American Women's History: A Research Guide
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Beauchamp, Edward R. Dissertations in the History of Education, 1970-1980. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1985. 259p.

Dittemore, Margaret, comp. The Education of Women in the South: An Annotated Bibliography. New Orleans: Newcomb Coll. Center for Research on Women, Tulane University, 1992. ERIC, ED 364140.

Huls, Mary Ellen. United States Government Documents on Women, 1800-1990: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Vol. I, Social Issues. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1993.
Applicable chapters include "Education of Women" and "Educational Equity." Each chapter begins with a brief but informative overview of the sources covered.

Middleton, Ken. Education [online]. 1997 [cited 6 March 1998]. Available from:

Sevetson, Erika, comp. Women and Education Bibliography [online]. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College, 1995 [cited 12 February 1999]. Available from:

Wilkins, Kay S. Women's Education in the United States: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale, 1979. 217p.

Young, Arthur P. Higher Education in American Life, 1636-1986: A Bibliography of Dissertations and Theses. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 431p.

Biographical Sources

Many of the sources noted in the general Biographical Sources section include an appendix which lists women by field of importance. The sources below focus specifically on educators.

Butler, Susan Lowell. Pressing Onward: The Women's Historical Biography of the National Education Association. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1996.

Eisenmann, Linda, ed. Historical Dictionary of Women's Education in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998. 534p.

Ohles, John F., ed. Biographical Dictionary of American Educators. 3 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1978.

Seller, Maxine Schwartz, ed. Women Educators in the United States, 1820-1993: A Bio-bibliographical Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.

Who's Who in American Education: An Illustrated Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Living Educators of the United States and Canada. Nashville: Who's Who in American Education, 1928-1968. Biennial.

Encyclopedias/Historical Overviews

Clifford, Geraldine Joncich. Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Institutions 1870-1937. New York: Feminist Press, 1989.

Cott, Nancy, ed. History of Women in the United States: Historical Articles on Women's Lives and Activities. Vol. 12, Education. Munich: Saur, 1993.
Titles of articles include "Sex, Science and Education," and "Doctorates of American Women, 1868-1907."

Farnham, Christie Anne. The Education of the Southern Belle: Higher Education and Student Socialization in the Antebellum South. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

Solomon, Barbara Miller. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Woody, Thomas A. A History of Women's Education in the United States. 2 vols. New York: Science Press, 1929. Reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1966.

ERIC Database

ERIC [database online]. 1989-Present. Available from:
ERIC is an important database for educational history because:

  1. It covers educational journals not covered in the America: History and Life database. Some of these journals occasionally include articles about educational history.
  2. It indexes the ERIC microfiche collection, Resources in Education, which includes sources (e.g., papers from conference proceedings, government documents) that may not otherwise be readily available. Most academic libraries will have this microfiche collection.

Journals in the Field

History of Education Quarterly. Bloomington: History of Education Society, School of Education, Indiana University, 1961- . Quarterly.
The Spring 1984 issue focused on the education of U.S. women.

Statistical Sources

National Center for Education Statistics []

Touchton, Judith G., and Lynn Davis, comps. Fact Book on Women in Higher Education. New York: American Council on Education and Macmillan Publishing, 1991. 289p.

Networking Tools

American Educational Research Association [AERA] []
See in particular the information about Division F: History and Historiography, which maintains the AERA-F listserv.

H-Education Discussion List []

Primary Sources: Archival Collections

See the Archival Collections section for additional information sources.

Collections which focus on women at specific colleges, or on women and education generally, are noted below:

Baker Library, Harvard Business School

Bouricius, Clara, and Laura Cochrane. Teachers [online]. In Women, Enterprise and Society: A Guide to Resources in the Business Manuscripts Collection at Baker Library. Boston: Baker Library, Harvard Business School, 2002 [cited 27 February 2002]. Available from:

Duke University

Daley, Virginia, comp. Education [online]. In A Sampler of Women's Studies Resources: Primary Source Materials in the Special Collections Library at Duke University. 1988. Revised, 1995 [cited 4 October 1996]. Available from:

Florida State Archives

Education [online]. In The Florida State Archives: Collections Pertaining to Women's History and Women's Issues. [Tallahassee, Fla.]: Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services, Bureau of Archives and Records Management, [1996]. Available from:'sguide.htm.

