American Women's History: A Research Guide
Japanese American Internment
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Encyclopedias & Overviews

Burton, Jeffery F., Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites [online]. National Park Service, 1999, revised July 2000 [cited 12 May 2002]. Available from:

Ng, Wendy. Japanese American Internment During World War II: A History and Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. 204p.

Primary Sources: Archival Collections

Japanese Americans Interned in Arkansas [online]. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Libraries, 1991- [cited 9 November 2002]. Available from:

Records of the War Relocation Authority [WRA], National Archives []

Primary Sources: Digital Collections

"Asian American." In Digital Images from the American Radicalism Collection [online]. East Lansing: Special Collections Division, Michigan State University Libraries, 1997- [cited 2 March 2002]. Available from: Select "Collections," then "American Radicalism Collection," and "Asian American."
The materials in this collection provide information about the internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II. In addition, two documents published in 1877 cover the regulation of Chinese immigration.

Forwarding Address Required [online]. Washington, DC: National Postal Museum, n.d. [cited 6 June 2002]. Available from:
Includes letters from Japanese American children, who had been sent to internment camps, to Clara Breed, a librarian in San Diego.

Heritage Colorado [online]. [Denver, Colo.]: Colorado Digitization Project, 1999- [cited 16 August 2001]. Available from:
A keyword search for Granada Relocation Center retrieves numerous photographs that depict daily life at the center.

Internment of San Francisco Japanese [online]. San Francisco: Museum of the City of San Francisco, n.d. [cited 12 May 2002]. Available from:
This site includes the text of articles that appeared in San Francisco News, March-April 1942.

Ishigo [Estelle] Papers [online]. Japanese American Research Project, University of California, Los Angeles. Available from:
Estelle was a Caucasian artist who married Arthur Shigeharu Ishigo in 1928. They were placed in the Pomona Assembly Center at the outbreak of World War II, and later relocated to the Heart Mountain Relocation Camp in Wyoming. In addition to correspondence and photographs, this collection includes the paintings and drawings that she completed while at Heart Mountain.

Japanese American Exhibit & Access Project [online]. Seattle: University of Washington, c1999- . Available from:

Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive (JARDA) [online]. Regents of the University of California, c2000. Available from:

NARA Archival Information Locator (NAIL)

A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U.S. Constitution [online]. [Washington, DC]: National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, n.d. [cited 17 May 2002]. Available from:

Social Issues Photographs [online]. Seattle, Wash. : University of Washington Libraries, n.d. [cited 17 October 2003]. Available from:
Selecting "Japanese Internment Camps" from the list of predefined searches retrieves 97 images that depict life on the Minidoka Relocation Camp (Hunt, Idaho) and Camp Harmony (Puyallup, Washington).

"Suffering Under Great Injustice": Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar [online]. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 2002 [cited 2 March 2002]. Available from:

Primary Sources: Microform Collections

Papers of the U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1983.

American Women's History: A Research Guide

Ken Middleton
Middle Tennessee State Univ. Library
Murfreesboro, TN 37132