THE TOBACCO-STICK QUAIL TRAP: A LIVE TRAP OF THE UPLAND SOUTH. Gary S. Foster. XXI(2):132-138. 1996. Traditional animal trapping, as an aspect of folk economies, included kill, maim, and live traps. Live traps, designed to hold animals unharmed until retrieved, were used for a variety of reasons, and to trap all manner of fish, fowl, and mammal species. The tobacco-stick quail trap, as one particular live-trap type, through its construction and use, illustrates folk ethics of conservation and environmental awareness.

  216. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF AFRICAN-STYLE RITUAL AND HEALING PRACTICES IN THE UPLAND SOUTH. Amy L. Young. XXI(2):139-155. 1996. There is increasing evidence from the archaeological record of strong continuity between ritual practices by slaves in the American South and West and Central African ritual. Artifacts recovered from African-American contexts at Locust Grove, a plantation in the Upland South, also suggest that African-style healing and ritual might have been practiced there. The material from Locust Grove is compared with ethnographic and historical data from West and Central Africa, and with archaeological data from other regions of the South, specifically the Carolina lowcountry. It is suggested that African ritual traditions first coalesced in the coastal region of South Carolina and Georgia, and through interstate slave trade eventually diffused to the Upland South.

  217. THE MAIN SITE: RADIOCARBON AND CULTURAL CHRONOLOGY. Steven D. Creasman, Jonathan P. Kerr, E. Arthur Bettis, and Albert M. Pecora. XXI(2):156-180. 1996. In the spring of 1992, Cultural Resource Analysis, Inc., conducted extensive data recovery excavations at the Main site (15BL35) located on the south bank of the Cumberland River near the town of Pineville in Bell County, Kentucky. The investigations included the excavation of three large block areas, each measuring 100 square m or more in area. These excavations identified and sampled buried Archaic and Woodland age occupation horizons. The excavations resulted in the documentation of over 180 cultural features, the recovery of over 700 lithic tools, 18,000 pieces of debitage, 380 ceramic sherds and thousands of charred plant remains (primarily nutshell and wood charcoal). Thirty radiocarbon dates, ranging from ca. 9150-2320 B.P. (uncorrected), serve to date the occupations. A large sample of projectile points and ceramic sherds allow the placement of the various occupations within a cultural context. This paper provides a discussion of the radiocarbon and cultural chronology of the Main site.

  218. AFRICAN ARCHITECTURAL TRANSFERENCE TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA LOW COUNTRY, 1700-1880. Fritz Hamer and Michael Trinkley. XXII(1):1-34. 1997. There is growing historical and archaeological evidence that African style housing was an integral part of slave communities on plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry. Besides the "shotgun" house, other African house forms were built in North America before desdendants of African slaves became acculturated to western construction techniques. The rarity of historical and archaeological evidence of these structures can be attributed to the culture bias of early white observers and the poor preservation of these impermanent structures in the archaeological record.

  219. THE CULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL PATTERNING OF INFLUENZA. Mary J. Benedix. XXII(1):35-51. 1997. Influenza is a viral infection that has made a deadly mark on the history of both Tennessee and the world. From influenza's origin in animals to its inevtiable co-evolution among humans after domestication, this disease has progressed along an erratic path. By constructing a cultural and biological model for how influenza evolves, spreads, subsides, and reappears, researchers can attempt to control the disease through preventive measures such as immunization. This paper explores the distinct patterns of influenza through a holistic examination of the history, societal effects, and consequences that are representative of influenza's unpredictable reputation.

  220. POLITICS AND PREHISTORY: THE MAKING OF THE PINSON MOUNDS STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AREA. Mary L. Kwaas. XXII(1):52-71. 1997. This paper examines the history of the development of the archaeological site of Pinson Mounds into a state archaeological park. The story provides an interesting insight into the workings of politics and the involvement of local community in the process of park development. Also highlighted are the contributions of noted archaeologists of the day.

  221. PUTATIVE POVERTY POINT PHASES IN WESTERN TENNESSEE: A REAPPRAISAL. Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. XXII(1):72-91. 1997. Baked clay objects constitute a relatively common artifact class at archaeological sites in western Tennessee. Very few specimens have been recovered from excavated contexts in the study area. Some researchers claim that virtually all baked clay objects in the study area date to the Poverty Point period and that variations in the areal distributions of certain baked clay object stylistic attributes indicate the presence of as many as ten identifiable Poverty Point phases in western Tennessee. Drawing on a data base of over 260 sites that have produced artifacts of alleged Poverty Point age, previous interpretations of Poverty Point in the study area are systematically assessed. The results suggest that most previous interpretations are seriously flawed.