Loyola University, Chicago

Women and Leadership Archives [online]. Chicago: Loyola University, [2000-]. Available from:

Oberlin College

Baumann, Roland M., ed. Guide to the Women's History Sources in the Oberlin College Archives [online]. Oberlin, Ohio: Gertrude F. Jacob Archival Publications Fund, 1990. Available from:

University of Colorado at Boulder

Selected Collections to Women's History [online]. Boulder: University of Colorado, 1998 [cited 15 June 2001]. Available from:

University of Iowa

Collections Relating to Teachers [online]. City: Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries, 2002- [cited 21 November 2004]. Available from:

University of Pennsylvania Archives & Records Center

Snyder, Terry. Guide to the Women's Oral History Project Records, 1949-1953, 1980-1983 [online]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Archives and Records Center, n.d. [cited 8 September 1998]. Available from:

Primary Sources: Digital Collections

American Centuries [online]. Deerfield, Mass.: Memorial Hall Museum, 2001- [cited 9 February 2002]. Available from:
"Education" is one of the "topics" in the "Assisted Search." The site presents a wide range of primary sources (e.g., toys, children's books, and excerpts from diaries) that document the history and culture of New England.

Attaway, Doris E., and Marjorie Rabe Barritt, eds. Women's Voices: Early years at the University of Michigan [book online]. [Ann Arbor, Mich.] : University of Michigan Library, 2002. Available from:
The editors selected quotations from responses to a 1924 survey of alumnae.

Breaking and Making Tradition: Women at the University of Virginia [online]. Albert H. and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia, 2003 [cited 10 July 2003]. Available from:

Carlton, Patrick W. Oral History of the Public School Principalship [online]. Blacksburg, Va.: Virginia Tech New Media Center, n.d. [cited 10 June 2002]. Available from:

Christina L. Davis Camp Diary [online]. Boston: Simmons College Archives, c2000. Available from:
Camp's diary provides a detailed account of her life as a Simmons College student in 1927-28.

Dublin, Thomas, and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1830-1930 [online]. 1997- [cited 4 May 2001]. Available from:
This collection of primary source documents is organized around numerous topical areas. Each of these different sections includes an introduction to provide context, and an annotated bibliography. The following Editorial Projects cover education:

  • How Did Oberlin Women Students Draw on Their College Experience to Participate in Antebellum Social Movements, 1831-1861?
  • Local Branches of the American Association of University Women, 1900-1940

Five College Archives Digital Access Project [online]. [Amherst, Mass.?]: Five Colleges, Inc., 1997- . Available from:
This site includes "digitized versions of archival records and manuscript collections relating primarily to women's history -- particularly women's education at the Five Colleges." Over 12,000 items/pages are available from the Mount Holyoke College Archives alone.

Harvard/Radcliffe Online Historical Reference Shelf [online]. [Cambridge, Mass : President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2001]. Available from:
The site offers annual reports, narrative histories, facts and figures, and newspapers/magazines about Harvard/Radcliffe.

Images of Early Vassar [online]. Archives & Special Collections, Vassar College Libraries, n.d. [cited 24 January 2004]. Available from:

Jackson Davis Collection of African-American Educational Photographs [online]. Charlottesville: Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library, 1999. Available from:

Little Cowpuncher: Rural School Newspaper of Southern Arizona [online]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Library, 2000- [cited 27 February 2002]. Available from:
Little Cowpuncher, written and illustrated by Anglo and Mexican-American children, appeared from 1932 to 1943.

Oral History Digital Collection [online]. Youngstown, OH: William F. Maag Jr. Library, Youngstown State University, updated March 2002 [cited 25 June 2002]. Available from:
Select Education -- Ohio from the list of subject headings.

The Photography Collection [online]. Denver, CO: Denver Public Library, 1995- . Available from:
The 80,000 images in this collection document the history of Colorado and the American West. Examples of search terms include school children, students, teachers, and schools.

University of Washington Campus Photographs [online]. Seattle, Wash. : University of Washington Libraries, n.d. [cited 28 November 2004]. Available from:

Visual Information Access [online]. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Harvard University Library, 1999- .
Try combining women with such terms as classrooms, college students, schools, and teachers.

Women's Education Evolves, 1790-1890 [online]. Ann Arbor, MI: Clements Library, University of Michigan, 2006 [cited 7 April 2007]. Available from:
This online exhibit is organized around these themes: "Colonial Heritage," "Female Curriculum," "Student Life," "Teaching," "Religion, Race, Culture."

Primary Sources: Microform Collections

American Association of University Women Archives, 1881-1976. Sanford, N.C.: Microfilming Corp. of America, 1980.

Emily Howland Papers, 1775-(1841-1929)-1938. Ithaca, N.Y. : Dept. of Manuscripts and University Archives, Cornell University Libraries, 1975.

M. Carey Thomas Papers. New Haven, Conn.: Microfilmed by Research Publications, 1981.
Reviewed by Theodora P. Bostick in Microform Review 16 (Spring 1987): 179-181.

Mary McLeod Bethune Papers: The Bethune-Cookman College Collection, 1922-1955. Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America, 1995.
Online guide to the collection from the publisher:

Mary McLeod Bethune Papers: The Bethune Foundation Collection. Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America, 1996- .
Online guide to the collection from the publisher:

Papers of Charlotte Hawkins Brown, 1883-1961. Watertown, Mass.: General Microfilm Co., 1984.

American Women's History: A Research Guide

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State University Library