  222. THE MAN IN THE CAST IRON COFFIN: A TALE OF HISTORIC AND FORENSIC INVESTIGATION. Stephen T. Rogers, Douglas W. Owsley, Robert W. Mann, and Shelly Foote. XXII(2):95-120. 1997. A Euro-American burial in a cast iron coffin was exhumed in southeast Nashville during a road improvement project. A multi-disciplinary approach utilizing historic, forensic, and clothing analysis was used to accurately identify the individual buried in this coffin. These remains also offered a unique opportunity to study bone pathology, burial customs, and mortuary practices during the late nineteenth century.

  223. A STUDY OF FRANKFORT BRICKS AND BRICKMAKING, FRANKLIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY. Charles D. Hockensmith. XXII(2):121-176. 1997. During Phase III excavations at the Kentucky History Center project area, a sample of the bricks were studied. A total of 189 bricks was collected from several archaeological contexts and from five structures demolished after the excavations. This study has two major focuses. First archival research was conducted which permitted a brief sketch of brick making in Frankfort between 1814 and 1914. Second, detailed analysis was conducted on recovered bricks which provided systematic data on brick sizes and manufacturing techniques. Since most bricks recovered did not have brand names, it was not possible to attribute any specimens to Frankfort companies. However, it was possible to suggest possible manufactures for certain time spans. Only a few bricks with brand names could be traced to particular companies. This study also discusses the types of bricks from the project area, how they were made, and their origin when known. The report concludes with a summary of Frankfort brick making, general comments, and suggestions for future research.

  224. UPLAND MIDDLE ARCHAIC ADAPTATION IN TENNESSEE'S WESTERN HIGHLAND RIM, A VIEW FROM THE AUSTIN CAVE SITE (40RB82). Gary Barker. XXII(2):177-224. 1997. This paper discusses the results of limited excavation of a stratified open habitation midden deposit at the Austin Cave site. Data compiled from the study provide new information on the prehistoric chronology of the Western Highland Rim, developments in lithic technology, and the nature of animal resource and environmental use during the Middle Holocene.

  225. NITER MINING IN THE AREA OF THE BIG SOUTH FORK OF THE CUMBERLAND RIVER. Tom Des Jean. XXII(2):225-239. 1997. Over the last few years numerous articles have been written about mining for saltpeter. Much of this activity occurred in natural limestone caves during the first sixty years of the 19th century. Niter mining also occurred on the Upper Cumberland Plateau during this time and has been documented in and around Big South Fork of the Cumberland River. Potassium nitrate occurs in the sandstone rock here, and impacts to rockshelters and the presence of niter mining artifacts help to identify sites associated with this industry.

  226. PALEO-INDIAN AND ARCHAIC SETTLEMENT AT KENTUCKY LAKE. Jonathan P. Kerr and Andrew P. Bradbury. XXIII(1-2):1-20. 1998. In this paper, we summarize Paleo-Indian and Archaic settlement in the Kentucky Lake area of Tennessee and Kentucky. The results of a 20,000-acre archaeological survey of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) lands at Kentucky Lake are used as a first attempt at characterizing settlement of these periods in the Western Valley. The settlement of this area, from its earliest evidence of habitation to the period when ceramics were making their appearance, exhibited increased populations and movement of people. A shifting pattern of dispersing and coalescing settlements is evident in the form of changes int he number and sizes of settlement. Their distribution on the landscape points towards differential use of the valley through time.

  227. CASE METHOD OF TEACHING IN ARCHAEOLOGY: FOUR EXAMPLE CASES. Kit W. Wesler. XXIII(1-2):21-28. 1998. The case teaching method presents students with real or true-to-life problems or dilemmas on which they must focus their developing analytical skills. Well-prepared cases stimulate thoughtful discussion in class and in written assignments. This paper presents four cases that have been developed for upper level courses in archaeology.

  228. NOTES ON TERMINAL ARCHAIC/POVERTY POINT CULTURE AND ITS TRANSITION INTO WOODLAND IN WESTERN TENNESSEE (A Response to Mainfort 1997). Gerald P. Smith. XXIII(1-2):29-35. 1998. Recent work by Mainfort (especially Mainfort 1997) includes fundamental distortions of the nature of the Terminal Archaic complexes defined for the area. Necessary clarifications include noting that the geographic extent of those complexes falls within portions of drainages, not within counties whose boundaries are formed by those drainages as erroneously alledged byhim. When contrasts are examined between complex areas as defined, they are clear-cut and often dramatic. His dendrogram partially to the contrary is based on selected, undefined data which permits no basis for evaluation of its validity. Comparison of aspects of the local baked clay object complexes with the ceramic complexes of neighboring and subsequent Early Woodland ceramic complexes indicates that the issue of continuity of baked clay object usage into the ceramic period must be solved on a local complex by complex basis rather than blanket designation of some single form or another as the universal Woodland period baked clay object form.

  229. THE SPENCER COLLECTION: ANALYSIS OF A PRIVATE LITHIC COLLECTION FROM DAVIESS COUNTY, KENTUCKY. Patrick J. Lewis. XXIII(1-2):37-54. 1998. The Spencer collection is a private lithic colleciton from Daviess County, Kentucky. The collection contains a wide variety of tool types and represents several different cultural periods. The collection contains primarily chipped stone artifacts, the majority of which are projectile points. While the collection lacks reliable provenience, a basic typological examination provides information on the morphology and type of each artifact. From this data, cultural information can be gained.

  230. AN UPDATED REVIEW OF THE TENNESSEE STATE CEMETERY LAW AND OTHER STATUTES REGARDING PREHISTORIC BURIAL REMOVAL. Michael C. Moore. XXIII(1-2:55-64. 1998. Substantial changes in the laws and procedures governing the treatment of human remains have been made since 1989. These changes include a significantly revised state cemetery statute, as well as a new law that requires all persons to report the discovery of human remains. The "termination of land use as cemetery" statute is still used to remove graves from one piece of land to another. However, procedures for the removal of human remains have been revised for both private and state or municipal property.

  231. THINGS MY PROFESSOR NEVER TOLD ME: THE LIGHTER SIDE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELDWORK. Donald B. Ball. XXIII:65-71. 1998. The following brief anecdotes of experiences "in the field" are likely neither more nor less than exemplary of those of many professionally kindred spirits across the land. Though we are most likely share such "war stories" with one another at conferences or while visiting with old friends, seldom do we preserve tales of our won humanity-foibles and follies alike-in the midst of doing our "scientific" studies. Such asides are as much a part of the lasting romance and appeal of archaeology as the finds great and small upon which we labor to study, record, and understand. When charts and graphs and long-detailed reports sometimes weight heavy, it is wise to remember the lighter side of our profession and the experiences of the present that so enliven studies of the past.

  232. WHO ARE THE PEOPLE IN THE COOL BRANCH CEMETERY (40HK9)? A BIOANTHROPOLOGICAL CASE STUDY. Hugh B. Matternes. XXIII(1-2):73-85. 1998. Movement of five graves from the poorly documented Cool Branch Cemetery (40HK9) in Hancock County, Tennessee provided an occasion for archaeological and biological data to be gathered and used to reconstruct important aspects of the community responsible for developing the cemetery. Three infant and two adult burials were examined. A variety of artifacts indicate that deopsition occurred between 1800 and about 1830. While poor skeletal preservation prevented extensive biological analysis, the recovered data indicate that the adults lived to be middle aged and probably consumed a diet high in carbohydrates. Craniometric analysis suggested a "white" ethnicity. A demographic reconstruction of like period graves from the Upland South indicated a pattern of high infant mortality and relatively early adult death, this is reflected in the Cool Branch cemetery's general age profile. The results of this investigation demonstrate that even a small-scale data recovery can provide important biosocial data on poorly documented historic populations in Tennessee.

  233. TENNESSEE RADIOCARBON DATES (List Version 1.00). Kevin E. Smith. XXIV(1-2):1-45. 1999 (2002). This article presents basic information on 779 radio-carbon dates for archaeological sites in Tennessee. These dates represent the majority reported for Tennessee through 1998 along with published dates through 2002. The data is presented in two formats: (a) by county and site number; and (b) in ascending age of radiocarbon age before present.

  234. EXCAVATIONS AT A SMALL MISSISSIPPIAN SITE (40SW346) IN THE WESTERN HIGHLAND RIM OF TENNESSEE. Andrew P. Bradbury. XXIV(1-2):46-59. 1999 (2002). Phase II excavations at 40Sw346 revealed a single component prehistoric site. Diagnostic artifacts, consisting of Small Triangular Cluster points and shell tempered ceramics, indicate a Mississippian occupation. A radiocarbon date places this occupation in the early portion of the Mississippian period (ca. AD 960). Artifact analyses suggest that the site served as a short term, limited activity loci during the fall/winter months. Activities represented at the site indicate a focus on the procurement of animal resources.

  235. MIDDLE WOODLAND SETTLEMENT IN THE UPPER CUMBERLAND RIVER VALLEY: AN EXAMPLE FROM JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Michael C. Moore. XXIV(1-2):60-77. 1999(2002). Tennessee Division of Archaeology excavations at the historic Fort Blount-Williamsburg site between 1989 and 1994 uncovered evidence for long-term prehistoric use of the site area. Radiocarbon assays of AD 395 and AD 440, along with a material assemblage dominated by moderate-size triangular points, verify a substantial occupation during the Middle Woodland period. The presence of microblades and limestone temper ceramics supports the Middle Woodland designation. One shallow, rectangular feature with extensively burned sidewalls and floor has been tentatively defined as a crematory basin.


  237. SELECTED CONTENTS OF THE TENNESSEE ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION NEWSLETTER (1976-1999). Kevin E. Smith (compiler). XXV(1-2):84-92. 2000 (2002).

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